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that if the passage of Malna opium were instantaneous and entire abolishment of interdicted it would find other outlets, &c. the traffic is not the subject we are disWe need not stop to consider such objec-cussing. Would a gradual diminution of tions as these. The most weighty and the quantity of opium manufactured, and important objection is, " that it will inflict of the amount of the drug sold at the great a severe blow on the revenue of India.ports of India, with the view of the final Now suppose we admit this fact, suppose extermination of the whole system, inflict we allow that the revenue of India would any serious injury on the resources of the suffer, and “would be diminished, without country? This is the question, and we any hope of the deficiency being replaced answer, No. When Sir Charles Forbes, by other means." Is the government well known as high authority on all Indian therefore justified in inflicting untold affairs, was questioned on the expediency miseries on five hundred millions of Hin- of abolishing the traffic, he expressed a doos and Chinese to secure this revenue ? decided opinion that the opium monopoly Suppose without it “we cannot maintain might be abolished not only without loss, our hold on these vast territories," must but with probable advantage. Hear Sir “we” therefore maintain our possession Charles :at the price of every consideration of feel

" I think that it (the revenue] might be raised ing and humanity ? For. three millions in due time to perhaps as large, if not a larger sterling, must China and India be sacrificed? amount, through a much less objectionable ve Must the one be deluged with a poisonous dium, through the medium of increased and indrug, eating out the lives of the people, creasing revenues and customs, upon an increas

ed and flourishing trade, carried on by an imcorrupting her government, and exhausting proved and improving population, having perfect her resources, and the other become the confidence that they would in no way be interconstant theater of oppression and wrong, fered with by the company in their operations, the scene of poverty and wretchedness, the

either agricultural or commercial; and that

under such a system, if happily it shall be introcenter of famine and death, that three duced, the prosperity of India would rise to a millions sterling may be added to the degree incalculable, and consequently in every revenues of the Anglo-Indian empire ? way tend to the advantage as well as the credit Where does the British government ac

of its rulers." quire the right to this unhallowed revenue ? How easily might the soil now apWhat right has India to a revenue wrung propriated to the cultivation of the poppy from the wretchedness of suffering millions? | be converted into nobler uses, a change Even admitting, then, that the finances of which would be gratefully adopted by the India would suffer by the abolition of the impoverished and starving natives of India! opium traffic, still we must agree in the The soil is rich; if it were not it would sentiments expressed by Mr. Tucker, a not answer for the growth of opium. Dr. director of the East India Company, in Medhurst says :his noble protest against the cultivation

“The lands now employed in the cultivation of opium. “I must contend,” says Mr. of the poppy being necessarily rich and fertile, Tucker, " that if a revenue cannot be would, if laid out in the raising of other drawn from such an article as opium, productions, be equally valuable to the posotherwise than by quadrupling the supply, sessors; and while the revenue was not diby promoting the use of the drug, and by of the people would be increased ; in addition

minished, the happiness, health, and industry placing it within the reach of the lower to which, the divine blessing would doubtless classes of the people, no fiscal consider- be doubly bestowed on those who renounced ation can justify our inflicting upon Malays an apparent benefit to themselves, in order to

extend a real good to others." and Chinese so grievous an evil.”

But we are unprepared to admit that the Cotton and sugar could easily be made suppression of the opium traffic would to take the place of the poppy, and there inflict any serious embarrassment on the is now a loud and growing demand in revenues of India. A sudden and violent England for Indian-grown cotton. That suspension of the whole trade, it is evident, demand could be increased, and supplied would do great injury in more respects than from the countless acres of British India. simply embarrassing the finances of India. Destroy the opium traffic, and the demand But no statesman or philanthropist would for Indian cotton and cotton manufactures urge a sudden disruption of all the plans in the empire of China, would swell to an and interests of the opium trade, and an extent now incalculable. The gradual


diminution of the exportation of opium and the hundred millions of Chinese will would be accompanied by a gradual in- be glad to cooperate in the work of their crease in the exportation of legitimate redemption. The policy of the governproducts from India, and a demand for ment and of the people has never changed. western manufactures throughout the East, There is no wish for legalization in China. that would in a very few years produce to The trade is odious still. The edicts and British India a revenue far surpassing the the statutes issued against it have never income from the odious monopoly which been revoked. China is now, and for fifty crushes India, and impoverishes China ; years has been ready to do everything that to say nothing of the vast advantages can be done to save the people from the which would accure from these changes degrading and demoralizing influences of to the home manufactures of Great Britain. this mighty evil. The work is ours: it

This is the work which is in the power is work for the people and the governof the Anglo-Indian government, and this ments of England and America. is the work of justice and humanity which we call upon that government to perform.

(For the National Magazine.) Let England do this, and there needs to be but little more done to arrest, and ere long

THE SHADOW. to destroy entirely this fearful evil. Let the public of England and America realize

ONE summer night, the enormities of this unrighteous system; The full moon, 'tired in her golden cloak, let them see that it degrades and covers Did beckon me, I thought; for I awoke, with infamy the names of both England and

And saw a light, America, and stains the character of all Most soft and fair, foreigners among the nations of the East; Shine in the brook, as if, in love's distress, let them see that it interferes with all

The parting sun had shear'd a dazzling tress,

And left it there. legitimate trade, and that the greatest market in the world is almost entirely of the bright stream straightly I bent my way

Toward the sweet banks closed against the productions of honest And in my heart good thoughts the while did industry; let them see that it is the fruit

stay, ful source of countless evils among five Giving God thanks. hundred millions of our fellow-men in India The wheat-stocks stood and China ; let them see that the name and | Along the field like rows of bearded men, profession of Christianity is dishonored, And mists stole, white and bashful, through the

glen, and esteemed throughout the East as but

As maidens would. a mockery, and that the cause of the

In rich content blessed gospel is compromised, and the My soul was growing toward immortal height, benevolent designs of Christians and phil. When, lo! I saw that by me, through the light, anthropists frustrated, and then let an A shadow went. awakened public speak,- for there is

I stopped afraid might in the voice of the people, – let It was the bad sign of some evil donem England withdraw her countenance from That stopping, too, right swiftly did I run

So did the shade. the iniquitous traffic, let India cease to encourage and enlarge the trade, let At length I drew America protest against the illegitimate And sitting in the moonshine, turn'd to look

Close to the bank of the delightful brook, traffic and its legalization, and let both

It sat there too. England and America declare themselves

Ere long I spied the friends of humanity and the enemy of

A weed with goodly flowers upon its top; all injustice and wrong; and the time is And when I saw that such sweet things did drop not far distant in the future, when the Black shadows, cried, whole unhallowed system shall come to an • Lo! I have found end; when the glad and joyous gratitude Hid in this ugly riddle, a good signof millions delivered from oppression, suf- My life is twofold, earthly and divine

Buried and crown'd. fering, poverty, and death, will descend upon the nation and the government whose Sown darkly-raised magnanimity set them free from the fatal Light within light, when death from mortal

soil evil which was working so much ruin Undresses me, and makes me spiritual,among them. The authorities of China Dear Lord, be praised.


(For the National Magazine.)

and refreshing; in the desert of life, a GLIMPSES OF PARADISE.

paradise. Will not dread retribution visit

that parent, who through carelessness or LATE Scottish writer says, “ Per- cruelty, by undue indulgence or grinding

fect wisdom placed the perfect man in rule, wrings the dregs of anguish into his a garden to dress and keep it.” The place infant's cup, poisons the very fountains of and the duty must have been divinely con- being, and early brands the fearful lines genial with the exercises of an unclouded of misery upon its life? reason and an undepraved heart. The Few external appliances, as has been love of man's primeval calling seems yet hinted, conduce more to this happiness of to linger fondly in the bosom of the exiled early days than the taste for horticulture. race. The first pleasure of children is But not only is the love of horticulture to gather fresh flowers from the daisied shown to be natural to man, by the tenmead; or to ply their little hands in the dencies of childhood ; these glimpses of allotted patch of garden ground. “ Heav- paradise recur in every period of human en lies about us in our infancy. Some life. When the rigors of winter have faint visionary gleam from Eden seems passed away, and from the earth, loosened yet to rest on the infant soul, and with from the chains of the frost by the souththe dawn of reason, the first voice of ern breeze, the wind-flower and the violet childhood seems to say that paradise show their modest faces ; when nature should have been its home, and horticul- begins to resume her mantle of green, and ture its proper vocation.” Truly and the bursting buds to promise future susbeautifully expressed. In accordance with tenance and shelter; then recurs the eager this beautiful sentiment, since man has desire for the pleasures of the garden. been exiled from Eden, and the glimpses Seeds are purchased and sown that never of paradise thus continually recur in the will be cultivated to maturity ; large garvisions of childhood, the dreams of a pri- den plats are laid off to be filled with meval, a long-lost home, should not every weeds before midsummer. Young trees parent endeavor to render the home of his and shrubs and flowers are bought or children a paradise within and without ? begged and planted, many of which are to within, by sympathy and gentleness, pu- perish by weeds and drought, be browsed rity and love ; by proper instruction and by the cow, or rooted up by a petted pig. encouragement, the melody of song and Though the horticultural fever be thus, the voice of prayer ; by care for the de- in very many cases, intermittent, yet the velopment, exercise, and perfection of the passion for gardening is deeply fixed in body, the intellect, the affections, the man- human nature ; and these glimpses of par. ners, and the taste; by inspiring a love of adise continually recur. the beautiful and the true, of nature, of The love of gardening is shown to be man, and of God; without, by surround natural, from another view of humanity. ing his home, however small his premises, However eager the pursuit of wealth, with the forms of natural beauty—the vel- however perfectly ambition may drink up vet lawn, and trees and flowers and fruits, the spirits and sway the whole being ; with shade, and, as far as may be, with however desirous man may be of power, retirement. With flowers and fruits will pleasure, or glory ; yes, the man of busicome the waving of foliage in the summer ness, the soldier, the politician, the devobreeze, the hum of insects, the busy work tee of wealth or of pleasure, or of any of the “singing masons," the sweet carol- other pursuit, each and all look forward ing of birds.

with pleasing anticipation to the time when A happy childhood is the rightful herit- they shall enjoy the cool retreats of the age of every human being; a childhood garden, the pleasures of rural life. These surrounded by truth and beauty; a child- glimpses of paradise have ever and anon hood in which the infant character receives | whetted their desire and cheered their its impress from a home having order and labor. refinement within, and natural beauty with- Poetry, in every age and clime, has out. A happy childhood gives to man- witnessed this desire in man for rural hood symmetry and strength. To old beauty. True poetry is the language of age it is an inestimable treasure. In the nature. And in the works of what true waste of memory it is an oasis, beautiful poet, who has written in any way extensively, shall we not find the praises of clime toward the setting sun, “his faiththe garden and of rural life? One of the ful dog shall bear him company” in the most complete and polished poems of an- hunting-ground of his spirit-home. tiquity—the Georgics of Virgil—takes If then, indeed, in every age and clime, this as its subject, and by its success has to men of every grade of civilization, have demonstrated the exalted genius of its recurred continually the glimpses of paraauthor, and the natural love of man for dise; if, indeed, the love of cultivated “ the field and the garden." In the works nature be innate in man, the half-formed of other ancient poets, in their dreams of vision of a long-lost Eden home; shall a primeval, or their prophecies of a fu- we not encourage and gratify this love, ture, golden age, their song is embellished this desire, by adding the beauty of nawith descriptions of the garden and the ture to our homes, the pleasures of hortifield, of the beauteous scenery of culti- culture to our every-day life? Home! vated nature, of bird and tree, of fruit Is there any other place on earth, where and flower. And how important a feature so well the joys of paradise can cluster ? is this in the pastoral poetry of modern Where is the man whose heart will not as well as ancient days !

be warmed and his eyes sparkle with History too, sacred and profane, has glimpses of paradise, as, from field or shop, something to say on this theme. It testi- store, office, study, or recitation-room, fies that glimpses of primeval paradise returning to his home, adorned with trees have cheered and influenced man in every his own hands have planted, flowers culclime and period. Though he may not tivated by one dearer than himself, he have always developed this idea, yet the meets at the door a little child with daninspiration has kindled his earnest long- cing eyes and feet, with clapping hands ings for communion with nature. In and infant accents, welcoming him home? civilized nations the idea has received Say not, there is no Eden there. development. We read of gardens and Another vernal season with balmy breath cultivated pleasure grounds in different is warming into life the torpid tribes of ancient as well as modern nations. The animal and vegetable nature, and cheering Jews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Baby- man again with thoughts of Eden. Soon lonians, and others, bore unmistakable evi- agåin may all sing, “The winter is past, dence of the continued recurrence of the rain is over and gone, the flowers these glimpses of paradise. The gardens appear on the earth, the time of the singof the Hesperides, of Lucullus, of Al- ing of birds is come." With the breezes cinoüs, the hanging gardens of Babylon, of the south shall there not come to every the garden of King Solomon in the Can- one a renewed desire and resolve to labor ticles—whether or not you may consider more than ever to make his home within some of them merely mythological—were and without a happy Eden, and prepare marked examples of ancient horticulture, for, and anticipate, the paradise above ? and the innate love of cultivated natural beauty. But our limits will not allow us Five CONSCIENCES.—There are five kinds to enlarge in presenting instances, as found of consciences on foot in the world : first, in modern history, where whole kingdoms, an ignorant conscience, which neither sees as in the case of England, through this nor says anything-neither beholds the passion and its development, became but sins in the soul, nor reproves them ; wide-extended gardens.

secondly, the flattering conscience, whose Mythology, savage as well as classic, speech is worse than silence itself, which, 18 varied with the expressions of this de- though seeing sin, soothes men in the comsire—the throbbing of this passion in the mitting thereof; thirdly, the seared congreat heart of humanity. Glimpses of science, which has neither sight, speech, primeval paradise are seen in the Elysian nor sense, in men that are “past feeling ;" Fields, the happy groves of the spirit-fourthly, the wounded conscience, frightland, as described in classic song, in the ened with sin; the fifth is a quiet and islands of the blessed, in the dreams of clear conscience, purified in Christ. A the golden age, in the gorgeous descrip- wounded conscience is rather painful than tions of a Mohammedan heaven, in the sinful,—an affliction, no offense,--and is spiritual fairy-land of oriental fable, in the the ready way, at the next remove, to be western Indian's hope that, in a beauteous turned into a quiet conscience.-Kitto.

VOL. VI.-33

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(For the National Magazine. 1



EARNEST EXHORTATION–Tue BARBEL OF TEARE-A ASS along down the Illinois River,



ERNOR-LEAVE THE B ES-A WELL-DILECTED boldly into the river, and bears the name

AEROW-A DUTCH SIMEON AND Axxa. of “Rock Fort,” or, in the provincial, "Starved Rock.” It looms up some sev

THERE is “a time to laugh,” says enty feet perpendicularly from the water. Solomon, and all good men should Its summit is a level circle, about three believe this part of their Bible as well as hundred feet in circumference. There is that other part which says there is “ a time but one way of approach to the top ; that to mourn.” Every Christian should try is, through a narrow gap which the waters hard to preserve a good aspect, a good have gullied out on the land side. This stomach, and a good conscience. The rock, notable in itself, is the scene of a last has much to do with the other two. far more notable incident. Many years We doubt whether there is any genuine ago the Illini Indians inhabited the vast laughter among demons; the old painters prairies and woodlands of northern Illi- always represented them lean and hardnois ; but the Potawatomies came and looking; but these same old masters, by took possession of the country, driving the intuitions of genius, we suppose, dethe Illini from the land. Little by little lighted to paint their cherubs with cheeks these last had receded and dwindled away puffed out with fat happiness. It is very until they were reduced to a band of about creditable to the old Catholic friars that three hundred warriors and their families. the artists have usually represented them Upon this remnant, the Potawatomies and as round and well-humored; the fact beIroquois commenced a war of extermina- speaks good nature, if not a good contion. At last, heavily pressed, they fled, science for them. The passions are conleaving their families behind them. These suming-men of severe or even voluptuous were all massacred by the foe. The war- passions are apt to be lank. The painters riors sought a last retreat upon the top of have, therefore, blundered respecting the Rock Fort. Up the defile of which we friars; monks are usually a dreadfully lean have spoken, the remnant of the once Rabelais, who lived among them, powerful tribe clambered, and taking post knew them better than the artists. He upon the summit of the rock, prepared for gives them very shabby portraits. His a siege. The narrow passage up was worst monk is long-faced," lean, lank, and closed with rocks, and there, on their lantern-jawed.” impregnable fortress, they bid defiance to The theology of a people has a great the pursuing enemy. But their triumph deal to do with their temper ; but it is was short. They became thirsty, and let a fact that some sects, the most rigid, down their kettles into the river below or the most laborious and most suffering, for water ; but as fast as they could let have been characterized by, we were about them down, the Indians below, who watch- to say, a denominational cheerfulness ed in canoes, would cut their ropes. They perhaps the phrase denominational humor could get no water, and there was no would not be amiss. The Quakers are escape from their place of refuge. The capital appreciators of good things and passage and river were guarded with the good sayings. They know how to enjoy vigilance of a panther. There was noth- life as well as any other class of men. ing left them but a prospect of a fearful Their domestic interiors are scenes, not death. Their food gave out, and, hun- only of good morals and comfortable gry and thirsty, one by one they closed competence, but often of buoyant cheerfultheir eyes to die, until on the tenth day the ness; and some of the shrewdest and witlast survivor joined his companions that tiest heads wear broad brims. had perished before him. The old “Rock The old Methodist preachers were Fort” of the French became by Indian the greatest wits of their day. Their legend the “Starved Rock:” and this was theology made them cheerful under their the last of the Illini. A new race of desperate trials and incredible labors and Illini (which means men) are here now! travels. Their odd rencounters with


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