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upon the advances of other more powerful thor of a recent and excellent work on foreign nations, is to be expected; yet, in China, and for a long time a resident of the history of foreign intercourse with that country, inquired of one of the chief China, the Tartar government has ever officers at Shanghai, how trade could be been foremost in its liberal policy, and has best promoted; he immediately and with granted all that would be consistent with great sternness answered, “Cease sendits own security in maintaining its holding us millions worth of opium, and then on the territories which its arms had con- our people will have more money to purquered. It was so in the days of Kanghi, chase your manufactures." when the Jesuits made strong efforts to It is a fact, that in proportion as the establish their missionary operations in opium traffic has increased, that in foreign the empire; and it was not until the con- manufactures has decreased. Is it not duct of these missionaries gave rise to strange that in a trade which amounts the suspicion that they were plotting the annually to $35,000,000 worth of products subjugation of the empire, that they were imported into China, but little more than driven from the territories of China. It two millions of dollars will cover the was so in the early ages of the foreign whole importation of British manufactrade, and nearly all the difficulties which tures, and that this importation of legitihave arisen in the progress of commercial mate products still continues on the deintercourse have originated during the past half-century, during all which time It is well known that the Chinese, to the the government has been unrelenting in extent of their ability, are anxious to enjoy its opposition to the opium traffic. the elegance and comforts of foreign prod

It was the testimony of Lord Napier, | ucts. The grandee never exhibits such the first superintendent of British trade self-complacency as when, in summer, he in China, that “the Chinese are most can handle a foreign watch, and clothe his anxious to trade ;" and on another occa- person in the fine cotton and linen prodsion his lordship says, “It is a perfect ucts of other countries; and in winter axiom that the Chinese people are most his ambition is fully met when he can apanxious for our trade, from the Great pear in a suit of foreign cloth. Every Wall to the southern extremity of the carpenter in the country would gladly empire." Why, then, is there not an ex-exchange his rude implements for the tensive trade with this country, in Euro- handsome and delicate tools of the forpean and American products? Why are eigner. Even the tailor is anxious to give the manufactures of Great Britain shut up his needle, thimble, and scissors, for out from this trade, and why must the the superior articles which the foreigner merchants of America cash their bills can furnish him. Why, then, will not this with specie in London instead of bartering trade yield profitable returns to British in American products with China ? Sim- and American manufactures ? ply because the whole trade is absorbed swer is obvious and undeniable.

The in the opium traffic. For seventy years manufacturer cannot compete with the it has been interfering with the legitimate opium smuggler. The resources of the trade of this country; for seventy years country are preoccupied by the seductive it has been closing up the gates of this drug of India. It is obvious that, since vast empire to the products of English the only way in which a nation can buy and American industry ; it has been ab- the productions of other countries is with sorbing the whole of the foreign trade of articles of its own industry, the constant this country to fill the treasury of India, drain of the productions of China in exand to enrich a few dealers in opium ; it change for such an article as opium, must has been exciting the fears and the enmity sooner or later cripple its means with of the people against all foreigners; it has which to trade at all; and this would have been draining the nation's resources, and been the result in China before now, were rendering it impossible to purchase the not the waste partially supplied by the legitimate merchandise of foreign coun- passing of the balance of the American tries. These important sentences are not trade through the hands of the Chinese bare assertions ; they are truisms known into the hands of the opium dealers. well in China, and acknowledged by both It is evident, then, that but for this natives and foreigners. Mr. Martin, au- illicit traffic, in view of the vast resources

The an

of the empire, now dissipated on a per- and has deprived three hundred millions nicious drug, and in view of the unquestion of people of the ability to purchase lawful able desire that already exists in China for products, by draining the resources of the foreign products, not only would this great country and imbruting and destroying the country afford a much more extensive people. market for these products, but the benefit If it has thus wrought only injury to the of the trade thus established, instead of general trade of Great Britain, and we are being monopolized, as the present contra- compelled to wonder at the apathy and band trade is, by a few British traders in indifference of the British public to the China and India, would be generally spread evils of this trade, what shall we say of over Great Britain and America, and prove America ? How long will the merchants a commerce worthy of the fostering care and people of America submit to be shut of both nations.

out from the vast trade which might be How long will the British public remain established with China ? How long must blind to these facts? How long will the American merchants be compelled to enpeople of England consent to be blind- gage in the unequal competition with folded by their government, and lulled to British opium dealers? We do not intend sleep and inaction by the precious opiates to insinuate that American merchants in which come from India and China, and China are wholly free from connection from the House of Parliament, while that with the illicit traffic. We know to the government is fostering, defending, and contrary; and wish all the strictures we encouraging a trade which is working in- have made on the traffic, and all the evils calculable injuries to the morals, the health, we have adduced as arising from it, to fall the commerce, and the industry of a vast with equal weight upon our countrymen, nation? The opiumr traffic is an undeni- who, free from the temptation and the able injury to every other form of trade. greater inducements presented to the It is an injury and a wrong to the com- English minds, still, for mere purposes of merce of every nation with China, not even selfish gain, engage in the unlawful trade. excepting Great Britain itself. What, Still the American trade in opium is inwe ask, has the trade in opium done for significant compared with the gigantic England ? Nothing. It has been of great traffic of the English ; and we have reason advantage to India ; it has paid an enor- to believe that most of the American mous revenue to the East India Company; | houses engaged in it would gladly withit has saved British India from great draw from it, if they could in any other financial embarrassments ; it has sustained way compete with the great English the armies, fought the battles, and culti- houses trading in opium. It is known to vated the fields of India, while it has all that the traffic is a great injury to the cursed and oppressed the wretched natives; American trade; that it shuts out from it has enabled the government to pay to this vast empire nearly all lawful products; the proprietors of East India stock the high that while the American trade gives a yearly dividend guaranteed to them by balance in favor of the Chinese for several Parliament in the charter of 1834; it has millions of dollars annually, which in other enabled the Court of Directors very con- circumstances might be paid in American veniently to draw their large remittances products, the merchants of our country for home charges; it has given princely must pay this balance in specie, by exfortunes to a few British merchants, wrung change between the United States and from the wretchedness of millions of vic- England. The American merchant can timized opium smokers; but what has it scarcely do otherwise than try to meet done for England ? Nothing. We say this balance against him by entering the unhesitatingly, Nothing. It has been a lists with his British competitor in opium. wrong to the British public. It may have The British dealer in opium has closed up saved the government some embarrass- the gates of the empire against lawful ment in legislating for India, but it has American products, and leaves the Ameriwronged the people. It has shut out can the only alternative of carrying on his London, and Liverpool, and Manchester, trade in teas, silks, &c., with specie, or and Bristol, and Nottingham from the vast of joining his guilty rival in the suicidal trade of China. It has supplanted the work of deluging the country with opium. trade in British produ and manufactures, Thus the American name has become

1

tarnished as well as that of England. Human nature is like a bad clock; it The merchants of America can only be may go right now and then, or be made to viewed by the Chinese as dealers in opium, strike the hour, but its inward frame is to and though guilty to a much less degree go wrong. than their British rivals, they are inheritors Idleness is the gate of all harms. of the same hatred and suspicions that fall Great cities are Satan's universities. to the lot of the traders of Great Britain, To govern with judgment is to govern and, though deserving more, they can with justice. secure no better or greater privileges for The greatest hero is not he who subdues v their trade than the merchants of England. nations, but he who conquers himself. This suspicion and jealousy fall upon the Effects in nature are never fortuitous. United States as well as upon American Mistake not motives when causes are merchants in China ; and if we except the unknown. odium of the British war, and of the East In private we must watch our thoughts, India cultivation of opium, which has in the family our tempers, in company our sullied the name of England, the flag of tongues. America is no more respected or less We may live by forms, but there is no tarnished in the eyes of the Chinese than dying by forms. that of Great Britain, and, though unjustly, Amictions are God's whetstones—they the American government is supposed to put a new edge upon old principles. foster and protect the contraband trade. The best way to see daylight is to put How can the Chinese do otherwise than out thy candle. What thou canst not comarrive at this conclusion? While they prehend, believe. know that America produces no opium, We are what we are in private. and can exonerate the Americans from the Our principles are the springs of our odium of opium cultivation in India, they actions—our actions the springs of our also know that large quantities of Indian happiness and misery. Too much care, and Turkey opium have been imported on therefore, cannot be employed in forming American account. - that United States our principles. vessels store it at Cumsingmoon, Shanghai, Our very manner is a thing of importand elsewhere—and that the American flag ance. A kind no is often more agreeable floats from the masthead of many a vessel | than a rough yes. conveying the drug along the coast. The The meanest man may be useful to the Chinese are to a very great extent ignorant greatest, and the most eminent stand is of the usages of western nations, and while need of the meanest : in a building, the they behold the subjects of America en- highest and lowest stones add to their own gaging boldly in this illicit traffic, and mutual stability. discover the American flag prostituted in Opinion of ourselves is like the casting this base service, while American repre- of a shadow which is always longest when sentatives in China refuse to put forth any the sun is at the greatest distance. efforts to arrest the trade, they can only All is but lip wisdom that wants experiinfer that there is collusion in the casethat the American government as well as The credit that is got by a lie only lasts the English protects the opium trade! till the truth comes out.

Never let your tongue go before your

thoughts. THOUGHTS TO THINK ABOUT.

Time is like a verb, that can only be of v [T betokens as great a soul to be capable use in the present tense.

of curing a fault, as to be incapable of Time never sits heavily on us but when committing it.

it is badly employed. Man, though born with faculties to Time is a grateful friend; use it well, search through the depth of time, and and it never fails to make suitable requital. powers to flourish through the ages of Time, well employed, gives that health eternity, seldom looks beyond the present and vigor to the soul which health and rehour.

tirement afford the body. Your word is your servant, so long as

Time is like a creditor who allows an you retain it; but it becomes your master ample space to make up accounts, but is when you suffer it to escape.

inexorable at last.

ence.

IT

THE

BADGES — THEIR HISTORY AND

a silver chain. Unlike the device, which VARIETIES.

was assumed at pleasure, and merely ex

pressed the peculiar design, sentiment, or JHE French knight, who in his metri- | inclination of the person who bore it, the

cal chronicle—now accepted as an badge was invariably considered hereditaauthoritative historical record-has left us ry, and was assumed in commemoration such an interesting account of the sudden of daring feats of arms, or family alliances, and tragical downfall of the second Rich as an emblem of territorial tenure and ard, one of the most unfortunate of Eng- possessions; and, in some instances, it land's monarchs, relates that when the even indicated the name or title of the king's only attendants were sorrows, chief by whom it was worn. Nor was it sadness, afflictions, mournings, weepings, worn on the person alone; the mansions and lamentations, there was one Jenico, a of the great, the ecclesiastical edifices they Gascon squire, who showed well the true founded or endowed, their tombs, furnilove he had for King Richard; for never ture, armor, vassals, all were marked by for threats, nor for any entreaty whatever, the distinguishing badge. Yet, like the would he put off the badge of his lord the device, it was not recognized by the herking, to wit, the hart, saying: 'Now God alds, though in course of time it has surforbid that for mortal man I should put reptitiously crept into coat-armor as a herof the order of my rightful lord.' So that aldic charge. at last it came to the knowledge of the The two most ancient badges in EngDuke of Lancaster, who caused him to be lish history are the White and Red Roses shamefully and basely led to the castle of of the rival houses of York and Lancaster. Chester, where he expected day by day to The white rose of York was the territolose his head.” The chronicler proceeds rial distinction and tenure of the Castle to state, that he could not ascertain wheth- and Honor of Clifford, a possession of that er Jenico was executed or not. It is royal house. It is difficult to say why it gratifying to us to know, however, that is more particularly mentioned as their the loyalty and fidelity of the Gascon did war-badge during the devastating civil not cost him his life. During the three war; probably it was selected, as such, subsequent reigns, he can be occasionally from the other badges of the family, mere espied through the dim mists which envel- | ly in contradistinction and opposition to op the by-ways and out-of-the-way places the red rose of Lancaster. Shakspeare, of history. At one time, we read of him in his historical dramas, closely follows the defeating with great slaughter the Magyn- text of the old chroniclers; yet we have nys, and other wild Irishry, in Ulster; at not been able to find, among any of those another, in conjunction with the Bishop black-letter historians, any allusion to the of Down, making treaties with the redoubt-famous scene in the Temple Garden ; but able Donald of the Isles, and otherwise a tradition of such an occurrence might comporting himself as an approved good have been extant in the great poet's day, soldier and servant of the state. The nor does it seem at all improbable that white hart was Richard's favorite cogni- Richard Plantagenet said :zance: he wore it in honor and remem

"Since you are tongue-tied, and so loath to brance of his mother, the beauteous Joan

speak, Holand, the renowned Fair Maid of Kent. In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts:

The coat-armor of a royal or noble Let him that is a true-born gentleman, family being considered of far too sacred a

And stands upon the honor of his birth,

If he suppose that I have pleaded truth, character to be worn as a personal orna From off this brier pluck a white rose with me." ment or distinction by a retainer of inferior rank, unless a herald, the badge, cogni

And that Somerset replied :zance, or sign of company, as it was va "Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer, riously termed, worn by all, from king or

But dare maintain the party of the truth,

Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me." baron down to the menial, served as a recognition and distinction of party, of Theobald IV., King of Navarre, and feudal allegiance and dependency, to both Count of Champaigne and Brie, the fafriends and foes. It was worn on the arm mous troubador, poet, patron of poets, or cap: the minstrel was distinguished by song-maker and song-singer, as the old wearing his suspended round the neck by writers term him, returning from the Holy

Land, brought with him the first Damas-caster. As the Lancastrian party decus rose ever seen in Western Europe. fended their usurpation, by asserting that Planted in a congenial climate and soil at Crouchback was the eldest son of Henry Theobald's city of Provins, the new and III., but had been set aside on account beauteous flower flourished and multiplied, of his deformity, and that consequently, attracting great attention, and receiving through Blanche of Artois, they were the the high honor of being used in the grand legitimate heirs to the throne, the red rose est and most solemn religious ceremonies of Provins derived from Crouchback had of the day. Some years subsequently, a strong political signification, as well as Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, the sec- being the badge of a powerful party in the ond son of Henry III., married Blanche state. The importance of badges as the of Navarre, a descendant of Theobald. insignia of political partisans must not be Provins, at that time, was famous for its underrated. The white hart of the dewoollen manufactures; and Philip le Har- posed Richard was a continual source of di, King of France, eager to raise funds inquietude to the usurper Henry; statutes to prosecute an unjust war, heavily taxed were enacted forbidding its being worn; the master manufacturers, who declared and though Richard had been long dead, their unwillingness and inability to submit leaving no direct heirs, yet Harry Percy, to such exaction. William of Pentecost," the hair-brained Hotspur," raised the the mayor of Provins, wishing to obtain north, and fought the battle of Shrewsthe king's favor, proposed to the masters, bury under the badge and banner of the that if they would pay the increased tax, white hart. Even so late as Queen Elizhe would cause the bell which announced abeth's time, an act was passed, by which the hours of labor to be rung an hour later a severe penalty was laid on“ all phantasthan the usual time every evening, thus ticall prophecies, upon or by the occasion giving the masters an hour's extra work of any badges, cognizances, or like things.” from each man. This proposition was ac- The origin of the well-known badge cepted, and the consequence was, that the worn by the Princes of Wales has long workmen broke out in open insurrection, been an unsettled question among antiquaduring which the mayor was killed. The ries. The common version—that it was king, enraged at this proceeding, sent the crest of the king of Bohemia, who Edmund Crouchback to reduce the citi- was slain at the battle of Cressy, and first zens to order, which he did in a fearfully assumed by the Black Prince in commemcruel manner, and also broke the bell to oration of that conflict—is now considered pieces, declaring that, for the future, the to be merely a mediæval myth. The king will of the master alone should regulate of Bohemia's crest was the wings of a the hours of labor. In commemoration of vulture; but he wore as his device the repthese events, Crouchback assumed as a resentation of an ostrich eating a spike, to badge the red rose for which Provins had imply how little he dreaded the perils of already become famous; and the king cold iron. This ostrich, then, it is supgave him the titles of Champaigne and posed, supplied the three feathers for the Brie. We may just add, as a sequel to prince's “cap of fame.” On the other this specimen of feudal times, that after hand, there is clear evidence that Edward some years, and many petitions, letters- III., and most of his sons, wore the ostrich patent were granted, permitting the town feathers as well as the Black Prince. to have another bell, named Guillamette, in The famous herald and antiquary, Randle honor of the murdered mayor, and bearing Holme, ascribes a totally different origin an inscription humiliating to the citizens ; | to this badge. He asserts that the ostrich but Provins never after regained its man- feathers were the ensigns of the Princes ufacturing importance. Crouchback sub- of Wales during the independence of their sequently became Earl of Lancaster : his country, long prior to its conquest by the descendant Henry, surnamed Wryneck, English; and after that event, the eldest was the first duke of that title. John sons of the kings of England, as Princes of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III., of Wales, continued to wear them, adding marrying Blanche of Artois, sole heir- the motto, Ich dien, (I serve,) to express ess of Wryneck, assumed the badge of that, though of paramount importance in the red rose, and shortly after was, by Wales, they yet owed allegiance to the Parliament, granted the dukedom of Lan- | crown of England. Even at the risk of

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