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WITHERSPOON'S ESSAY ON JUSTIFI- titude with the blackest mark of

infamy, and to reckon it among (Continued from p. 632, vol. ix.) the most atrocious of crimes. In the fifth place, those who ex- And indeed, we find by experience, pect justification by the imputed that it is comparatively stronger, righteousness of Christ, must

for the most part, than the oppobe induced to obedience, in the site motives of force or fear. strongest manner, by the liberal There is a sort of natural tendenand ingenuous motive of grati- cy in man to resist violence, and tude and thankfulness to God. refuse submission to authority, That it is the native and genuine whilst they may be won by favours, expression of gratitude to God, to and melted to thankfulness and live a pure and holy life, I suppose gratitude by kindness and love: will hardly be denied; at least, this at least, this may be applied perthe Scriptures represent as pleas- fectly to the present case, where ing him, serving him, doing his the bare outward performance, will

, honouring him. It is indeed (which may indeed be the effect of extremely difficult to conceive fear,) will not be accepted without how God, all-mighty, and all-suf- the inclination of the will. A slaficient, should be at all affected vish dread both lessens the degree with our conduct, either good or

and debases the nature of that obebad; it seems to be improper to dience we might essay to perform. say, that he can be pleased or dis- This is an universal principle; pleased with our actions, or that and, in particular, while the law he hath any interest at stake. of God stands in its force and riNothing, to be sure, can be more

gour as a covenant of works, threatweak and impotent than the inju- ening death without hope of merries offered, or the assaults made cy, against every transgression, it upon him, by created beings. As begets a despondent sloth, and at his nature is without variableness best serves only to discover our sin or shadow of turning, so his hap- and misery; nay, as the apostle piness is such as can neither be in- Paul strongly and justly reasons, creased or impaired. And yet, in it renders our corrupt affections this way, he himself has taught us

more inflamed and violent by reto conceive of the matter, that ho- straint;* Nay, I had not known liness is not only an imitation of sin, but by the law: for I had not his character, but obedience to his known lust, except the law had will, and its contrary a transgres

said, Thou shalt not covet,” &c. sion of his law. These have been

But let us now complete this arthe sentiments of all nations, with gument, by showing that a believer out exception; and after the ut- in Christ is under the strongest most efforts we can make to ex- obligations, from gratitude, to do empt him in our minds from all the will of God. And how many human passions or affections, of considerations concur in showing joy, anger, or displeasure, we can- this? The unspeakable greatness not help considering it still as pro- of the blessings he receives, no less per to say, such a course of life is than deliverance from everlasting agreeable, and such another is misery and anguish, and a right displeasing to God, and will pro- The infinite and affecting conde

to everlasting glory and happiness. voke his wrath.

Is not gratitude then a principle scension of the great and glorious of action that will be powerful and Giver, who, in mercy to those who operative? Mankind in general could not profit him at all, but on bear witness to this, as they have the contrary, had highly provoked agreed in all ages to brand ingra

* Rom. vii. 7.


him, laid help for them upon one such sins attending them, or such who is mighty to save. The aston- a mixture and alloy of unholiness ishing means employed in this de- and impurity in them, as, if they sign, viz. God's “not sparing even were weighed in the exact balance his own son, but delivering him up of justice, would be sufficient to for us all.” Well might the apostle procure their total rejection. John say,* “God so loved the In how strong a light is this world that he gave his only begot represented by the sacred writers; ten Son, that whosoever believeth and how powerful does its operain him, should not perish, but tion appear to be upon themselves? have everlasting life." But, above They seem penetrated and possest all, the sense which he himself with a sense of the love of Christ, hath of his misery and wretched- and of God in him, as having sinness. Nothing can be more dread- ners for its object. Thus the aposful than the apprehensions which tle Paul reasons: "For scarcely a convinced sinner hath of his for a righteous man will one die, own state: what, and how strong, yet, peradventure, for a good man then must his sense of gratitude some would even dare to die. But be, to him who hath given his Son, God commendeth his love towards and to him who has given him- us, in that while we were yet sinself, for the purchase of his pardon? ners, Christ died for us."* Ànd with what earnestness will he seek again,“ If when we were enemies, after, and with what cheerfulness we were reconciled to God by the will he embrace every opportuni- death of his Son.”+ What a sense ty of testifying his thanksulness? of the love of Christ is discovered Will not the name of his Redeem- by the two following passages of er be precious, even “as ointment the same apostle! " That Christ poured forth?” his laws delightful may dwell in your hearts by faith; to him, and his honour dear? that ye being rooted and grounded

It is proper to observe here, that in love, may be able to comprethe single view of the blessings of hend with all saints, what is the divine goodness, which must have breadth and length, and depth and the strongest influence, in leading height; and to know the love us to a grateful resentment of of Christ, which passeth knowthem, is peculiar to such as expect ledge.” The other is, “If any justification through the imputed man love not the Lord Jesus Christ righteousness of Christ; viz. their let him be anathema Maranabeing of free, unmerited grace and tha;'S than which nothing could mercy. For, though there are more strongly express his own classes of Christians who pretend sense of the obligation. It deto disclaim the belief of any merit serves notice also, that the inspired in man, it would be no difficult writers do often represent it as matter to show, that there are one of the strongest arguments none who do not, by their profess- against sin, that it is a reproach ed principles, or their usual lan- and dishonour brought upon our guage, suppose it, excepting those Redeemer and Lord. “For many described in the beginning of this walk, of whom I have told you discourse. And such not only be- often, and now tell you even weeplieve his mercy to be unmerited, ing, that they are enemies of the but that they have justly deserved cross of Christ.l! Seeing they cruhis wrath and indignation; nay, cify to themselves the Son of God and that they continually do so, afresh, and put him to an open even in their best state; their shame." purest and holiest actions having * Rom. v. 7,8. + Rom. v. 10.

1 Eph. iii. 17, 18, 19. 81 Cor. xvi. 22. John iii. 16.

|| Phil. iii. 18.

Heb. vi. 6.


I must again here, as on a for- this is their necessary and unamer branch of the subject, observe voidable effect. “ For the love of that no doubt such arguments as Christ constraineth us, because we these will have little or no effect thus judge, that if one died for all upon those who have but an im- then were all dead; and that he perfect belief of them, which, it is died for all, that they which live to be feared, is the case with not a should not henceforth live unto few who go under the name of themselves, but unto him which Christian. But is it not very evi- died for them, and rose again.' dent that they must have the any shall think proper to asstrongest imaginable influence, sert that favours bestowed are not upon all such as are actuated by a to be considered as the true and lively faith in the doctrine of re- formal causes of love, but the exdemption? They must see them- cellence and amiable qualities of selves indebted to the undeserved the object.-Thus, for example, mercy and love of God for favours supposing any person of a characof infinite value, and therefore ter justly hateful in itself, from camust certainly endeavour to ex- price, self-interest, or any other press their gratitude by an entire sinister motive, to bestow many consecration of their lives to their signal favours upon another, the benefactor's service.

beneficiary might receive and deThis leads me to observe in the light in the favours without essixth, and last place, that those teeming, nay, even when he could who expect justification by the not esteem the giver. If this is imputed righteousness of Christ, considered as an objection against must be possessed of a supreme what I have just now said, and the or superlative love to God, which conclusiveness of the argument is not only the source and princi- to be founded upon it, I offer the ple, but the very sum and sub- two following answers to it. 1st, stance, nay, the perfection of holi. That in the account given in Scripness. That those who believe in, ture of the redemption of the world and hope to be accepted and final- by the substitution of a Saviour, and ly saved through, the imputed the justification of sinners by the righteousness of Christ, must be imputed righteousness of Christ, possessed of a supreme love to there is the brightest display of all God, appears from what hath the divine perfections. The albeen already said upon the subject mighty power, the unsearchable of gratitude. Love is the most wisdom, the boundless goodness, powerful means of begetting love. the inflexible justice, and inviola* Thus,” says the apostle John, ble truth of God, shine in this "We have known and believed the great design, with united splenlove that God hath unto us; God dour. Every attribute that can is love."* And a little after, “We in reason claim our veneration and love him because he first loved esteem, as well as our thankfulus.”+ The infinite and unspeaka- ness and gratitude, is here to be ble mercies which he hath bestow- seen. Even the perfections of jused on us, with all the circum- tice and mercy (which I will not stances attending them, the means call jarring attributes, as some too and manner of their conveyance, harshly do) but which seem to rewhich have been hinted at above, strain and limit each other in their must necessarily excite the most exercise, are jointly illustrated, ardent love in return, and every and shine more brightly by their proper expression of it. This is union, than they could have done their immediate and natural, nay, separately; and, at the same time, *1 John, iv. 16. 1 John, vi. 19.

* 2 Cor. v.

14. Ch. Adv.-Vol. X.


the purity and holiness of the dis neither death, nor life, nor angels, vine nature, which is the sum of nor principalities, nor powers, nor them all is deeply impressed upon things present, nor things to come, the mind. So that here is every nor height, nor depth, nor any thing that can produce love; worth creature, shall be able to separate and excellence to merit it, love us from the love of God, which is and kindness to excite and raise in Christ Jesus, our Lord.” it. From this it evidently appears Now, is there any thing more that he who believes in the im- necessary to show, that those who puted righteousness of Christ, believe and trust in the imputed must have a superlative love of righteousness of Christ must be God.

holy in their lives, than their beBut 2dly, Lest it should be said, ing under the influence of a suthat many have not this view of preme love to God? Is not this the doctrine in question, as ho- the first and great command of the nourable to God, and representing law, “ Thou shalt love the Lord him in an amiable light, but the thy God, with all thy heart, and contrary; I observe, that there with all thy soul, and with all thy must have been a discovery of the mind?"* Is not this a never failglory of God, as shining in this ing source of universal obedience? plan of salvation to all who cor- as they love God, will they not dially embrace it. Nothing else love their brethren also: the very could induce them to do so. If its worst of men, because they are the enemies do not see this, and there- creatures of God? and the rightfore set themselves against it; this cous more especially, because they confirms the different and honour- are his saints, his chosen ones? able sentiments entertained by its Can they love God supremely, friends; so that even supposing and yet voluntarily displease him, (what we will never grant) that this breaking his commandments or view of the amiableness of the di- resisting his designs? We know vine nature, as represented in the that love hath a quite different gospel were not well founded; yet effect, in every other and infedoubtless, it is the view of those rior instance, endearing to us eve“who count all things but loss for ry thing related to the person who the excellency of the knowledge of possesses our esteem and affecChrist,"

"** and glory in nothing tion; how, then, can it be supposed but his cross.

so preposterous in this single case, The truth is, notwithstanding when it is fixed on the greatest and any cavilling objections that may the best of objects? be raised against it, many favours It is a received maxim that received by one to whom they are there can be no true love where absolutely necessary, and by whom there is not some likeness and they are infinitely prized, must conformity of nature and disposinaturally and necessarily produce tion to the object beloved, and an love. This will be reckoned a first endeavour after more. And this is principle by every unprejudiced a maxim that will in no case hold mind; and it is always supposed more infallibly, than in moral subin the Holy Scriptures, where the jects. It is impossible that we saints are represented as under can love purity, if ourselves are the habitual and powerful im- impure; nay, it is impossible that pression of love to God, for his we can understand it. Though an love to them manifested in their unholy person may have a very redemption. Thus says the apos- penetrating genius and capacity, tle Paul,“For I am persuaded that may think acutely, and perhaps * Phil. iii. 8.

* Matt. xxii. 37.

reason justly upon many, or most From the Juvenile Forget Me Not. of the natural attributes of God, THE EVENING PRAYER. he can neither perceive nor admire Alone, alone !--no other face his moral excellence. Instead of Wears kindred smile, or kindred line ; perceiving the glory of God as in

And yet they say my mother's eyesfinitely holy, he hates, and sets

They say my father's brow is mine;

And either had rejoiced to see himself to oppose this part of his The other's likeness in my face; character,' or to substitute some- But now it is a stranger's eye thing quite different in its room.* That finds some long forgotten trace. Or, if we can suppose him able, or I heard them name my father's death, from any particular reason in- His home and tomb alike the wave; clined to tell the truth, as to what And I was early taught to weep God is, he can never discern or

Beside my youthful mother's grave.

I wish I could recall one lookfeel his glory or beauty in being But only one familiar tone; such. For why?-he himself is un- If I had aught of memory, holy: that is to say, in other words, I should not feel so all alone. he supremely loves, and hath his My heart is gone beyond the affections habitually fixed upon In search of love I cannot find, something that is not God, some- Till I could fancy soothing words thing that is contrary to God's na

Are whispered by the evening wind.

I gaze upon the watching stars, ture, and a breach of his law.

So clear, so beautiful above, * This is the true reason why many so

Till I could dream they look on me warmly oppose God's vindictive justice, and

With something of an answering love. that in the face of many awful examples My mother, does thy gentle eye of it, even in the present partial and imper- Look from those distant stars on me? fect dispensation. That there are many Or does the wind at evening bear marks of God's displeasure against sin, A message to thy child from thee? even in that part of his government Dost thou pine for me as I pine which is at present subjected to our view,

Again a parent's love to share ? and also distinct warnings of a stricter I often kneel beside thy grave, reckoning to come, I should think might be,

And pray to be a sleeper there. to an impartial person, past all doubi; and yet, this is derided and denied by many The vesper bell !—'tis eventide ; merely because they can never think that I will not weep, but I will praya perfection in the divine nature, for God of the fatherless, 'tis Thou which they have no love or esteem in their Alone can'st be the orphan's stay! own hearts. All who love God, then, must Earth's meanest flower, Heaven's mighti. be like him, and even those who will not

est star, be what he really is, are always strongly Are equal in their Maker's love; inclined at least to suppose him what they And I can say Thy will be done, themselves are.

With eyes that fix their hope above.





was obliged immediately to enter

on some business for a livelihood. GREEN, A. M.

It would have been very agreeable

to me to have spent more time at From my leaving college to the pre-college, and to have pursued my sent time, 1777.

studies, but my worldly circumI took my degree in July, 1744, stances did not admit of my doand left the college immediately ing it. afterward. I spent nearly or quite I had for a considerable time all my property, in my college before I left college, a fixed princieducation, and had no wealthy ple, that I ought not to be forward friends to help me, and therefore to choose worldly circumstances

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