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one condition of his indenture that, "in common with other children, he should enjoy the usual advantages of a district-school education." As, in the newly-settled village where he resided, schools were in session but few months in the year, and the teachers but moderately educated, his early opportunities for instruction must have been very limited. Business often kept him from school, or caused him to arrive at a late hour. How highly his scanty privileges were appreciated may be learned from his own words :- "As I had the advantage of attending a common school equal with the other children, I was early taught to read, to which I was greatly attached, and could vie with almost any of my age."

The remark has been a thousand times repeated, that "Lemuel Haynes got his education in the chimney corner." This is literally true. It may be necessary to say here, that chimneys among the early settlers on the western hills in New-England were of a peculiar structure. They were built of huge stones, with a broad base, occupying at least one third of the ground covered by the building. The fireplace seems to have received its form either with reference to its consuming the greatest quantity of fuel, or for the purpose of forming a kind of sitting-room for the younger members of the family. Hence the fireplace was nearly eight feet between the sides, and a full yard in depth. In one extreme was the oven, and in front of it was the long square block, which would comfortably seat the children, one, two, or three in number, as the case migh. require. Such was the "chimney-corner" where Lem uel Haynes in his childhood laid the foundation of his future usefulness. While his mates were sporting m

the streets and even round the door, you might see him sitting on his block with his book in his hand. Evening after evening he plied his studies by firelight, having the preceding day laid in a store of pine knots and other combustibles for the purpose. The luxury of a candle he rarely enjoyed. Here he studied his spelling-book and psalter till he had literally devoured them He studied the Bible till he could produce by memory most of the texts which have a bearing upon the essential doctrines of grace; and could also refer, with nearly infallible accuracy, to the book, chapter, and verse where they might be found. At length he procured Young's Night Thoughts, and was soon able to repeat large portions of it, together with a great part of Watts's Psalms and Hymns. All this and much more he accomplished on his block in the chimney-corner by firelight. At the same time no boy in the neighbourhood performed a greater amount of manual labour. Bound by indenture as a servant, he was obliged to labour hard through the day, so that the hours of the evening and the twilight of the morning were his only time for mental improvement.


And yet he had a system. One day, on meeting a youth who had been his schoolmate, he said to him, 'Israel, how do you succeed in your studies?" After hearing the reply, he added, “I MAKE IT MY RULE TO KNOW SOMETHING MORE EVERY NIGHT THAN I KNEW IN THE MORNING." Here is the grand secret of his attainments. Whatever might be the urgency of his labour, he made every passing day contribute something to his improvement. This was undoubtedly the governing principle of his life. And as in his immediate


vicinity there were but few books, he converted inanimate things into instructers, so that he found

"Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing.”

Thus he struggled forward in a course of study, and, as far as he was taught at all, he was his own teacher. Though almost without books, and entirely without teachers except in the rudiments of reading and penmanship, and exposed to numerous hinderances and perplexities, his mind was subjected to unremitting and severe discipline. And if he suffered by the absence of the usual advantages of liberally educated men, he must have been led at least to try his own powers, and to form habits of independence and decision.

A general scarcity of books was one of the severest difficulties which he had to encounter. There was no public library in the place. The Bible, psalter, spelling-book, and perhaps a volume or two of sermons, comprised the library of the most respectable families. Hence he remarks-"I was constantly inquiring after books, especially in theology. I was greatly pleased with the writings of Watts and Doddridge, and with Young's Night Thoughts. My good master encouraged me in the matter."

At the age of about sixteen or seventeen he again experienced a narrow escape from the fatal snare of the infidel. A professional gentleman had moved into the place who owned a small library. The privilege of using his books was granted to young Haynes. Having borrowed and thoroughly read one book after another, he at length received the loan of a volume which contained the principles of a poisonous infidelity. He was now at that perilous period of life when

the unformed mind is specially exposed to the influence of skepticism. As yet he was a stranger to the renewing operations of grace. He soon learned the character of the book, and, recollecting his former exposure, determined not to read it. Having invented a suitable reproof, and wrought it into two or three poetic couplets, he put it into the book and returned it to the owner. The doctor was exceedingly mortified at having subjected himself to so just a reproof from a poor servant-boy, and never again attempted to obtrude infidel principles upon him.

Deacon Rose seceded from the first church in Granville, and united with a small company of Christians styled separates. While he attended on the Sabbath a meeting of his separate brethren, his wife strenuously adhered to the church, and no ordinary obstacle could detain her from the house of God on the Lord's day. It fell to the lot of Lemuel to accompany her, of which he has given a very amusing account. "I used to carry my mistress across the mountain Sabbath days to meeting. She was a member of Reverend Mr. Smith's church. In the winter our carriage was a one-horse sled; the box was two boards, with four round sticks to couple them together. In this humble plight I used to take a great deal of satisfaction in waiting on my good old mistress from time to time,"


In the intermission, especially in the warm season, he often stole away into the forest, and spent the hour in devout meditation and prayer. At other times, when even but a boy, he sometimes collected his youthful acquaintances around him, and repeated in their hearing the morning sermon with wonderful accuracy. At night, whenever requested by Deacon Rose, he gave

him from memory a copious analysis of the sermons and other religious services of the house of God.

In 1775 the excellent and pious Mrs. Rose died. In her death he lost every thing comprehended in the endearing name of mother. She had adopted him as her own son in early infancy, and tenderly trained him up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. This memorable and grievous affliction he has recorded in the following words :-"Soon after I came of age, God was pleased to take my mistress away, to my inexpressible sorrow. It caused me bitter mourning and lamentation."



In the life of every good man, with the exception of such as are sanctified in their infancy, there is a marked period, when the great change is experienced to which the Saviour refers when he says, "Ye must be born again." In some instances, men of high attainments in piety, instead of pointing to the time of this change, can only adopt the language of the blind man; "One thing I know, that whereas I was blind, now I see." Baxter could tell neither the day, the month, nor the year in which he was made alive in Christ Jesus. Edwards, Brainard, Richmond, and many others, leave us in little or no doubt respecting the time of their conversion to God; of this class was Mr. Haynes Though he has

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