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terranean vaults had no less of architecture bestowed on them, than had the buildings above ground.
After giving a minute description of other parts of this fort, amongst the ruins of which he mentions seeing the shaft of a grey granite column, and several pieces both of sculptured and polished marble, fragments of the sumptuous palaces of the city, Mr. Buckingham continues :-“ The whole terminates in an edifice on a rocky base, surrounded by enormous blocks of stone, the disjointed masses of the ancient mole, now washed by the waves; of which edifice scarcely any perfect portion remains, but among whose ruins are seen fragments of at least twenty granite columns. This may probably be the tower of Drusus
which was built on the mole itself, where this ruin still stands, having braved the fury of two thousand winters, and still defying the storms of ocean to effect its total demolition, though its venerable ruins are lashed by an almost eternal foam. The fort was surrounded on the north, the east, and the south, by a ditch about thirty feet broad and twenty deep
“ The fragments of granite pillars, and other marks of splendour seen near the sea, are unquestionably remains of the ancient Cæsarea; but the fort itself, as it now stands, is as evidently a work of the Crusaders, who had one of their chief military stations here ... (The) ruin of the city) is so complete, that the most diligent survey would scarcely be rewarded by the fixing, with accuracy, the site of any of the public buildings, or even the delineation of its precise form, from the foundation of its walls ...
1 Irby and Mangles regard this building as erected upon the ruins of a Roman temple.
2 Irby and Mangles mention finding a column of marble, with a Roman inscription of the Emperor Septimus Severus, but too much buried for them to copy; but they subsequently learned from Mr. Bankes, (who had it cleared for copying,) that it was a milestone.— Travels, p. 190.
“ At the present moment, the whole of the surrounding country is also a sandy desert towards the land; the waves wash the ruins of the moles, the towers, and the port, towards the sea ; and not a creature resides within many miles of this silent desolation.”—BUCKINGHAM's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. pp.
197—215. Mr. Hardy thus contrasts the present state of Cæsarea with its past history : -“ Without the city," he writes, on the southern side, are several mounds of ruins, overgrown with grass and brushwood. The amphitheatre stood in this direction, where Herod Antipas was smitten by an angel of God, and eaten of
Whilst I was occupied in taking a sketch of the place, my companions picked up several pieces of marble, upon one of which was a flower, well executed ; and upon another, a Greek inscription. There are many holes in the ground, made by the pachas of Acre in digging for the marbles, by which their mosques and palaces are decorated ... granite columns are scattered along the sea-shore in great profusion.
“ There is not a single inhabitant near the place, nor any modern building . . . A few birds and lizards are the only living possessors? we saw of this once crowded city, and these are not often disturbed in their abode, as the road usually pursued passes at a little distance ..
66 As Cæsarea was the usual residence of the Roman governor, it was the scene of more numerous cruelties than any other part of Palestine during the heathen persecutions. The ecclesiastical historian Eusebius was bishop of this place. The famous Origen resided
1 Lamartine relates, that he disinterred three jackals from the bosom of the ruins, and that the only human being whom he saw in Cæsarea, was a young Arab shepherd, who arrived there during Mr. Lamartine's visit, to water his flocks at a fountain, to which he said he was in the daily habit of resorting for that purpose from his dwelling, two leagues distant, among the mountains. According to Pococke, crocodiles were formerly found near Cæsarea.
here some time, and whilst yet a layman, was permitted to preach before bishops. A walk through ruins where scenes so memorable have been witnessed, could not but awaken many trains of most profitable reflection. The woes of the prisoner, and the triumphs of the persecutor, had alike passed away; and where the simple eloquence of an apostle was once heard, and its power was acknowledged by an unjust judge and an ambitious monarch, no sound could then be distinguished but the gentle murmur of the sea. There was a single boat passing at the time, with its small white sail, to remind us of the thousands that once bore themselves proudly upon the same waters, laden with the produce of all climes. This spot is particularly dear to the missionary, as it was consecrated by the baptism of the first Gentile convert, at that time a wonder without a precedent. Now the children of the adoption are living under the wrath of God, and the despised barbarians,' from almost every nation among men, are admitted into the favour of the Lord, and have the promise that they shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. At such a place, the solemn caution of the Apostle comes home to the mind with additional force, “Be not high-minded, but fear; for if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he spare not thee !'”—HARDY's Notices, pp. 125–128.
“ The king of Dor in the coast of Dor (in the list of kings slain by Joshua.)".-Joshua xii. 23.
5. Neither did Manasseh drive out the inhabitants ... of Dor and her towns but the Canaanites would dwell in that land.”—Judges i. 27.
... Dor and her towns ... in these dwelt the chil. dren of Joseph the son of Israel.”—1 Chronicles vii. 29.
[Josh. xi. 2, xvii. 11; 1 Kings iv. 11.]
“ The city of Dor, or Dora, was the capital of a district in Canaan, and is often reckoned to Phænicia. Joshua conquered it, and killed its king. He gave it to the half tribe of Manasseh, on this side Jordan. Dor is situated on the Mediterranean, and has a bad port, between Cæsarea Palestina and Mount Carmel, nine miles from Cæsarea. Dor was situated on a peninsula, which, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, rendered the city extremely strong, and very difficult of attack, especially on the land side.
" The modern name of Dor is Tortoura. It consists of a single street opposite to the sea. A market is held here, to which the Arabs bring their booty, and the neighbouring peasants their cattle and fruits; these they barter for rice, and linens, brought from Egypt in small craft, because the port which is before this town has not depth of water for large vessels. There is no mosque in the place. The inhabitants assemble on a platform, raised about two feet, and walled round, where they perform their worship. The coffee-house is the handsomest building and the most frequented in the town. Water that is drinkable would be absolutely wanting in Tortoura, were there not a fountain, ten or twelve feet in the sea, issuing from a rock, which, when the sea is high, is covered with waves. Not but that there are other springs in different places adjacent, but they are brackish ; and none of them supplies this necessary article of life like the spring from the rock, The neighbourhood is bare and void of trees, but produces grain.”—D’ARVIEUX. (See CALMET, vol. i.)
“ Tortoura is a small village, consisting of not more than forty or fifty dwellings, without a mosque, but
having a khan for the accommodation of travellers, and a small port, formed by a range of rocky islets at a short distance from the sandy beach. It has a ruined building on the north, which we were told was called by Franks the “ Accursed Tower ;' but our informant could assign no reason for such a forbidding name. In Arabic it is merely called • Old Castle.'
“ In its present condition, Tortoura is so far fallen from its former consequence as scarcely to present by its ruins an idea of its extent or strength, in its original state, though it is not entirely desolate. Its present inhabitants, perhaps five hundred in number, are all Mohammedan, and are governed by a sheikh, who received us at the khan, and bade us enter. This building was divided into four compartments by three arcades, and had its flat roof covered by boughs of trees plastered over on the top. We found a clean mat, and shelter for ourselves and our beasts; and the man in attendance furnished us with fire-wood, which was all we needed, as we had rice and bread with us." -See BUCKINGHAM's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. pp. 192, 195, 196.
“Now therefore send, and gather to me all Israel unto Mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal ... And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he cast himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees, and said to his servant, Go up now, look toward the sea. "-1 Kings xviii. 19, 42, 43. (See whole chapter.)
“So she went, and came unto the man of God (Elisha) to Mount Carmel.”—2 Kings iv. 25.
“The forest of his Carmel.”—2 Kings xix. 23. Isaiah xxxvii. 24.