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It presented every where the same severe and solemn aspect. It is a gigantic rock, rising almost perpendicularly, and every where covered by a bed of shrubs, and odoriferous herbs. The rock is seldom entirely naked.” In Leviticus xxvi. 22, we read that wild beasts were to be sent amongst the people of that land for their iniquities ; even that seems well nigh its accomplishment. The monks of Mount Carmel reported, that in consequence of the disarming of the people, and the great decrease of their numbers, wild beasts were increasing on Mount Carmel to an alarming degree.” “ We may stand at the top of Carmel,” observes Mr. Hardy, “as did Gehazi, and look towards the sea, but, alas ! there is now no · little cloud like a man's hand ;' still there is the promise of a shower, and in due time the streams of divine mercy will again fall upon this thirsty land, and men shall liken themselves in their prosperity to the excellency of Carmel and Sharon.'”-See CalMET's Dictionary; Paxton's Letters, pp. 100, 101 ; CARNE's Letters, pp. 249, 250; LAMARTINE's Travels, pp. 355—358 ; Journal of a Tour in the Holy Land, by Lady F. EGERTON, p. 95 ; Hardy's Notices, &c. p. 121,

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CHAPTER IX.

GALILEE.

TAANACH-MEGIDDO --PLAIN OF ESDRAELON-RIVER KISHON

JEZREEL-VALLEY OF JEZREEL --MOUNT GILBOA-BETHSHEAN -SHUNEM — NAIN-ENDOR - MOUNT TABOR-NAZARETH CANA-TIBERIAS-SHORES OF TIBERIAS-LAND OF GENNESARETH-MAGDALA-CAPERNAUM-BETHSAIDA OF GALILEECHORAZIN-BETHSAIDA JULIAS-COUNTRY OF THE GADARENES -CÆSAREA PHILIPPI-DAN OR LAISH-MOUNT HERMON.

TAANACH (TA'ANNUK) LEGIO. MEGIDDO.

(EL-LEJUN).

SCRIPTURE NOTICES. “ AND Manasseh had in Issachar'and in Asher ... the inhabitants of Taanach and her towns, and the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns

Yet the children of Manasseh could not drive out the inhabitants of those cities ; but the Canaanites would dwell in that land."-Joshua xvii. 11, 12. (Judges i. 27.)

“ The kings came and fought; then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo: they took no gain of money.”Judges v. 19.

And by the borders of the children of Manasseh ... Taanach and her towns, Megiddo and her towns. In... these dwelt the children of Joseph, the son of Israel.”1 Chron. vii. 29.

“And he (Ahaziah, king of Judah) fled to Megiddo, and died there.”—2 Kings ix. 27.

“Nevertheless, Josiah would not turn his face from him, but disguised himself, that he might fight with him, (Necho, king of Egypt,) and hearkened not unto the words of Necho from the mouth of God, and came to fight in the valley of Megiddo.2 Chron. xxxv. 22.

“ In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.”—Zech. xii. 11. (See the account of Josiah's death in 2 Chron. xxxv.)

[See also 1 Kings iv. 12, ix. 15; 1 Chron. vi. 70.]

we

“ The plain of Esdraelon is skirted on its southern side by low hills, running from Jenîn in a northwesterly direction, until they unite with an extension of the ridge of Carmel . . It is this extension of Carmel, consisting of a low ridge or range of hills, which separates the great southern plain along the coast from that of Esdraelon. From the knoll on the west of Jenîn we could look out upon this part of the plain and the adjacent southern hills. Looking towards Carmel, on the side of a low mound, a little back from the plain, we could distinguish the place called Ta'annuk ; it was said to have ruins which led the people to suppose it was once a large city, though it now contains but a few families. Further to the right, the direction of El-Lejjûn, the ancient Legio, was shown saw it frequently afterwards.

“Ta'annuk is undoubtedly the ancient Taanach, first a city of the Canaanites ;' then allotted to Manasseh, and assigned to the Levites ;; and afterwards celebrated in the triumphal song of Deborah and Barak. (It is further mentioned in Scripture only in 1 Kings iv. 12.)

“ Lejjûn probably occupies the site of the ancient Megiddo, so often mentioned along with Taanach. Near by it there was said to be a large fountain, sending forth a mill-stream, which, like that at Jenîn, (and others,) runs into the plain, and goes to aid in forming the ancient Kishon. Megiddo is rarely spoken of in Scripture, except in conjunction with Taanach ; à circumstance which implies their vicinity to each other.

1 Josh. xii. 21.

2 Josh. xvii, 11.

3 Josh, xxi. 25.

“ The chief onslaught, also, in the battle of Deborah and Barak, took place in the plain near Taanach, and the waters of Megiddo ;' and whether this expression be applied to a large fountain, or to the river Kishon, we know that the scene of battle was at any rate not far from the Kishon. Megiddo, too, gave its name to the adjacent valley or low plain along the Kishon. Maundrell visited the place, and speaks of it as an old village near a brook, from whence he could overlook the plain of Esdraelon. There was then at Lejjûn a khân in good repair.”— See Robinson's Researches, vol. üi. pp. 156, 157, 178–180.

PLAIN OF ESDRAELON, OR JEZREEL. RIVER

KISHON. (EL MUKÜTTA’.)

THE plain of Esdraelon, or Jezreel, does not occur by name in Scripture. It is mentioned in the book of Judith, in the Apocrypha, chap. i. 8.

SCRIPTURE NOTICES. " And I will draw unto thee to the river Kishon Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, with his chariots and his multitude ; and I will deliver him into thine hand ... And Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles unto the river of Kishon.”Judges iv. 7, 13.

“ The river of Kishon swept them away, that ancient river, the river Kishon.”Judges v. 21.

“ And Elijah said unto them, Take the prophets of Baal ; let not one of them escape. And they took them: and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there."-1 Kings xviii. 40. 66 Do unto them ... as to Sisera, as to Jabin at the

1 2 Chron. xxxv. 22; Zech. xii. 11.

brook of Kison : which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth.”Psalms lxxxiii. 9.

[Josh. xxi. 28.]

The plain of Esdraelon (so called from a place of that name situate in it') is one of the most fertile and beautiful districts in Palestine. The soil is rich and

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66 The

fine, as rich,” observes Mr. Paxton, “as soil can be," and would be most productive, if properly cultivated. Speaking of part of it, Dr. Robinson says, prospect was charming for its rich fertility and beauty. Yellow fields of grain, with green patches of cotton and millet interspersed, chequered the landscape like a

1 The ancient name of Jezreel was Esdraela, and thence the great plain around it took the name of Esdraelon. The valley of Jezreel formed part of this plain, the whole of which is consequently often spoken of (though erroneously) under the name of "the Valley of Jezreel."

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