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only by this name, Kâna el-Jelîl . . . Now as far as the prevalence of an ancient name among the common people is any evidence for the identity of an ancient site,—and I hold it to be the strongest of all testimony, when, as here, not subject to extraneous influences, but rather in opposition to them,—so far is the weight of evidence in favour of this northern Kâna el-Jelîl, as the true site of the ancient Cana of Galilee. The name is identical, and stands the same in the Arabic version of the New Testament; while the form Kefr Kenna can only be twisted by force into a like shape. On this single ground, therefore, we should be authorized to reject the present monastic position of Cana, and fix the site at Kâna el-Jelîl ; which, likewise, is sufficiently near to Nazareth, to accord with all the circumstances of the history.
“ This view is further confirmed, and indeed the question entirely set at rest, when we trace back.the matter in history. We thus find that an earlier tradition actually regarded the present Kâna el-Jelîl as the ancient Cana ; and that it is only since the sixteenth century, that monastic convenience has definitely assigned Kefr Kenna as the site. Quaresmius relates, that, in his day, two Canas were spoken of among the inhabitants of Nazareth and the vicinity ; one called simply Cana of Galilee, (Kana el-Jelil,) and the other Sepher Cana (Kefr Kenna); and he describes their position as above . . . Near the close of the sixteenth century, we find Cana placed three miles north of Sepphoris, and described as having a mountain on the north, and a broad, fertile, and beautiful plain towards the south ; all which corresponds to the position of Kâna el-Jelîl, and not to Kefr Kenna. Several other notices might be brought forward, which, together with the strong evidence of the name, show conclusively that Kana el-Jelîl is the Cana of the New Testament.”-See ROBINSON's Researches, vol. iii. pp. 204-208.
“HOWBEIT there came other boats from Tiberias, nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had given thanks.”—John vi. 23.
“ The earliest notice we have of the city of Tiberias is in the New Testament ; (John vi. 21, 23, xxi. 1;) and then in Josephus. The latter relates, that the city was founded by Herod Antipas on the lake of Gennesareth, near the warm baths called Ammaus ; and was so named in honour of his friend and patron, the Emperor Tiberius.
“Herod collected inhabitants from all quarters for his new city, and granted them many privileges ; he built here a royal palace, which was afterwards destroyed in a popular tumult; and favoured the city
so far, that Tiberias became the capital of Galilee, and was not improbably Herod's chief residence . .. In the Jewish war which ended in the destruction of Jerusalem, Tiberias bore a conspicuous part, especially during the command of Josephus in Galilee, who fortified the city, and had frequent occasion to visit it. At that time there was here an immense Jewish house or place of prayer, in which he convened a public assembly of the people . . . As Vespasian approached Tiberias, the principal inhabitants went out to meet him, and made their submission, imploring peace. This was granted . and the Roman army entered and occupied the town ... (When Tarichæa, a city south of Tiberias, just by the corner of the lake) was captured by troops under the command of Titus ; great numbers of the inhabitants having escaped by water in their boats and small craft, Vespasian caused boats to be built in order to pursue them on the lake. A naval battle took place, in which the Jews were totally overthrown. In this lake-fight, and in the capture of the city, the slain amounted to six thousand five hundred persons. Twelve hundred more, who were either too old or too young to bear arms or to labour, were put to death in cold blood in the stadium of Tiberias, whose inhabitants had erected a fortified camp at Ammaus. which was the head-quarters during the siege of Tarichæa.
“It was probably in consequence of the voluntary submission of the city of Tiberias to Vespasian, that the Jews, after the destruction of Jerusalem, and in still later times, were not only permitted to reside here unmolested, but enjoyed many privileges. Tiberias became for several centuries the central point of Jewish learning : here their most esteemed Rabbins taught in the synagogues ; and a school was formed for the cultivation of their law and language.
“ The Crusaders subdued Tiberias, and erected a church there, making it also the seat of a Latin bishop.
It was wrested from the Christians by Saladin, and, after one more reversion for a time into their hands, was again subdued by the Sultan of Egypt, and remained thenceforth under the Mohammedan dominion.
In the sixteenth century the inhabitants of Tiberias were Arabs of the worst character ; and the ancient church was then used as a stall for cattle, the town being described as in ruins and scarcely inhabited. About the middle of the eighteenth century, Tiberias made part of the domain of the noted Sheikh Dhaher, who erected a fort on a hill outside, and built up walls around the city. The French had possession of Tiberias for a short time during the invasion of Syria by Napoleon.”—See ROBINSON's Researches, vol. iii. pp. 266-274.
Of the state of Tiberias in 1838, when visited by Dr. Robinson, this traveller gives the following account: It had been visited by an earthquake on the 1st January, in the previous year.
16 We had our first sight of the terrors of an earthquake,” writes Dr. R., “in the prostrate walls of the town, now presenting little more than heaps of ruins.
“ Tiberias lies directly upon the shore, at a point where the heights retire a little, leaving a narrow strip, not exactly of plain, but of undulating land, nearly two miles in length along the lake. Back of this the moun. tain ridge rises steeply. The town is situated near the northern end of this tract ... surrounded towards the land by a thick wall, once not far from twenty feet high, with towers at regular intervals. Towards the sea, the city is open.
The castle is an irregular mass of building at the north-west corner. The walls of the town, as we have seen, were thrown down by the earthquake of January 1, 1837; and not a finger had as yet been raised to build them up. In some parts they were still standing, though with breaches but from every quarter footpaths led over the ruins into the city. The castle also suffered greatly. Very
many of the houses were destroyed . . . the whole town made upon us the impression of being the most mean and miserable place we had yet visited—a picture of disgusting filth and frightful wretchedness. The Jews occupy a quarter in the middle of the town, adjacent to the lake . . . We found many Jews in the streets ; they were chiefly from Russian Poland ... The men were poor, haggard, and filthy ... the Jewish females... looked much better, and were neatly dressed ; many of them in white. Tiberias and Safed are the two holy cities of the modern Jews in ancient Galilee, like Jerusalem and Hebron in Judea.
This place retains something of its former renown for Jewish learning ; and before the earthquake there were here two Jewish schools. Upon this people, it was said, fell ... the chief weight of the earthquake ; and a large proportion of the hundreds who then perished were Jews. In 1759, Tiberias was in like manner laid waste by a similar earthquake
'Passing out of the city again ... we kept on southwards along the lake, to visit the celebrated warm baths. On the way are many traces of ruins, evidently belonging to the ancient city, and showing that it was situated here; or, at least, extended much further than the modern town in this direction. They consist mostly of foundations, with traces of walls, heaps of stones, and a thick wall for some distance along the sea.
“ Near the middle lie several scattered columns of gray granite, twelve or fifteen feet long ; and at some distance a single solitary column is still standing. Among the threshing floors on the west of the town were also two blocks of a column of polished red syenite granite ... they were said to have been carried from these ruins. These traces of ancient remains extend nearly to the baths.
“The baths are on a part of the shore a little elevated above the sea, at the southern end of the strip of land above described, and about thirty-five minutes