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coffee-shed, his pipes and bread, to refresh the passenger. Down this romantic valley, watered by the stream from Siloa, was my favourite walk. At the head of it, the valleys of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat meet, and it winds between rugged and desolate hills towards the wilderness of St. Saba. It was frequented by few.”—CARNE's Letters, p. 284.
WELL OF JOB, OR NEHEMIAH, BEING PROBABLY
THE EN-ROGEL OF SCRIPTURE.
“ The goings out thereof were at En-rogel.”Joshua xv. 7.
66 And the border ... descended to the valley of Hinnom ; and descended to En-rogel.”—Joshua xviii. 16.
“ Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz stayed by En-rogel, for they might not be seen to come into the city.' 2 Samuel xvii. 17.
“ And Adonijah slew sheep, and oxen, and fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth, which is by En-rogel, and called all his brethren the king's sons, and all the men of Judah the king's servants." -1 Kings i. 9.
- The well called that of Nehemiah or Job, is situated just below the junction of the valley of Hinnom with that of Jehoshaphat. The small oblong plain there formed, is covered with an olive-grove, and with the traces of former gardens extending down the valley from the present gardens of Siloam. This whole spot is the prettiest and most fertile around Jerusalem.”
The well is a very deep one of living water; but in the rainy season overflows. " It is walled up with large squared stones, terminating above in an arch on one side, and apparently of great antiquity. There is a small rude building over it, furnished with one or two
large troughs or reservoirs of stone, which are kept partially filled for the convenience of the people. The well measures 125 feet in depth ; 50 feet of which was now full of water. The water is sweet, but not very cold; and is at the present day drawn up by hand.
. . This well is apparently of high antiquity; and there can be little doubt, that it is identical with the En-rogel of Scripture; though probably it may have been enlarged and deepened in the course of ages.
“ The fountain En-rogel is first mentioned in the Book of Joshua, in describing the border between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.” .. (The description there given) " applies most definitely and exactly to the present well of Nehemiah. . . . One other notice goes also to fix the place of the fountain Rogel in the same vicinity. When Adonijah caused himself to be proclaimed king, he assembled his friends and made a feast at En-rogel, or, as Josephus records it, “without the city, at the fountain which is in the king's garden."-ROBINSON's Researches, vol. i. pp. 490—493.
THE UPPER POOL.
SCRIPTURE NOTICES. " THEN said the Lord unto Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, at the end of the conduit of the Upper Pool, in the highway of the fullers' field.” —Isaiah vii. 3.
“ And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem, unto king Hezekiah, with a great army: and he stood by the conduit of the Upper Pool, in the highway of the fullers' field.” Isaiah xxxvi. 2. (2 Kings xviii. 17.)
“ This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David.”—2 Chronicles
SCRIPTURE NOTICE. “Ye have seen also the breaches of the city of David, that they are many; and ye gathered together the waters of the lower pool.”—Isaiah xxii. 9.
“ The main dependence of Jerusalem for water at the present day is on its cisterns; and this has probably always been the case . . . The immense cisterns now and anciently existing within the area of the temple, would, of themselves, in case of a siege, furnish a tolerable supply; and are supplied partly from rain-water, and partly by the aqueduct. But in addition to these, almost every private house in Jerusalem, of any size, is understood to have at least one or more cisterns, excavated in the soft limestone rock on which the city is built. The house in which we resided had no less than four cisterns —one of immense size .. The cisterns have usually merely a round opening at the top, sometimes built up with stone work alone, and furnished with a curb and a wheel for the bucket; so that they have externally much the appearance of an ordinary well. The water is conducted into them from the roofs of the houses during the rainy season ; and, with proper care, remains pure and sweet during the whole summer and autumn. In this manner most of the larger houses and the public buildings are supplied. . . . Most of these cisterns have undoubtedly come down from ancient times; and their immense extent furnishes a full solution of the question as to the supply of water for the city. Under the disadvantages of its position in this respect, Jerusalem must necessarily have always been dependant upon its cisterns; and a city which thus annually laid in its supply for seven or eight months, could never be overtaken by a want of water during a siege.
“Nor is this a trait peculiar to the holy city ; for the
case is the same throughout all the hill country of Judah and Benjamin. Fountains and streams are few, as compared with Europe and America ; and the inhabitants, therefore, collect water during the rainy season in tanks and cisterns in the cities, in the fields, and along the high roads, for the sustenance of themselves and of their flocks and herds, and for the comfort of the passing traveller. Many, if not the most of these, are obviously antique ; and they exist not unfrequently along the ancient roads which are now deserted. Thus on the long forgotten way from Jericho to Bethel, 66 broken cisterns” of high antiquity are found at regular intervals. That Jerusalem was thus actually supplied of old with water, is apparent also from the numerous remains of ancient cisterns still existing in the tract north of the city, which was once enclosed within the walls. A few wells are occasionally found, both in and around the city ; but they are either dry or the water is low and bad. ... The reason why so few wells exist, is doubtless to be referred to the small quantity and bad quality of the water thus obtained. But although the cisterns of Jerusalem thus afford apparently an abundant supply, yet, as a matter of convenience and luxury, water is brought during the summer in considerable quantity from fountains at a distance from the city. The principal of these is “ Ain Yalo in Wady el-Werd,” several miles S.W. of Jerusalem. The water is transported in skins, on the backs of asses and mules ; and is sold for a trifle, for drinking, to those who prefer it to rain-water.
“ The same causes which led the inhabitants of Judea to excavate cisterns, induced them also to build, in and around most of their cities, large open reservoirs for more public use. Such tanks are found at Hebron, Bethel, Gibeon, Bîreh, and various other places ; sometimes still in use, as at Hebron, but more commonly in ruins. They are built up mostly of massive stones ; and are situated chiefly in valleys where the rains of
winter could be easily conducted into them. These reservoirs we learned to consider as one of the least doubtful vestiges of antiquity in all Palestine ; for among the present race of inhabitants such works are utterly unknown. With such reservoirs Jerusalem was abundantly supplied; to say nothing of the immense Pools of Solomon beyond Bethlehem, which no doubt were constructed for the benefit of the Holy City. In describing these tanks or pools, I begin with those lying without the walls on the west side of the city. Here are two very large reservoirs, one some distance below the other in the valley of Gihon, or Hinnom, and both unquestionably of high antiquity. Now, as the prophet Isaiah speaks of an upper and lower Pool, the former of which at least lay apparently on this side of the city, I venture to apply these names to the two reservoirs in question.”
UPPER Pool. “ This is commonly called by the monks, Gihon. It lies in the basin forming the head of the valley of Hinnom, or Gihon.” On his first visit to it, Mr. Robinson observes,—“ The tank was now dry, but in the rainy season it becomes full ; and its waters are then conducted by a small rude aqueduct, or channel, to the vicinity of the Yâfa gate, and so to the pool of Hezekiah within the city. The tract around this tank is occupied as a Muslem cemetery, the largest around the city. The tombs are scattered and old; some of the larger ones, indeed, have the appearance of great antiquity ... The sides of the tank are built up with hewn stones laid in cement, with steps at the corners by which to descend into it. The bottom is level . It would seem to be filled in the rainy season by the waters which flow from the higher ground round about: or, rather, such is its present state of disrepair, that it probably never becomes full; and the small quantity of water which it at first retains, soon runs off and leaves it dry.”
“ The Upper Pool of the Old Testament was situated