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In the above examples, the words "venture," "friend," "ah," &c., may be considered as interrogatory exclamations, because, if the sense were carried out, it would be in the form of question; as, "Do you ask who would venture'?” "Do you say that he is the friend' of virtue?" "Is it possible'?" and thus, they would receive the rising inflection according to this rule.

QUESTIONS.-Repeat Rule IV. Of what rule is this the converse or opposite? Give some of the examples under this rule. What inflection has the person addressed? Give examples. Give the exception to Rule IV, and examples. To what does the principle of this rule especially apply? Repeat the exception. Repeat Rule V. Give examples. Repeat the note, and explain the examples.


RULE VI. The different members of a sentence expressing comparison, or contrast, or negation and affirmation, or where the parts are united by or used disjunctively, require different inflections; generally the rising inflection in the first member, and the falling inflection in the second member. This order is, however, sometimes inverted.

1§. Comparison and contrast. This is also called antithesis.


By all things approving ourselves the ministers of God; by honor', and dishonor; by evil' report, and good report; as deceivers', and yet true; as unknown', and yet well known; as dying, and behold we live; as chastened', and not killed; as sorrowful', yet always rejoicing; as poor', yet making many rich`; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.

Europe was one great battlefield, where the weak struggled for freedom', and the strong for dominion. The king was without power', and the nobles, without principle. They were tyrants at home', and robbers abroad`.

Negation and affirmation.


He desired not to injure his friend, but to protect him.

We desire not your money', but yourselves`.

I did not say a better soldier, but an elder`.

If the affirmative clause comes first, the order of the inflections is inverted; as,

He desired to protect his friend, not to injure him.
We desire yourselves`, not your money'.

I said an elder soldier, not a better'.

The affirmative clause is sometimes understood; as,

We desire not your money'.

I did not say a better soldier.

The region beyond the grave, is not a solitary land.

In most negative sentences standing alone, the corresponding affirmative is understood; hence the following

NOTE.-Negative sentences, whether alone or connected with an affirmative clause, generally end with the rising inflection.

If such sentences are repeated emphatically, they take the falling inflection, according to Rule II; as,

We do not desire your money.

I did not say a better soldier.

3§. Or used disjunctively.


Did he behave properly', or improperly`?

Are they living, or dead?

Is he rich', or poor`.

Does God, having made his creatures, take no further care of them, does he preserve, and guide them?

NOTE-Where or is used conjunctively, this rule does, not apply; as,

Will the law of kindness' or of justice' justify such conduct'?

QUESTIONS.-What is the Rule VI? What is the first head under this rule? Give an example. What is the second head? Give examples. If the affirmative clause comes first, in what order are the inflections used? Give examples. Is either clause ever omitted? Repeat the note. If sentences requiring the rising inflection are repeated emphatically, what inflections are used? What is the third head under this rule? Give examples. Repeat the note.


THE circumflex is a union of the rising and falling inflections upon the same sound. Properly speaking, there are two of these, the one called the rising circumflex, in which the voice slides down and then up; and the other, the falling circumflex, in which the

voice slides upward and then downward on the same vowel. They may both be denoted by the same mark; thus (^). The circumflex is used chiefly to indicate the emphasis of irony, or of contrast, or of hypothesis.

Queen. Hamlet, you have your father much offended.

Hamlet. Madam, yôu have my father much offended.

This is the emphasis of contrast. The queen had poisoned her husband, of which she incorrectly supposed her son ignorant, and she blames him for treating his father-in-law with disrespect. In his reply, Hamlet contrasts her deep crime with his own slight offense, and the circumflex upon you, becomes proper.

They offer us their protection. Yes, sûch protection, as vûltures give to lâmbs, côvering and devôuring them.

Here the emphasis is ironical. The Spaniards pretended, that they would protect the Peruvians, if they would submit to them, whereas, it was evident, that they merely desired to plunder and destroy them. Thus their protection is ironically called sûch protection as vultures give to lambs, &c.

I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel; but when the parties met themselves, one of them thought but of an if; as, if you said sô, then I said sô; O ho! did you say sô? So they shook hands and were sworn brothers.

In this example, the word "so" is used hypothetically, that is, it implies a condition or supposition. It will be observed that the rising circumflex is used in the first "so," and the falling, in the second, because the first "so" must end with the rising inflection, and the second, with the falling inflection, according to previous rules.

QUESTIONS.-What inflections are united to form the circumflex? Explain the two kinds of circumflex. What does the circumflex indicate? Give an example in which it is used to indicate the emphasis of contrast, and explain it. Explain the one in which the emphasis of irony is illustrated. Give the last example and explain it.


WHEN no word in a sentence is inflected, it is said to be read in a monotone; that is, in nearly the same tone throughout. This uniformity of tone is occasionally adopted, and is fitted to express solemnity or sublimity of idea, and sometimes intensity of feeling. It is used, also, when the whole sentence or phrase

is emphatic. In books of elocution, when it is marked at all, it is generally marked thus (-), as in the fourth line following.

Hence! loathed Melancholy!

Where brooding darkness spreads her jealous wings,

And the night raven sings;

There, under ebon shades and low-browed rocks,

As ragged as thy locks,

In dark Cimmerian darkness ever dwell.

QUESTIONS.-When is a sentence said to be read in a monotone? When is the monotone appropriate? Which line in the example is to be read in this way? Why?



In every word, which contains more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced with a somewhat greater stress of voice, than the others; as, love'-ly, where this stress is on the first syllable; and, re-turn', where it is on the last syllable. This syllable is said to be accented. The accented syllable is distinguished by this mark ('), the same which is used in inflections.

In most cases, custom is the only guide for placing the accent on one syllable rather than another. Sometimes, however, the same word is differently accented, in order to mark its different meanings; as,

Con'-jure, to practice enchantments, and con-jure', to entreat.

Gal'-lant, brave.

August, a month.

gal-lant', a gay fellow.

au-gust', grand, &c.

A number of words, also, have their accent on one syllable when verbs or adjectives, and on another, when nouns; as,

Sub'-ject, the noun; and to sub-ject', the verb.

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QUESTIONS.-When is a syllable said to be acceted? Give an example. How is the accented syllable marked? What is generally the guide for placing the accent? When is the same word differently accented? Give an example under each head.



THAT stress of voice which marks the accent, when increased, forms EMPHASIS. A word is said to be emphasized, when it is uttered with a greater stress of voice, than the other words with which it is connected. This increased stress is, generally, not upon the whole word, but only upon the accented syllable. The object of emphasis is, to attract particular attention to the word upon which it is placed, indicating, that the idea to be conveyed, depends very much upon that word. This object, as just stated, is generally accomplished by increasing the force of utterance, but sometimes, also, other methods are used, as, for instance, a change in the inflection, the use of the monotone, or by uttering the words in a very low or whispering tone. Emphatic words are often denoted by italics, and a still stronger emphasis, by capitals. Emphasis constitutes the most important feature in reading and speaking, and, properly applied, gives life and character to language. Accent, inflection, and, indeed, every thing yields to emphasis. The inflections, especially, are auxiliary to it. In the article on that subject, it has already been observed, how often they yield to emphasis, or are used to enforce it. In the following examples, it will be seen that accent, in like manner, is governed by it.

What is done, can not be undone.

There is a difference between giving and forgiving.
He that descended is the same that ascended.

Some appear to make very l 7 little difference detween decency and indecency, morality and immorality, religion and irreligion.

There is no better illustration of the nature and importance of emphasis, than the following example, which is substantially the same with one given by Blair, and which has been often quoted. It will be observed that the meaning and proper answer of the question varies with each change of the emphasis.


Did you walk into the city yesterday? you walk into the city yesterday? you walk into the city yesterday? you walk into the city yesterday?



Ans. No, my brother went.
Ans. No, I rode.

Ans. No, I went into the country.
Ans. No, I went the day before.


SOMETIMES a word is emphasized simply to indicate the importance of the idea. This is called ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS.

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