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REMAEK. - Let each pupil in the class observe and mention every syllable that is not sounded as each one reads.
PRONOUNCE correctly.—An-gel (pro. ane-gel), not ann-gel : heard (pro. herd), not heerd: de-mands, not dum-ands: com-pli-cate, not com-pli-kit : ex'-quis-ite, not ex'-quis'-ite: ab-so-lute, not ab-ser-lute: hus-bands, not hus-bunds.
1. Note, n. notice.
[bell. Sul'-lied, p. stained, soiled. 5. Knell, n. the sound of the funeral Ab-sorpt', p. wasted, swallowed up. 9. Verge, n. the brink, the edge. 39. Fan-tas'-tic, a. fanciful, existing14. Ab'-ject, a. worthless, mean.
only in imagination. Au-gust', a. grand, majestic. 44. An'-tic, a, odd, fanciful. [cate. 15. Com'-pli-cate, a. complex, composed 46. Sub'-tler, a. (pro. sut-tler) more deliof many parts.
Es'-sence, n. existence, substance. 19. Ex'-quis-ite, a. nice, complete. 51. Weal, n. prosperity.
[omy. 22. E-the'-re-al, a. heavenly.
Hus'-band, v. to manage with econ
1. The bell strikes One. We take no note of time
But from its loss : to give it then a tongue
I feel the solemn sound. If heard aright,
Where are they? With the years beyond the flood.
+ alarmed, and o’er life's narrow verge 10. Look down-on what? A fathomless + abyss,
A dread eternity, how surely mine!
How poor, how rich, how abject, how august, 15. How complicate, how wonderful is man!
How passing wonder, He who made him such !
20 Distinguished link in being's endless chain!
Midway from nothing to the Deity!
Dim * miniature of greatness absolute ! 25. An heir of glory! a frail child of dust!
Helpless immortal ! insect infinite !
Thought wanders up and down, surprised, #aghast, 30. And wondering at her own.
How reason reels!
What can preserve my life! or what destroy !
+ Legions of angels can't confine me there.
”T is past conjecture; all things rise in proof. While o'er my limbs Sleep's soft dominion spread,
What though my soul fantastic measures trod 40. O'er fairy fields, or mourned along the gloom Of pathless woods, or down the +
craggy steep Hurled headlong, swam with pain the mantled pool Or scaled the cliff
, or danced on hollow winds With + antic shapes, wild natives of the brain ! 45. Her ceaseless flight, though + devious, speaks her nature
Of subtler essence than the trodden clod;
Even silent night + proclaims my soul immortal; 50. Even silent night proclaims eternal day.
For human weal Heaven husbands all events :
QUESTIONS.- What leads us to take “note of time?” What reflections follow, if this warning is “heard aright!” Repeat some of the numerous epithets applied to man. What does one class of these epithets represent man to be? In what light does the other class consider him? In what respect is he a “worm ?” How can he be called a
god ?” What is the state of the mind during sleep? What does this prove ? Point out the instances of antithetic inflections and emphasis in this lesson. Why does “He,” in the 16th line, commence with a capital letter ?
REMARK.- Be careful to give a full sound to the vowels. Regard to this rule, will correct the common, flat, clipping way in which many read.
UTTER each sound correctly and distinctly.-Ir-reg-u-lar, not ireg-gy-lur, nor ir-reg'lar: un-err-ing, not un-er'n: in-tel-lect-u-al, not in-tel-lect-es-al: cal-cu-la-ting, not cal-ky-la-tin: beau-ti-ful, not beauti-f'l: struct-ure, not struct-er : reg-u-late, not reg-gy-late : chem-ic-al, not chem-ic'l: vis-age, not vis-ij; por-tal, not por-t'l.
1. Phys'-ic-al, a, relating to nature. 6. Par'-al-lax, n. the difference between
Math-e-mat'-ics, n. the science of the true and apparent place of a quantity.
heavenly body. 2. Pas'-sion-less, a. without feeling. A-nom'-a-lies, n. irregularities.
Ab-strac'-tions, n. truths separated Pre-ces'-sion, 11. motion of the equifrom sensible objects.
nox to the westward. Syl-lo-gis'-tic, a. relating to a syllo- A-nal'-y-sis, no separation of any gism.
thing into its parts. 3. Ra'-tio, n. the relation of two quanti- Or’-rer-y, n. an instrument to show
ties of the same kind to each other. the motions of the planets.
Pro-por'-tion, n. equality of ratios. 7. Op'-tics, n, the science of light. 4. Ac-cel'-er-a-ted, p. increased.
Aus-ter'-i-ty, n. severity, roughness. 5. Di'-a-gram, n. a figure drawn for the Cru'-ci-ble, n. a chemical melting pot.
purpose of demonstration or illustra- E-quiv'-a-lents, n. equals in value. tion.
8. Min-er-al'-o-gy, n. the science of Phe-nom'-e-na, n. pl. of phenomenon, minerals.
Crys’-tal, n. regular solid of any Re-frac'-tion, n. the turning from a Hex'-a-gons, n. six-sided figures. direct course.
Do-dec'-a-gons,n.twelve-sided figures. In'-ci-dence, n. falling on any thing.! 9. Cy'-cloid, n. a certain kind of curve.
VALUE OF MATHEMATICS.
1. MAN may construct his works by irregular and uncertain rules; but God has made an unerring law for his whole creation, and made it, too, in respect to the physical system, upon principles, which, as far as we now know, can never be understood, without the aid of mathematics.
2. Let us suppose a youth who despises, as many do, these coll and passionless abstractions of the mathematics. Yet, he is +intellectual; he loves knowledge; he would + explore nature, and
know the reason of things; but he would do it, without aid from this rigid, syllogistic, measuring, calculating science. He seeks indeed, no “ royal road to * geometry,” but, he seeks one not less difficult to find, in which geometry is not needed.
3. He begins with the + mechanical powers. He takes the lever and readily understands that it will move a weight. But the principle upon which different weights at different distances are moved, he is forbidden to know; for they depend upon ratios and proportions. He passes to the inclined plane; but quits it in disgust, when he finds its action depends upon the relations of angles and + triangles. The screw is still worse, and when he comes to the wheel and axle, he gives them up forever; they are all mathematical !
4. He would investigate the laws of falling bodies, and moving fluids, and would know why their motion is accelerated at different periods, and upon what their momentum depends. But, roots and squares, lines, angles, and curves, float before him in the + mazy dance of a disturbed intellect. The very first proposition is a mystery: and he soon discovers, that mechanical philosophy is little better than mathematics itself.
5. But he still has his senses ; he will, at least, not be indebted to diagrams and + equations for their enjoyment. He gazes with admiration upon the phenomena of light; the many-colored rainbow upon the bosom of the clouds; the clouds themselves reflected with all their changing shades from the surface of the quiet waters. Whence comes this beautiful imagery? He investigates and finds that every hue in the rainbow is made by a different angle of refraction, and that each ray reflected from the mirror, has its angle of incidence equal to its angle of reflection; and, as he pursues the subject further, in the construction of lenses and + telescopes, the whole family of triangles, ratios, proportions, and conclusions arise to alarm his excited vision.
6. He turns to the heavens, and is charmed with its shining host, moving in solemn procession, “through the halls of the sky,” each star, as it rises and sets, marking time on the records of nature. He would know tie structure of this beautiful system, and search out, if possible, the laws which regulate those distant lights. But #astronomy forever banishes him from her
presence ; she will have none near her to whom mathematics is not a familiar friend. What can he know of her parallaxes, anomalies, and precessions, who has never studied the conic sections, or the higher order of analysis ? She sends him to some wooden orrery, from which he may gather as much knowledge of the heavenly bodies, as a child does of arınies from the gilded troopers of the toy shop.
7. But if he can have no companionship with optics, nor astronomy, nor mechanical philosophy, there are sciences, he thinks, which have better taste and less austerity of manners.
He flies to chemistry, and her garments float loosely around him. For a while, he goes gloriously on, “illuminated by the red lights and blue lights of crucibles and retorts. But, soon he comes to compound bodies, to the + composition of the elements around him, and finds them all in fixed relations. He finds that gases and fluids will +combine with each other, and with solids only in a certain ratio, and that all possible compounds are formed by nature in immutable proportion. Then starts up the whole doctrine of chemical equivalents, and mathematics again stares him in the face.
8. Affrighted, he flies to mineralogy; stones he may pick up, jewels he may draw from the bosom of the earth, and be no longer alarmed at the stern + visage of this terrible science. But, even here, he is not safe. The first stone that he finds, quartz, contains a crystal, and that crystal assumes the dreaded form of geometry. Crystallization allures him on; but, as he goes, cubes and hexagons, pyramids and dodecagons arise before him in beautiful array. He would understand more about them, but must wait at the + portal of the temple, till + introduced within by that honored of time and science, our friendly Euclid.
9. And now, where shall this student of nature, without the aid of mathematics, go for his knowledge, or his enjoyments? Is it to natural history ? The very birds + cleave the air in the form of the cycloid, and mathematics prove it the best. Their feathers are formed upon calculated mechanical principles; the muscles of their frame are moved by them. The little bee has constructed his + cell in the very geometrical figure, and with the precise angles, which mathematicians, after ages of investigation, have demonstrated to be that which contains the greatest economy of space and strength. Yes! he, who would shun mathematics, must fly the bounds of “flaming space,” and in the realms of chaos, that
where Milton's Satan wandered from the wrath of heaven, he may possibly find some spot visited by no figure of geometry, and no
harmony of proportion. But nature, this beautiful creation of God, has no resting place for him. All its construction is mathematical; all its uses, reasonable; all its ends, harmonious. It has no elements mixed without regulated law; no broken chord to make a false note in the music of the + spheres.
E. D. MANSFIELD.