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QUESTIONS.- What is it the object of this lesson to illustrate ? If a student, unacquainted with mathematics, attempts to investigate the subject of mechanics, what will be the result? What, if he trusts to his senses ? If he attempts to learn chemistry, what obstacles does he find here? How is it with mineralogy ? With natural history?
Point out the inflections in the 8th and 9th paragraphs.
REMARK.-Observe the commas, and stop at each long enough to take breath.
PRONOUNCE correctly.-Prog-ress, not pro-gress, (the noun is pronounced prog'-ress and the verb, pro-gress'): post-u-lates, not pos-tylates: en-gin-eer-ing, not in-gi-neer-ing: ves-ti-bule, not ves-tib-u-le : vol-ume ( pro. vol-yum ), not vol-lum : fract-ur'd (pro. fract-yur'd), not frac-ter'd.
1. Hu'-man-i-zes, v. renders kind and | 3. Civ'-il En-gin-eer'-ing, n. the science humane.
of the construction of extensive De-vel'-op-ment, n. an unfolding. works, such as canals, aqueducts, &c. 2. Im-prog'-na-ble, a, that can not be Hy-draul'-ics, n. the science which
defeated. (taken as self evident. treats of fluids in motion. Pos’-tu-late, n, a position which is Ves'-ti-bule, n. the porch or entrance. Syl'-lo-gism, n, an argument of three 4. El-lip'-sis, n. a kind of oval figure. propositions, the first two of which are Ec-cen'-tric, a. irregular. premises, the third, the inference. 5. Do-main', n. dominion, empire.
VALUE OF MATHEMATICS.-(CONTINUED.)
1. LET us take another student, with whom + mathematics is neither despised nor neglected. He sees in it the means of past success, to others; he reads in its history the progress of universal improvement; and he believes, that what has contributed so much to the civilization of the world; what is even now contributing so much to all that humanizes society; and what the experience of all mankind has sanctioned, may, perchance, be useful to his own intellectual development.
2. He opens a volume of geometry, and steadily pursues its abstractions from the definition of a right line, through the elegant properties of the right-angled triangle, the relations of similar figures and the laws of curved surfaces. He finds a chain of unbroken and impregnable reasoning, and is at once possessed of all the knowledge of postulates, syllogisms, and conclusions, which the most accomplished school of *rhetoric could have taught him.
3. He looks upon society, and wherever he turns, arts, sciences, and their results, from carpentry to civil engineering, from #architecture to hydraulics, from the ingenious lock upon a canal, to the useful mill upon its sides, disclose their operations, no longer mysterious to his enlightened understanding. Many an interesting repository of knowledge this key has opened to his vision, and as he thus walks through the vestibule of science, he longs to penetrate those deep aisles, and ascend that * magnificent stairway, which lead up to the structure of the universe.
4. With the properties of the ellipsis, the laws of motion demonstrated by mathematics, and two facts drawn from observation, the one that bodies fall toward the earth, and the other, the regular motion of the planets, he + demonstrates, beyond the power of refutation, the laws of the celestial system. He traces star after star, however eccentric their course, through the unseen immensity of space, and calculates with unfailing certainty, the hour of its return, after ages have passed away.
5. He does more, he weighs matter in the balances of creation, and finds that, to complete the harmony of the system, a planet is wanting in some distant corner of its wide domain; - no mortal eye has ever seen it, no + tradition tells of its existence. Yet with the confidence and zeal of prophecy, he announces that it must exist, for demonstration has proved it. The + prediction is recorded in the volume of science.
6. Long after, astronomy, by the aid of mathematics, discovers the long-lost tenant of the skies; and fractured though it be, while its members perform their + revolution, no living soul can be permitted to doubt the worth of mathematics, or the powers of his own immortal mind.
7. And what were the glorious contemplations of that pupil mathematical philosophy, as he passed behind the clouds of earth to investigate the machinery of + celestial spheres! Alone, yet not solitary, amid the glowing lights of heaven, he sends his spirit forth through the works of God. He has risen by the force of cultivated intellect to hights which mortal fancy had never reached.
8. He has taken line, and figure, and measure, and from proposition to proposition, and from conclusion to conclusion, riveting link after link, he has bound the universe to the throne of its Creator, by that
-golden, everlasting chain, Whose strong embrace holds heaven, and earth, and main.” 9. And is there no moral instruction in this? Does he learn no lesson of wisdom ?. Do no strong * emotions of love and gratitude arise toward that being who thus delights him with the charms of intellectual enjoyment, and blesses him with the multiplied means of happiness? Harder than the + adamant of his own reasoning, colder than the abstractions in which he is falscly supposed to move, must be he, who, thus conducted by the handmaid of the arts and sciences, through whatever humanizes man; through whatcver is +sublime in his progress to a higher state; through all the vast + machinery, which the Almighty has made tributary to his comfort, and his happiness, yet feels no livelier sentiment of duty toward him; no kinder or more peaceful spirit toward his fellow
E. D. MANSFIELD.
QUESTIONS.-In what light does the student, referred to in this lesson, regard mathematics? What does he find in geometry ? In what particulars, does he observe the influence of mathematical science upon society? Through what source, are the laws of the heavenly bodies discovered ? What is said of a planet predicted to exist, before any discovery authorized such opinion? What is said of the moral instruction to be derived from all this?
Let the pupil point out each subject of a verb in the 5th paragraph. Let him point out also, each object of a verb or of a preposition. Which are the prepositions ? Which are the adjectives? How many simple sentences ?
In the grammatical questions it is not intended to prescribe any particular form of examination, but rather to draw attention to the subject. Each teacher will determine for himself how many and what questions to ask. But, it is believed that he will derive great advantage from connecting this study with the reading lesson.
REMARK.-Read the last part of each sentence with a full and distinct utterance, giving to each word its proper emphasis.
ARTICULATE distinctly.- E-pis-to-la-ry, not e-pis-t'lary: per-son-al, not per-s'nal : mis-er-y, not mis’ry: drudg-er-y, not drudg’ry: fe-lic-itous-ly, not f'lic'tous-ly: Her-cu-les, not Her-c'les: un-fort-u-nates, not uit-fort nates: dis-con-so-late, not dis-con-s'late: sim-i-lar, not sim'lar: du-ti-ful, not dute-ful: cal-cu-la-tion, not cal-c'la-tion: suf-fer-ings, not suf-f'rin's: ex-pe-ri-ence, not ex-pe-r'ence: par-tic-u-lar, not par-tic'lar: un-du-late, not un-d’late.
1. Pre'-lude, n. something introductory.
Carp'-ing, a. finding fault. [tions. 2. Prot-est-a'-tions, n. solemn declara
Gra-da'-tions, n. orders, degrees. 3. Pro'-sing, a. tedious, like prose.
Let'-ter-mon-ger, n. a dealer in letters. 6. Pique, a. (pro. peek) to pride or value
At'-tar, n. (the same as ot-ter) the
culiar kind of enigma or riddle. 7. Fe-lic'-i-tous-ly, adv. happily.
Ex-or'-di-um, n. the beginning. 9. In-dite', v. to write, to compose.
Pen'-ance, n. suffering imposed as
Un'-du-late, v. to present a wary
ON LETTER WRITING.
1. + EPISTOLARY as well as personal intercourse is, according to the mode in which it is carried on, one of the pleasantest or most irksome things in the world. It is delightful to drop in on a friend without the solemn prelude of invitation and acceptance, to join a + social circle, where we may suffer our minds and hearts to relax and expand in the happy consciousness of perfect security from invidious remark and carping criticism; where we may give the reins to the + sportiveness of innocent fancy, or the enthusiasm of warm-hearted feeling; where we may talk sense or nonsense, (I pity people who can not talk nonsense), without fear of being looked into icicles by the coldness of unimaginative people, living pieces of clock work, who dare not themselves utter a word, or lift up a little finger, without first weighing the important point in the hair balance of propriety and good breeding.
2. It is equally delightful to let the pen talk freely, and unpremeditatedly, and to one by whom we are sure of being understood; but a formal letter, like a + ceremonious morning visit, is tedious
* alike to the writer and receiver; for the most part spun out with unmeaning phrases, +trite observations, complimentary flourishes, and protestations of respect and attachment, so far not deceitful, as they never deceive anybody. Oh, the misery of having to compose a set, proper, well-worded, correctly-pointed, polite, elegant epistle ! one that must have a beginning, a middle, and an end, as methodically arranged and portioned out as the several parts of a sermon under three heads, or the three gradations of shade in a school-girl's first landscape !
3. For my part, I would rather be set to beat hemp, or weed in a turnip field, than to write such a letter exactly every month, or every fortnight, at the precise point of time from the date of our correspondent's last letter, that he or she wrote after the reception of ours; as if one's thoughts bubbled up to the + well-head, at regular periods, a pint at a time, to be bottled off for immediate
Thought! what has thought to do in such a correspondence? It murders thought, quenches fancy, wastes time, spoils paper, wears out innocent goose quills. “I'd rather be a kitten, and cry mew
! than one of those same” prosing letter-mongers. 4. Surely in this age of invention something may be struck out to + obviate the necessity (if such necessity exists) of so tasking, degrading the human intellect. Why should not a sort of mute barrel-organ be * constructed on the plan of those that play sets of tunes and contra dances, to indite a catalogue of polite epistles calculated for all the ceremonious observances of good breeding? Oh the unspeakable relief (could such a machine be invented) of having only to grind an answer to one of one's “ dear, five hundred friends!”
5. Or suppose there were to be an epistolary steam engine. Ay, that's the thing. Steam does every thing now-a-days. Dear Mr. Brunel, set about it, I beseech you, and achieve the most glorious of your undertakings. The block machine at Portsmouth would be nothing to it. That spares manual labor; this would relieve mental +drudgery, and thousands yet unborn but hold! I am not so sure the female sex in general may quite enter into my
views of the subject. 6. Those who pique themselves on the elegant style of their billets, or those fair scriblerinas just temancipated from boardingschool restraints, or the dragonism of their governess, just beginning to taste the refined enjoyments of sentimental, confidential, soul-breathing correspondence with some Angelina, Seraphina, or Laura Matilda ; to indite beautiful little notes, with long-tailed