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CXERCISES IN INFLECTION AND EMPHASIS.
The war',' that for a space did fail','
And Stanley'!was the cry';.
And fired his glazing eye: -
And shouted', _“Victory'!3
Were the last words of Marmion.?
"SEC. IV, Rule IV. ?Rule I. 3Rule II, 23. “Rule VI, 12. Rule II, 38. Rule I, Remark. ?Rule II, 18.
SHYLOCK'S PEPLY TO ANTONIO.
Yoủ say so'?
I'll lend you thus much-moneys'.??” ' Sec. IV, Rule IV. ?Rule I. *Rule IV, Exception, and Rule II,
, 48. "Circumflex, because his present request is contrasted with his former abuse. Dông, cûr, and coîrtesies are also used ironically. Rule III. Rule V. ?Rule II, or I. The order is inverted. The regular order would be thus: “On Wednesday last', you spit on me.” “On such a day', you spurned me." Rule II, 2%. These phrases have the nature of exclamation. Rule VI, 3%.
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.
To read with an appropriate tone, to pronounce overy syllable properly and distinctly, and to observe the pauses, are the three most difficult points to be gained in making good readers. These points will require constant attention throughout the whole course of instruction upon this subject. Such other directions for reading, and such general rules as are considered of practical utility, will be found in the Introductory Article, and preceding the several lessons.
If teachers will classify with reference to particular defects, it will much abridge the labor of teaching. Let all who read in a low voice, be put in ono class; all who pronounce indistinctly, in another; and those who read too fast, in a third class, and let especial attention be paid to each of these faults. If pupils are required to criticise each other's reading, and go toward the head of the class as they correct faults, it sustains interest in the exercise, and makes them more careful in reading.
But while one thing should be prominently attended to at a time, many things may be joined collaterally, if proper pains be taken. Let a class be called to read. The teacher requires the pupil to pay particular attention to emphasis. But he may, at the same time, direct them to stand at different distances while they read the lessons; and thus secure a proper attention to force or loudness of utterance. Let the teacher sometimes place his class as far from his desk as the room will permit, and require the lesson to be read in a suppressed tone, but so distinctly as to be audible throughout the room; and in this way he will most effectually secure distinct articulation.
But this book is designed for other purposes than merely to teach the pupil to read. The selections have been made with constant reference to the improvement of the mind, as well as to the cultivation of the voice. Many of these lessons require thought, and an extensive range of reading, in order to be appreciated, and before they can be comprehended. Let the teacher then, as well as tho pupils, study the lessons. Let him require, that the substance of what has been read, be continuously narrated by the pupils, without recurrence to the book. Let him direct that this be written down with no other appliances at hand than pen, ink, and paper. Let each pupil be so situated, that he can derive no assistance from his fellow pupil; and then let the narratives, both oral and written, be the subject of severe but candid criticism by the teacher and the other pupils, as to the style, pronunciation, grammar, and penmanship.
Let the teacher sometimes read aloud a lesson to his class, having previously removed every means of taking notes while he reads; and then let him require each pupil, within a given, but suficient time, to render in writing, but from recollection, an abstract of what he has read. This exercise improves the attention, practices the pen, gives fluency of expression, and a readiness of employing the ideas gained in reading, as capital of our own; and will be found very interesting to the pupils, and improving in a greater variety of ways, than many other highly approved methods of recitation.
The EXERCISES in ARTICULATION are, in this edition, placed between the lessons instead of before them, as in former editions.
The COMMON ERRORS in articulation and pronunciation are prefixed to the lessons instead of following them.
The WORDS to be SPELLED and DEFINED, which in former editions were added at the close of each lesson, are here merely marked + in the body of the lesson. See "+practice” and “toccupation ” in the first paragraph of this Reading Lesson.
The lessons themselves, are in no respect changed, so that this book can be used, without the least difficulty, with former editions.
PRONOUNCE correctly the following words found in this lesson.Oc-cu-pa-tion, not oc-ky-pa-tion: list-en-ed, pro. lis'n'd: cel-lar, not suller: op-po-site, not op-per-site: half-penny, pro. hap-pen-ny or ha-pen-ny.
WORDS TO BE SPELLED AND DEFINED.
3. Re-du'-ced, p. brought to poverty.
Di'-a-lect, n. a form of speech.
7. Im-pos'-tor, n. a deceiver.
At-tor'-ney, n. a lawyer.
RESPECT FOR THE SABBATH REWARDED. 1. In the city of Bath, not many years since, lived a barber, who made a practice of following his ordinary toccupation on the
ord's day. As he was pursuing his morning's employment, he happened to look into some place of worship, just as the minister was giving out his text, “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.” He listened long enough to be +convinced that he was constantly breaking the laws of God and man, by shaving and dressing his customers on the Lord's day. He became uneasy, and went with a heavy heart to his Sabbath task.
2. At length he took courage, and opened his mind to his minister, who advised him to give up Sabbath dressing, and worship God. He replied, that +beggary would be the consequence. He had a flourishing trade, but it would almost all be lost. At length', after many a sleepless night spent in weeping and praying, he was determined to cast all his care upon God', as the more he reflected, the more his duty became apparent'.
3. He discontinued Sabbath dressing', went constantly and early to the public + services of religion', and soon enjoyed that *satisfaction of mind which is one of the rewards of doing our duty, and that peace of God which the world can neither give nor take away'. The consequences he foresaw, actually followed. His genteel customers left him, and he was nicknamed a Puritan', or Methodist'. He was obliged to give up his fashionable shop, and, in the course of years, became so reduced', as to take a cellar under the old market house, and shave the common people'.
4. One Saturday evening, between light and dark, a stranger from one of the coaches, asking for a barber, was directed by the thostler, to the celler opposite. Coming in hastily, he requested to be shaved quickly, while they changed horses, as he did not like to violate the Sabbath. This was touching the barber on a tender chord. He burst into tears; asked the stranger to lend him a halfpenny to buy a candle, as it was not light enough to shave him with safety. He did' so, revolving in his mind the extreme poverty' to which the poor man must be reduced'.
5. When shaved, he said, “There must be something *extraordinary in your history, which I have not now time to hear. Here is half a crown for you. When I return, I will call and investigate your case. What is your name'?” 66 William Reed',” the astonished barber. “ William Reed'?” echoed the stranger : “ William Reed'? by your dialect you are from the West'.' Yes, sir, from Kingston, near Taunton.” “William Reed', from Kingston', near Taunton'? What was your father's' name?” “ Thomas'' “ Had he any
brother?” “Yes, sir; one after whom I was named; but he went to the Indies', and, as we never heard' from him, we supposed him to be dead'."
6. “Come along', follow me',” said the stranger, “I am going to sce a person who says his name is William Reed, of Kingston, near Taunton. Come' and +confront' him. If you prove to be indeed he who you say you are', I have glorious news for you. Your uncle is dead', and has left an immense fortune, which I will put you in possession of, when all +legal doubts are removed."
7. They went by the coach'; saw the +pretended William Reed', and proved him to be an impostor'. The stranger, who was a pious attorney', was soon legally satisfied of the barber's identity, and told him that he had #advertised him in vain. Providence had now
thrown him in his way', in a most extraordinary manner', and he had great pleasure in transferring a great many thousand pounds' to a worthy man', the rightful heir of the property'. Thus was man's extremity', God's opportunity'
. Had the poor barber possessed one half-penny', or even had credit for a candle', he might have remained unknown for years'; but he trusted God', who never said', “Seek ye my face” in vain'.
QUESTIONS. What excited the barber's attention on the subject of keeping the Sabbath? To what conclusion did he come? What was the effect upon his business? What circumstance led to his becoming acquainted with the fact that he was heir to a large property? Who evidently brought about all these things? Are men always rewarded for obeying God? Where are they rewarded?
In the 5th paragraph, at the words “William Reed,” why is the falling inflection used in the first instance (Rule III), and the rising inflection, the three other times the words are used? (Rule V, Note.) In the 6th paragraph, why is the falling inflection used at the words “along," "come,” “confront?” (Rule II, 19.) Why the falling inflection at the words "halfpenny,” and “candle,” in the last sentence? (Exception to Rule IV, also Rule II, 49.) Why would these words have the rising inflection, if they were not emphatic? (Rule IV.) Give rules for the other inflections marked. (I, II, III, and IV.)
TO TEACHERS. In addition to the words at the head of each lesson, which are given as exam. ples of the manner in which the exercise of spelling and defining should be conducted, others are also selected in the body of the lesson, indicated by *, to be spelled and defined, for the purpose of affording practice to the pupil, and accustoming him to judge, for himself, of their meaning by their connection. This is a very important exercise, and should by no means be neglected, as it imparts highly valuable knowledge of the use of words.
In DEFINING words, that meaning is given which is appropriate to them in the connection in which they are used. When they are used in a figurative or peculiar sense, the definition here given will not be found in a dictionary. When there is a wide departure from common use, this is sometimes indicated.
In ORTHOGRAPHY, Dr. Webster's authority is followed, as presented in the last revised edition of his work; this being the well-established usage of intelligent educators and literary men.