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Smyth, T. Excter, bookscller.

Watcrhouse, C. Bridgnorth, druggist. Spofforth, R. jun. Ilowden, Yorkshire, scrivener,

Wells, T. Union-street, Southwark, hat-manufacStephenson, C. V. Liverpool, linen-draper.

turer. Symonds, N. W. Crutched Friars, merchant. Whitaker, J. St Paul's Church-yard, music-seller. Thompson, J. Birmingham, victualler.

Whitbread, W. South-end, linen-draper. Thropp, J. Tooley-street, victualler.

White, W. B. Strand, linen-draper. Todd, E. Charlton, Lancashire, cotton spinner. Willcox, 0. Tottenham court-road, butcher. Tode, c. P. Regent-street, St James's, watch Williams, E. Fenchurch-street, wine-merchant. maker,

Wilson, R. Turnham green, draper. Vankempen, P. Wapping-wall, brewer.

Wilson, R. Tooley-street, victualler. Warnford, F. Wakefield, tea-dealer.

Wylde, J. Macclesfield, victualler.

ness.

ALPHABETICAL List of Scotch BANKRUPTCIES and DIVIDENDS, announced

June 1824 ; extracted from the Edinburgh Gazette.
SEQUESTRATIONS.

Thomson & Goodsir, muslin and lace-merchants Air, William, merchant in Coldstream.

in Edinburgh. Bell, James, fish-merchant in Perth.

Urquhart, George, brewer and distiller at Inver. Grant, Lewis, bookseller in Inverness. Gray, John, grain-merchant, corn-merchant, and Wilson, Thomas, vintner at Bealtock Bridge. miller, residing at Comedy, Barony Parish of

DIVIDENDS. Glasgow. Gutzmer, Anthony Henry, founder, Leith Walk. Anderson, William, late tanner in Glasgow; by Harper, Alex. shawl-manufacturer in Kilmarnock. Robert Blaikie, merchant there. Huie, James Leith, bookseller and publisher in Finlay, Thomas, late builder in Elie, Fife; by D. Edinburgh.

s. Threshie, W.S. Edinburgh. Lee & Myers, jewellers, auctioneers, and general Knox, John & Sons, cotton yarn merchants in agents in Glasgow.

Glasgow; by D. Cuthbertson, accountant Liddel, Robert, grocer, brewer, and baker, at there. Blantyre Toll.

Rae, John, candle-maker in Edinburgh; by W. M.Donald, John Hall, merchant in Falkirk.

Sanderson, merchant there. M'Lean, Wm. & Sons, late merchants in Edin Ramsay, Smith, Graham, & Co. merchants in burgh.

Glasgow; by Robert Blaikie, merchant there. Paul, William & James, distillers and merchants Watt, Thomas, & Co. merchants and warehouse in Stirling:

men in Glasgow; by James Aitken, merchant Taylor, Patrick, spirit-dealer in Auctermuchty.

there.

Obituary.

DEATH OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD MACDONALD. It is with feelings of deep regret that we an akin and Portree; not only to promote the trade nounce the decease of this amiable and distin of those villages, but generally as a protection to guished nobleman, who died at his house in Lon shipping in a tempestuous sea. As an induce don, on Saturday the 19th June, after a protracted ment to himself and his successors to live on illness, which came to a sudden termination. their own estates, he began a magnificent castle

His Lordship entered in carly life into the ar. at Arinidale, according to a design by Gillespie, my, and had the honour of serving for some years and carried it on so far towards a completion, in the Tenth, when that regiment was under the and embellished it with so much taste, that it is command of his present Majesty: He afterwards now one of the greatest ornaments of the north. raised a corps of fencibles, of which he continued His Lordship's constant endeavours also to imin comman i as long as that description of force prove the manufacture of kelp, and introduce was judged necessary for the defence of the the culture of hemp, to drain the marshes and kingdom. He likewise represented the borough cultivate wastes, to erect churches, mills, and of Saltash in Parliament' for several sessions, bridges, and, by every means, to provide food and during which he was one of the most zealous and employment for the lower erders, will cause his disinterested supporters of the principles of Mr memory to be long cherished in the hearts of a Pitt.

grateful population, But it is from Lord Macdonald's patriotic la While other landowners were banishing the bours for the improvement of his vast estates in people from their properties, in order to intro the Hebrides, that an estimate of his character is duce sheep, it was Lord Macdonald's boast, that to be formed. Convinced that the first step to of a population of 24,000, not a man had been wards improvement is to render a country ac compelled to emigrate from his; and, to add but cessible, his Lordship made, with the assistance one remarkable circumstance more to this short of Government, upwards of 100 miles of public sketch, such was his kindness to his tenantry, road, on his own property, in the islands of Skye that, notwithstanding their numbers, and the ge and North Uist; subscribed largely towards the neral distress for the last few years, not one bad formation of roads in districts Icading to those his goods sequestrated from the time his Lordship islands, and built two handsome piers at Kyle came to his estatcs.

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, DEATHS.

BIRTHS. 1824. Jan. 7. At Nagpore, the Lady of Andrew Ross, Esq. Assistant-Surgeon 2d battalion 18th regiment, a son.

May 24. In Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, Mrs George Forbes, a daughter.

28. At Stewartfield, Mrs Veitch, a son.

-- At North Berwick, the Lady of Major-General Dalrymple, a son.

May. 29. At Woolwich, the Lady of Lieutenant William Cochrane Anderson, royal horse artillery, a daughter

- At Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, the Lady of Captain Aytoun, R. A., a son. 30. At Penchrise, Mrs Pott, a son.

At Forge Lodge, Dumfries-sbire, the Lady of Pulteney Mein, Esq. a daughter.

June 2. Át Queen Street, Edinburgh, the Lady of E. W. H. Schenley, Esq. a daughter,

June 3. At Portobello, the Countess of Kintore, June 9. At Windsor Street, Leith-Walk, Mr John a daughter.

Connell, merchant, to Miss Elizabeth Johnson. - At Grandholm Cottage, the Lady of Lieut.. 11. At Warriston Crescent, Edinburgh, David Colonel Lindsay, 78th Highlanders, a daughter. Canning, Esq. surgeon, to Mary Stewart, eldest

7. At Craigie manse, Mrs Dr Stirling, a daugh. daughter of John Reid, Esq. ter.

12. At Edinburgh, A. F. Smith, Esq. surgeon, - At 31, Howe-Street, Edinburgh, the Lady of Kirkaldy, to Mary Ann, daughter of James Bum, John Hay, Esq. of the India Company's service, Esq. manufacturer, Edinburgh. a daughter.

11. At Glasgow, Robert Mitford Peacock, Esq. - At Croydon Farm, the Lady of John Ding. eldest son of Robert Peacock, Esq. of Solsgirth wall of Brucklay, Esq. a daughter.

House, late of Calthorpe Hall, Yorkshire, to Mary. 9. At Links Place, Leith, Mrs Donaldson, a son. third daughter of Mr John M'Callum, wine-mer10. The Lady of Warren Hastings Sands, Esq. chant, Glasgow. W. S. a son.

- At Glasgow, Mr Thomas Young, merchant, - Mrs Jolly, 20, Windsor-Street, Edinburgh, to Catharine, second daughter of Mr John M.Cal. e daughter

lum, wine merchant, Glasgow. 11. At Greenhead, Glasgow, the Lady of Capt. 15, At Paisley, Mr James Allan, jun. merchant, T. D. Stewart, of the Bengal cavalry, a son. Glasgow, to Janet, second daughter of Thomas

12. At Rosebank, the Lady of Kenneth Mac Leishman, of Oakshaw, Esq. leay of Newmore, Esq. a daughter.

- At Pilrig-Street, Edinburgh, Robert Blackic, 13. At Park House, Kent, the Lady of Sir Esq. to Eliza, daughter of the late Burridge Pur: Henry R. Calder, Bart., a son.

vis, Esq. of Glassmount. 16. At Edinburgh, Mrs Borthwick, 83, George At the Haining, Archibald Douglas, Esq. son Street, a son

of Archibald Douglas, Fsq. of Adderstone, to 17. At Edinburgh, Mrs William Snell, a daugh Margaret Violetta, daughter of the late Mark ter.

Pringle, Esq. of Clifton. 20. Mrs Richard Mackenzie, Abercromby Place, 16. At Craighead, Archibald Smith, Esq. mer. Edinburgh, a daughter.

chant, Glasgow, to Elizabeth, daughter of Tho. - At Park Place, Edinburgh, Mrs Grant, of mas M'Call, Esq. of Craighead. Congalton, a son and heir.

17. At the Collegiate Church, Manchester, 2. Mrs Cook, Northumberland Street, Edin Charles Grant, Esq. of Barwood House, near burgh, a son.

Bury, to Mary Ann, only daughter of Thomas 23. At Edinburgh, Mrs Stewart of Glenormis

Worthington, Esq. of Sharson Hall, Cheshire. ton, & son.

19. At St George's Church, Hanover Square, - In Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, the Hon. London, Captain Fox, son of Lord Holland, to Mrs Duncan, a son.

Miss Mary Fitzclarence. - In Queen-Street, Edinburgh, the Lady of 21. At Park Place, Edinburgh, the Right Hon. Captain Henry Ferguson, a daughter.

the Earl of Leven and Melville, to Elizabeth Ann Lately. At the Upper Lodge, Bushy Park, the Campbell, second daughter of the Hon. Lord Lady of Colonel Fitzclarence, a son.

Succoth.

At Edinburgh, Munro Ross, Esq. of Rosshill, MARRIAGES.

to Grace, youngest daughter of the late John

Cuming, Esq. 1823. Dec. 22. At Nusseerabad, at the house of 22. At Glasgow, Thomas Campbell, Esq. to Sir David Ochterlony, Bart. G.C.B. Wm. Seton Agnes, second daughter of Kirkman Finlay, Esq. Charters, Esq. M.D. of the Bengal medical estab of Castle Toward, lishment, to Louisa Scott, youngest daughter of - At Woodhill, Thomas Bannerman, Esq: to the late George Smith, Esq. of Canton.

Jane, second daughter of George Hogarth, junior, 1824. April 29. At Bridge Town, Barbadoes, Esq. of Woodhill. William Moffat, Esq. to Miss Emily Woolford, only daughter of J. Woolford, Esq. merchant

DEATHS. there.

May 21. At London, the Rev. William Robin 1824. Jan. 12. At Madras, James Waddell, Esq. son, son of Sir John Robinson, Bart. to the Hon. 19. At Batavia, Henry Band, son of the late Susanna Sophia Flower, eldest daughter of Lord Mr Henry Band, merchant in Leith. Viscount Ashbrook.

March '14. At Montreal, suddenly, of asphyxia, Philip Anglin, Esq. M.D. of the island of the Rev. T. Hill. This gentleman came to this Jamaica, to Catharine Margaret: eldest daughter country last fall from Edinburgh, and being a of the late Colonel John Robertson.

regularly educated and ordained minister of that 25. At Banff, George Craigie, Esq. M.D. of the body of Christians known by the name of PresBengal medical service, to Jane, only daughter of byterians, had been preaching in the church of John Wilson, Esq.

St Peter's Street in Montreal, ever since, as assistJune 1. At París, the Prince Polignac, to Ma ant to the Rev. Mr Easton. After morning serdame le Marquise de Choiseul, widow of the vice on Sunday, and performing his functions as Marquis de Choiseul, and niece to Lord Rancliffe. usual, he returned to his lodgings, and had just

- At Burntsfield Place, Edinburgh, William seated himself, when he fell on the floor lifeless. Bowden, Esq. of Hull, to Margaret Sawers, eldest 25. At Islington Pen, St Andrew's, Jamaica, at. daughter of Archibald Anderson, Esq.

an advanced age, the Hon. James Stewart Custos, - At Bo'ness, Islay Burns, Esq. surveyor of his and late one of the representatives in the Hon. Majesty's Customs, 'to Janet, third daughter of House of Assembly for that parish ; also a Judge the late Andrew Milne, Esq. merchant there. in the Supreme Court of Judicature, and Auditor

- At Drninpellier, Lieut. John Hay, R. N. to General and Surveyor of the parish revenues. Marion, eldest daughter of David Carrick Bu May 6. At Foveran House, Aberdeenshire, John chanan, Esq. of Drumpellier.

Robertson, Esq. of Foveran. - At the house of Andrew Wauchope, Esq.

15. At Norham, Lieutenant Cornelius Murray, Salisbury Road, Edinburgh, Dr James Kellie, of the 101st regiment, son of the late Daniel Murphysician in Dunbar, to Mary, second daughter ray, Esq. of Overdurdie and Christianbank, aged of the late Mr George Wauchope.

thirty-three. 2. At Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, David Ar 18. At Islington, in his 31st year, the Rev. thur Davies, Esq. surgeon, Llanally, to Spencer George Strahan, D.D. Prebendary of Rochester, Boyd, eldest daughter of Andrew Sievwright, Esq. Rector of Kingsdown, Kent, and Vicar of Islingmerchant, Edinburgh.

ton. Dr S. was the second of the three sons of 7. At Tunbridge Wells, William Thomas Thorn the late eminent printer, William Strahan, Esq. ton, Esq. to Hannah Isabella Cornelia, eldest M. P. and elder brother to Andrew Strahan, Esq. daughter of the late Colonel Halket Craigie of the present printer to the King, and many years Hallhil, in the county of Fife.

M.P. - AC St George's, Hanover Square, London, 19. At Bervie, Dr Robert Napier. the Hon. Captain W. L. Fitzgerald, De Roos, of 22. At Leith, Mr Alex. Paterson, ironmonger, the 1st regiment of life guards, lo Lady Georgiana (late of Stirling.) Lemox, daughter of the Duke of Richmond. - John Parry, Esq. Vice Warden of the Stan

8. At Glasgow, John Graham, Esq. of Nether naries for Devonshire, and formerly proprietor of Gledny, to Isabella, second daughter of James the London Courier. Stiven, Esq. Glasgow.

- Mrs Elizabeth Sinclair, relict of the late John,

Mackenzie, Esq. of Jamaica, and sister of the late widow of the late Charles Maitland, Esq. younger Sir Alexander Sinclair, of Dunbeath, Bart.

of Rankeilour. May 29. At Dysart, Mrs Grace Reddie, relict of June 11. At Edinburgh, Thomas Ferguson, Esq. Lieut. James Black, R. N.

of Baledmund, in the 234 year of his age. 23. At Alloa, Captain Robert Henderson.

- At Stirling, the Rev. Archibald Bruce, one - At Florence, William Crosbie, Esq. his Ma- of the ministers of that parish. jesty's Secretary of Legation at the Court of Tus- 13. At Dumfries, Mr James Gibson, merchant. cany.

- At Edinburgh, in the 50th year of his age, 23. At Ayr, Mrs Crawford, senior of Ardmil- Mr James Souter, slater to his Majesty. lan.

- At his house, Blythswood Place, Glasgow, 26. At Edinburgh, Miss Janet Hutton, eldest William Monteith, Esq.. daughter of the late John Hutton, Esq. merchant 14. At Waulkmills of Letham, Mr Patrick Stir. in Edinburgh.

ling, aged 82 years. - In East Reech, Taunton, John Taylor, - Ai Thurso, Mrs Pringle, wife of Mr Robert in the 109th year of his age. He was a butcher, Pringle, collector of Excise. and regularly attended the markets of Taunton, 16. At Weymouth, in his 30th year, George Wellington, and Wyviliscombe, upwards of sixty Mellis, Esq. of Perthshire, having arrived in Engyears. He has left two sons, the eldest of whom land from Calcutta, in the Kingston, only twelve is 87, and the youngest 64.

days before. - At Montcallier, near Turin, Capel Lofft, Esq. - At 2, Ariston Place, Major Colin Campbell,

27. In Lower-Brook Street, London, Mrs Rat. of Strachur. tray, widow of the late Colonel John Rattray, of 17. At his residence in Lower Grosvenor Street, Craighall, Perthshire.

London, the Right Hon. Lord Henry Thomas 28. At his seat, Hawkstone, Salop, Sir John Howard Molyneux Howard, Deputy Earl Mar. Hill, Bart. in the 84th year of his age.

shal of England, and brother to his Grace the - At Banft, Mrs Gordon, widow of the Rev. Duke of Norfolk. His Lordship was a Protest. Abercromby Gordon, minister of Banff:

ant. He represented the city of Gloucester in se- At London, John Locke, M.D, late of Glas- veral Parliaments, and sat in the present Parliagow.

ment for Steyning. 29. At the Lairg Cottage, near Tain, Lieutenant 19. At her residence, No. 13, Seymour Place, J. P. Gordon, half-pay 71st regiment.

Little Chelsea, Donna Maria Theresa del Riego y - At his house in Forth-Street, Edinburgh, Riego, widow of General Don Rafael del Riego David Kinnear, Esq. banker.

y Riego. - At Hastings, in Sussex, Robert Alexander 20. At Edinburgh, Lieut. John Fraser, formerly Paterson Wallace, Esq. only son of the deceased of the 71st, thereafter of the 87th regiment of Major Robert Wallace, of the 17th foot, and foot.--Lieut. Fraser entered the 71st regiment grandson of the late Alexander Wallace, Esq. at the youthful age of 16. He passed with apbanker in Edinburgh.

probation through the grades from private to of30. At Square Point of Crossmichael, William ficer in the short space of eight years. His sig, Rae, Esq. fate of Dunjarg, aged 85 years.

nal bravery at the taking of the Cape of Good At Coats House, Major-General Nicholas Hope induced the commanding officer to report Carregie, of the Hon. East-India Company's Ben- him for an officer's commission; for he was one gal establishment.

of a party of thirty, who, on that occasion, vo31. At Bath, the Lady of Sir George Abercromby lunteered to storm a battery, and the only one of Robinson, Bart.

the party who survived (but not unwounded) - At Bilbow, parish of Troqueer, Miss Elea- the capture of it. The regiment went from the por Lidderdale, daughter of the late Robertson Cape upon the expedition to Buenos Ayres, in Lidderdale, Esq. of Castlemilk.

which country Mr Fraser did good service, alAt Star Bank, Fife, Mr Thomas Erskine though in the condition of a prisoner. This was Pattullo, aged 19, third son of Robert Pattullo, reported by the then Colonel of the regiment, Esq,

Colonel, afterwards Lieutenant-General Sir Denis June 1. At his house in Queen-Street, Edin- Pack, to the Secretary of the Commander in burgh, Alexander Wylie, doctor of medicine. Chief, in the following very handsome terms:

2. At Edinburgh, Samuel Watson, Esq. solici. By his exemplary behaviour, when far in the intor at law.

terior of South America, he acquired such an as At Fintry, Stirlingshire, Janet Waters, aged cendancy over a number of men, as to be ac100. She had 13 children, 53 grand children, and knowledged by them as their commanding officer; 40 great-grand-children-total, 106. Eight of her and by his manner throughout, materially tended children died in infancy; of course only five of to uphold the allegiance they have shewn; and her children have any offspring

was such as to induce the Spaniards to offer him 3. At Fyvie, the Hon. Mrs Gordon, relict of the a large sum and a commission in their service." Jato General the Hon. William Gordon of Fyvie, Mr Fraser was with the same distinguished corps, in the 81st year of her age.

and was again wounded, when it forned part of - At Edinburgh, Daniel Ramsay, of Falla, aged the army under General Sir John Moore, and at

the glorious epoch of Vimeira and Waterloo. 4. At Edinburgh, Mrs Abercrombie, widow of When the peace came he was put upon half pay, the late Rev. George Abercrombie, one of the and had engaged successfully in business. But ministers of Aberdeen.

the meed of just praise is of perilous attainment. 5. At Lauder, Alexander Dawson, Esq. surgeon, His arduous military duties had planted the seeds Chief Magistrate of the burgh of Lauder.

of early dissolution in a frame both originally ro- At Bogton, Cathcart, Miss Pagan of Bogton, bust, and fortified by sober habits. His premaaged 66 years.

ture death, at the age of forty-two, is to be traced - In Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, Lon- to that cause; while it will long be deplored by don, Lieut.-General Simon Fairley, aged 78. all those who knew him in civil life, as having

6. At Kirkconnel manse, in the 18th year of her deprived society of a valuable man, and his wife age, Mrs Elizabeth M.Lean, wife of the Rev. and numerous infant family of a most affectionJames Richardson, minister of that parish.

ate and exemplary husband and father. - At Edinburgh. Mrs Jean Johnston, wife of Lately. At París, General John Murray, aged William Johnston, Esq. of Lathrisk, and only sur- 86. He had served his Majesty 60 years in dif. viving daughter of Mr's. Douglas.

ferent parts of the world, and was twelve years a 7. At his house in York Place, Edinburgh, prisoner in France under Napoleon's Governinent. John Blackwell, Esq. advocate.

His eldest son, Major-General Murray, was late 8. At Malvern, Lieut.-Colonel Hugh Houstoun. Governor of Demerara. 9. In South Audley Street, London, Thomas - At Vienna, the Austrian Finance Minister, Chevalier, Esq. surgeon extraordinary to the King, Count Von Stadion. and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the - In Rutland Street, Cheltenham, Sarah Pool, Royal College of Surgeons in London.

at the extraordinary age of 110 years. - At Kirkwall, in Orkney, the Rev. Robert - At Shalden Lodge, Hants, aged 45, Lieut. Yule, minister of the Gospel there.

Colonel Arthur Johnston, late Assistant-Com. 10, At Rankeilour House, Mrs Mary Maitland, mandant at the Royal Military College, Farnham.

64 years.

J. Ruthren & Son, Printers, Edinburgh,

TIE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

AND

LITERARY MISCELLANY.

AUGUST 1824.

EXTRACTS FROM THE PORTFOLIO OF A SCHOLAR. State of the Latin Language from the termination of the first Punic War till the death

of Sylla, (78, B. C.) The history of this noble form of speech naturally arranges itself into five periods or epochs: 1st, From the building of Rome till the Conquest of Magna Graecia, or rather, till the termination of the first Punic War: 2d, From the close of the first Punic War till the death of Sylla : 3d, From the demise of the Dictator till that of Augustus : 4th, From the death of Augustus till the age of the Antonines; and, 5th, From the age of the Antonines till the transference of the seat of the empire from Rome to Byzantium. It is of the second and most remarkable of these periods that we propose to exbibit a few characteristics. Every scholar knows that the conquest of Magna Graecia was followed by an almost instantaneous improvement in the structure, rythm, and harmony of the Latin language. The learned men of that colony were either carried to Rome as prisoners, or attracted thither by hopes of honour and advancement; while, on the other hand, a great number of Romans, allured by the delicious climate and high refinement of the south, speedily settled in the conquered province. In conformity with a maxim which regulated the policy of Rome, so long as her arms continued victorious, no pains were spared to effect a speedy and entire amalgamation of the victors and the vanquished. Circumstances, in the present case, were eminently favourable to the accomplishment of this wise object. Justly proud of their superiority in arms, the Romans were at the same time sensible of their vast deficiency in the arts which embellish life, and give splendour to martial achievement, and disdained not to become the pupils and scholars of those whom they had subdued. The Greek colonies in Italy had long maintained a generous rivalship with the mother country in genius and in art, in which, at the period of their conquest, they were little, if at all, inferior. In proof of which, it is sufficient to mention, that Plato visited Italy in order to make himself acquainted with the discoveries of Pythagoras, and converse with Archytas of Tarentum, and Timæus the Locrian; from whom the illustrious founder of the Academy derived no small portion of that sublime philosophy which he has bequeathed to us in his eloquent and immortal works*.

Audisse te, credo, Tubero, Platonem, Socrate mortuo, primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse ut Pythagoræ inventa per. disceret ; eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino, et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse ; cumque eo tempore in his locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Py. thagoreis, et studiis illis dedisse.” Cicero de Republicâ, l. 10. ed. Ang. Maio, Item confer De Fini v. 29. ; Quaest. Tusc. I. 17.; De Senec. XII. ; Lucan. X. 181. ; Val Max. VIII. 7. ext. 3.

Q

VOL. XV.

By the fall of Tarentum, and the conquest of Sicily, which followed at a short interval, the Romans were, therefore, brought in direct contact with the philosophy and literature of Greece at the period when both had attained their maximum of expansion and improvement, and when five centuries of social existence had prepared their minds to become recipients of whatever was fitted to enlighten and refine. The most remarkable moral revolution recorded in the annals of mankind almost immediately ensued; and in nothing was that revolution more strikingly evinced than in the change that took place in the language. The first poets of Rome were natives of Magna Graecia ; and though, after the conquest of their native country, they had to learn the language of their conquerors, the improvement which they effecte ed must still be matter of surprise and astonishment. To satisfy his mind of the amount of this improvement, it is only necessary for the classical reader to compare the monuments of an elder date, preserved in the Monumenti degli Scipioni, or the Roma Antica, with the existing fragments of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius, writers in whose hands the language passed from a rude, uncouth, semibarbarous dialect, incessantly varying and fluctuating, into a regular form, and assumed much of that severe and majestic dignity by which it was ever after characterized. Still

, however, many archaisms, which it was reserved for the writers of the Augustan age to remove, continued in use, and the language was deformed by the frequent recurrence of sesquipedalia verba, compounded on the analogy of the Greek, but hostile to the genius of the Latin, which reluctantly admits triplicate, and seldom or never quadruplicate combinations. These and other peculiarities we propose now to exemplify; and as some arrangement is convenient, we shall do so under the following heads:

1. WORDS.--The writers anterior to the time of Cicero employed a number of substantives which the Augustan authors generally rejected ; such as anquinae, apludae, aqualis, aquula, axicia, bucoeda, bucco, bulga, bustirapus, capronae, capulum, carinarius, casteria, colluthea, conchita, conspicillum, cordolium, cuppes, dividia, estrir, fala, famigerator, flammearius, grallator, hamista, illex for exler, lectisterniator, legirupa and legirupio, lenullus, a diminutive from leno, limbolarius, linteo, Lucas bos for elephantus, mando for helluo, mantellum, (whence the English word mantle,) mantisa, meddir, an Oscan word, equivalent to magistratus, mellinia, mosculus, a diminutive of mos, mulleus, ocris, offerumentum, petimen, perlecebra, petro, portisculus, proseda, sedentarius, statutus for procerus, struir, stultiloquentia, subulo, Summinus for Dis, suppromus, suras, sutela, tama, temetum, terginum, trico, vesperugo ; cum multis aliis quae nunc perscribere longum est. In this enumeration we have omitted words applicable to certain parts of dress, to trades, and to objects of natural history, because, though not to be met with in compositions of the Augustan age, they are not properly to be considered as having fallen into desuetude from any amelioration of the language, but as having become uunecessary or meaningless by the change which time and fashion had introduced. The writers of this period also employed substantives a sense in which they are not found in the works of their successors; as flagitium for flagitatio, hæres for dominus, labor for morbus, nugae for naenia ; and introduced a great number of vocables, which are either Greek, or closely imitated from that language; as, architecton for architectus, batiola from Bátroy, gauluis from yažnos, halophanta from αλοφάντης, horoenum from ωραίον, lepada from λεπάς, miccotrogus from μικκος, and τρώγειν, pasceolus from φασκώλιον, pithecium from πιθήκιον, schoenum from σχοίνος, stalagmium from σταλαγμός, trapezita from τραπεζίτης. Compound words of prodigious length, and utterly abhorrent to the genius of the language, are likewise frequently to be met with, as argentienterebronides, dumnigeruli, dentifrangibula, feritribaces, flagritribae, gerulifigre lus, nucifrangibula, oculicrepidae, perenticidae, plagipatidae, subiculumfragri, and other combinations equally monstrous, in which Plautus particularly delights to indulge. In fact, the Umbrian baker appears to have taken a pleasure in sporting an occasional and notorious barbarism ; at least we

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