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fine our attention to the two principal topics embraced in it-the present state of Monte Video and the war in Upper Peru.
The Portuguese have, at all times, justly considered, that the Banda Oriental would be an immense acquisition to their Brazilian teritorry. As early as 1812, a Portuguese army marched into it; how ever, upon an armistice being concluded, they again withdrew. In the years 1817 and 1818, the Portuguese a second time poured large forces into the Banda Oriental, alleging that the anarchy which reigned there endangered their own frontier. Although it was repeatedly pretended that this military occupation was only temporary, and that, when order was restored, the troops would withdraw, the Brazilians have gone on encroaching, step by step, and the decided course of incorporating it with the Brazilian Empire has at last been taken. The generality of the people of the Banda Oriental are desirous of getting rid of the Portuguese: a similar feeling prevails at Buenos Ayres, and negotiations were resorted to, in the hope of accomplishing the desired end. These negotiations have failed, and it will be for the General Congress to decide whether the free provinces are to authorize the Government to make the attempt to wrest, by force, from the Brazilians, the
country over which they have usurped an arbitrary and unjust dominion.
With respect to the war in Upper Peru, it has long been a question warmly des bated, during M. Rivadavia's administration, whether Buenos Ayres ought or ought not to recommence active hostilities against the Royalists in that quarter. The Minister decided in the negative, on the strong plea of the utter inability of Buenos Ayres to enter on such an unders taking, till it had recruited its means, and improved the state of its own domestic affairs. Nothing, therefore, was attempted for nearly three years; but towards the close of last year, M. Rivadavia began to turn his attention to the state of the contest between the Patriots and Royalists in Peru, with the view of assisting the former. This assistance, it appears, is now about to be given. Money has been supplied, and it is in contemplation to send 4000 men to the Upper Provinces, to act against the common enemy. Should the news of the successful operations of Bolivar prove true, there will be no need of this assistance.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.-April 1.The House went into a Committee upon the Game Laws Amendment Act, when the clause, empowering landlords to enter upon demised lands, without the consent of their tenants; and the clause, empowering the holders of 50 acres of ground to license other persons to sport thereon, were severally rejected by the Committee; and the clause, imposing upon wilful trespassers a penalty of £.5, and that permitting the summary arrest of persons obstinately persisting in acts of trespass, were adopted, with some others of less importance.
2.-Mr Peel moved the second reading of the Alien Act. Mr Hume moved a violent amendment, which though short, contained a blunder, as is usual with the Hon. Member's writing. The amendment was summarily rejected by a majority of 120 to 67. Sir Robert Wilson said a few words in opposition to the motion. Mr Canning made a speech of consider. able length in its support. In the course of his observations on the policy of renewing the Act in the present instance,
The ministers Rivadavia and Garcia, notwithstanding the wishes of the Go vernment and public, declined remain. ing in office, but it was thought that Garcia, at least, would yield to the solici tations.
the Right Honourable Secretary expressed a hope that this was the last time it would be necessary to apply to Parliament to sanction the measure, and that on the expiry of the two years during which its provisions are to continue in force, Ministers would be able to propose some permanent and less objectionable system for the treatment of Aliens resident in this country. Mr Tierney spoke against the motion, and Mr Peel replied. On a division, the second reading was carried by a majority of 172 to 92. Mr Peel also pledged himself that ministers would never again apply to have the law renewed in its present shape.
5. The Alien Bill was committed, without any considerable discussion.
The House went into a Committee of
Supply, when the proposed grant for Windsor Castle gave rise to a very long debate. The Chancellor of the Exche quer proposed the grant, in a speech which had much of the petty detail, without any of the certainty or precision of a builder's estimate. Sir Joseph York did not directly oppose the grant, but inti
mated an opinion that it might be dispensed with. Mr Hume moved as an amendment, that the consideration of the grant should be postponed to the 15th of May. Most of the Members who usually address the House spoke, some on one side, some on the other. The prevailing objection to the grant was the want of an estimate, and the consequent danger that the sum demanded might not prove sufficient. The grant was car ried by a majority of 123 to 54. A conversation arose subsequently upon the proposed appropriation of £500,000 to the erection of Churches, but the subject was postponed to Friday.
6. Mr G. Lamb brought forward his motion for allowing persons prosecuted for felony to defend themselves by counsel, as in cases of misdemeanor. Dr Lushington, Sir James Mackintosh, Mr Denman, and Mr Martin of Galway, supported the motion; Mr North, and the Attorney and Solicitor-Generals opposed it; and it was finally lost on a division of 50 to 30.
the course of the evening, the Right Hon. Gentleman stated, that it was his intention, shortly, to propose the repeal of the duty on French kid gloves.
12. The Alien Bill was read a third time, and passed. Mr Denman, in support of an amendment that the Bill be read a third time that day six months, passed a high eulogium on the liberality and talents of Mr Secretary Canning, and in particu lar expressed his gratitude for the welltimed generosity of feeling which the Right Hon. Gentleman had manifested towards Sir Robert Wilson, after the treatment that Gentleman had experienced from the Continental Governments.
8. The House went into a Committee on the Usury Laws Repeal Bill. A de bate of great length followed, in which many Members spoke. Several amendments were proposed and debated in the Committee, but all rejected in favour of Mr Sergeant Onslow's plan. The Committee then reported to the House, and asked leave to sit again, when Mr Littleton proposed, as an amendment, that it should sit again on that day six months. The amendment was carried by a majority of 63 to 59, by which the Bill is defeated.
9. The Chancellor of the Exchequer brought forward his motion for the grant of £.500,000, for the erection of new churches. He justified his proposition by a reference to the good that had been produced by a former grant of £.1,000,000, from which, he said, had arisen 95 capacious churches, and accommodation for 153,000 persons. He then entered into a calculation, to show that much remained to be done, there being 179 places, containing a population of 3,548,000, in which there is no church accommodation for more than 500,000 persons, or about one out of seven. Mr Hobhouse opposed the motion, and moved an amendment, stating, that it appeared to be inexpedient to make any farther grant for the erection of new churches. The original motion was supported by Mr Secretary Peel and Dr Lushington, and carried by a majority of 148 to 59.-Some discussions arose upon the reduction of the Duty on Rum. Of 11s. 7d. per gallon the Chancellor of the Exchequer is to remit Is. 1d. In
On the motion, that the Report of the Committee, recommending £.500,000 for building new churches, be brought up, Mr Hume moved, as an amendment, that the Report should be received that day six months. Mr Wm. Smith, Sir Ronald Ferguson, and Mr Birch, also opposed the grant. Mr Warre declared that, upon this occasion, he must oppose those friends with whom he usually acted, because he felt that the grant was impe. ratively called for. Sir I. Coffin, Mr T. Wilson, and Mr Butterworth, also supported the grant. The last warmly defended the Home Missionary Society against the attack made upon it by Dr Lushington on a former evening. On a division, Mr Hume's Amendment was rejected by a majority of 144 to 30, and the report was brought up.
The House then went into a Comtnit. tee on the Game Laws. Several clauses were agreed to. The clause authorising the appointment of subordinate game. keepers was given up, upon a suggestion by Mr Peel.
13. Sir J. Mackintosh presented a petition from the London Missionary Society, relative to the case of Mr Smith of Demerara. The petitioners proceed on two grounds: they desire, that, as Mr Smith died in confinement at Demerara, without having had means to appeal from the sentence passed on him by the Court Martial, they may be permitted to vindicate his character, by proof of his entire moral and legal innocence. Their second ground is still more important. They demand inquiry into the transactions at Demerara, in order to insure protection and safety to other Christian Missionaries there and elsewhere.
The Bill for allowing the erection of a bridge over the Thames at Hammersmith was read a second time, after a lively debate.
Dr Phillimore then obtained leave to bring in a Bill to place Roman Catholics in England upon the same footing as
Quakers, and Jews, and Roman Catholics in Ireland, with respect to marriages.
The House afterwards went into a Committee on the Warehousing Act, when Mr Huskisson explained the out. lines of his plan for allowing bonded corn to be turned into flour for exportation. Any person who possesses foreign wheat in bond is to be at liberty, upon giving proper security, to take out any quantity of wheat and convert it into flour. The American barrel, containing 196 pounds of flour, is obtained from five bushels of good wheat. But as this corn is now deteriorated by long keeping, and as the holders have suffered great loss by having their capital so locked up, they are not to be compelled to produce more than one barrel of flour for every six bushels of wheat taken out. Leave to bring in a bill was ultimately given.
14-Mr Lushington obtained leave to bring in a Bill for the repeal of certain Acts of George III. relating to Hides and Skins. By one of these acts, a butcher is made liable to a fine, varying from 2s. 6d. to 5s., for every hole made in the hide in the course of flaying. As such perfora tions tend, in a very direct and obvious manner, to lessen the value of the hide to the flayer, it might have been supposed that the loss inevitably attending misma. nagement in this operation would be a sufficient protection against its frequent occurrence, and a sufficient punishment to the possessor when it did occur. In addition to this, however, it appears that the butcher is liable in the fine already mentioned to the inspectors of hides, be fore he is allowed to expose the unfortunate skin to sale; and there seems to be no chance of escaping the impost, for, ac
cording to Mr Curteis, even the scanty hide of a young pig is submitted to the solemn consideration and review of a board of skins, consisting of 28 senators, before it be admitted to the privilege of the mar. ket.
15.-Mr Rice presented a petition from certain Roman Catholics of the town of Drogheda, complaining, that though, by the act of 1793 (Irish), they were eligible to all corporate offices and franchises, they are still excluded by the prejudice of the Protestants, who monopolize the Corporation. Sir John Newport and Mr Hume supported the prayer of the petition, which was ordered to be printed.
Mr Butterworth presented a petition from several fishmongers of the metropolis, praying that the sale of mackarel on Sundays (which led to the sale of all other fish) might be prohibited. Mr Hume ridiculed the petition; if the petitioners, he said, had any conscientious scruples upon the subject of selling fish, they might abstain from selling it, without being compelled by law to do so. Sir M. Ridley followed on the same side. Sir Thomas Baring supported the prayer of the petition.
The petition was ordered to be printed. Mr Secretary Canning, in moving an adjournment of the House to the 3d of May, took occasion to congratulate the members upon the advanced state of the public business, which permitted the pro position of so long a recess.
British Revenue.Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain in the Years and Quarters ended 5th July 1823, and 5th July 1824, showing the Increase or Decrease on each head thereof :
£. £. £. 9,552,954 10,386,228 833,274 24,897,122 24,040,953
6,319,355 6,526,139 206,784 1,347,000 1,427,000 80,000 6,848,546 5,147,752 409,334 384,520
In answer to a question by Mr Bright, the Chancellor of the Exchequer stated, that the remission of thirteen-pence halfpenny by the gallon of the rum duty is to take effect from the passing of the
Years end. 5th July Increase. Decrease. Quars. end. 5th July Increase. Decrease.
49,374,311 50,112,592 3,6200582,581,777||12,389,560 11,989,480 429,977 830,057
Increase on the Year 1,038,281
that the charge of culpability on the part
New National Scotch Church. On the 1st instant the foundation stone of the New National Scotch Church, to be erected in Regent Square, north of the Foundling Hospital, London, was laid with the usual solemn ceremony. Amongst the distinguished persons present we noticed the Earl and Countess of Breadalbane and daughter, Earl Gower, Earl of Rosebery, and Lady Chetwynd, with a number of the Scotch Nobility and Gentry. There was a numerous procession on the occasion. The prayer was read by the Rev. Dr Manuel; after which the Rev. Mr Irving delivered a suitable address. The stone was then laid in the usual form by the Earl of Breadalbane. A psalm was afterwards sung, in which the children joined. The Rev. Dr Blyth, Moderator of the Presbytery of London, then offered a short thanksgiving, and the Rev. Edward Irving concluded with benediction. At the conclusion, three cheers were given, and the band struck "God save the King." up 3-Spurious Tea. On Wednesday came on before the Exchequer Court, Edinburgh, a case that excited considerable interest. A tea-dealer in Edinburgh was found to have in his possession about nine pounds and a half of imitation tea; and though there was no evidence of his ever selling any of it, he was subjected in the statutory penalty of ten pounds Sterling for each pound of the spurious tea found on his premises.
5.-High Court of Admiralty. This day the Court met in the room belonging to the Second Division of the Court of Session, and proceeded to try William Blackwood, the master, and Alexander - Macalpine, the pilot of the Hercules tug steam-boat, plying in the Clyde, for culpably and negligently running down the Robert Burns steam-boat, on the morning of the 18th February last, by which Alexander Thomson was crushed to death, or drowned, and the said steam-boat Robert Burns was sunk. The prisoners pleaded Not Guilty. It appeared from the evidence, that it is a rule for vessels coming down the Clyde to keep the midchannel, and for those coming up to keep the south side, and that the Burns, thinking the Hercules meant to pass her to the south, steered to the north, by which means the accident was occasioned. The body of Thomson was not found till two Inonths afterwards. All the other persons that were passengers in the Burns got on board the Hercules before their own vessel sunk. The Judge Admiral, in charging the Jury, said he was inclined to think the identity of the individual who lost his life satisfactorily proved, but
6.-Literary Property. A question respecting the right of publishing the Ed. inburgh Philosophical Journal was this day brought before the Court of Session. Most of our readers know that Professor Jameson and Dr Brewster had been, till recently, joint conductors of the work. A difference having arisen, the particulars of which are not before the public, Dr Brewster wished to continue, as sole editor, a new series of the Journal: but Messrs Constable and Co. having re solved, as proprietors of the work, to carry it on under the superintendence of Professor Jameson, they applied for an interdict against Dr Brewster's publishing any continuation of the Philosophical Journal. The Lord Ordinary, in respect that the copyright of the Philosophical Journal was in Messrs Constable and Co., passed the bill, and continued the interdict. Dr Brewster petitioned, stating at the bar that his wish had been, after the Edinburgh Encyclopedia was finished, to publish all he should compose in the way of science, during his life, in the Philosophical Journal; that it was a favourite project of his; that the contributions of Dr B.'s friends constituted the Philosophical Journal, and that a half of the copy-right at least was in him; and contending that neither party ought to be interdicted; that Messrs Constable and Co. might continue to publish the work, Professor Jameson being editor, while Dr Brewster might also continue the work, Dr Brewster being editor; and that in this way only could justice be done to both parties. The Court withdrew the ratio assigned by the Lord Ordinary, as settling the point as to copy. right; but they adhered to the interlocutor in so far as it passed the bill, and continued the interdict against Dr Brews
8. His Majesty has been graciously pleased to grant a free pardon to Mr John Forrest, Surgeon, who was outlaw. ed at the Circuit Court of Justiciary, holden at Stirling in spring 1823, for not appearing to answer to an indictment charging him with aiding in the abstraction of a dead body from a church-yard.
10.-Edinburgh. The access to the New Town from Stockbridge is under. going great improvement. Upon the bridge across the Water of Leith, which is so inconveniently narrow, a number of masons are at present employed; and it is intended to give it an additional width
of several feet. Nowhere is the spirit of improvement more conspicuous than in this quarter. The stream above the bridge has been confined within banks of solid masonry, and its margin carpeted with verdant turf. The new bridge near to St. Bernard's Well is considerably advanced; and in all directions buildings are proceeding with great rapidity.
12. Increase of Shipping at Liverpool. -The dock duties of this port, in 1724, amounted to only £.810; in 1824 they amounted to £.130,911. Starting, however, from a more recent date, the progressive increase may be more justly estimated. In 1800, the number of ships was 4724, the dock duties £.23,379. In 1814, only ten years ago, the number of ships was 5706, the tonnage was 548,957, and duties £.59,741. In 1824, the number of ships was 10,001, comprising 1,180,914 tons, and the dock duties £130,911, being more than double the former amount. So rapid an advance is unexampled in the history of the world.
14-Death of the King and Queen of the Sandwich Islands. Some time ago the King of the Sandwich Islands, Kamehameha, along with one of his wives, Kamehamalu, arrived in this country, with a view of obtaining an audience with King George IV., which ceremony, for various reasons, was from time to time delayed; and some weeks since their Majesties were attacked with the measles, from which they never thoroughly recovered. The Queen died in London, on the 8th instant, of inflammation, and his Majesty followed his royal consort this morning. They were attended in this country by the Governor Poki, of the Sandwich Islands, and his wife, and several other natives, who are all inconsolable for their loss. Yesterday morning his Majesty was considered somewhat better, and had passed a tranquil night, but in the afternoon he became worse, and at night it was found necessary to send for Dr Ley, from his house in Mount-Street. On the arrival of that gentleman, he found that his Majesty was in a very low state, and death appeared to be approaching fast. The King on seeing Dr Ley caught him by the hand, and said in his own language, "I am dying, I know I am dying." He continued very sensible, and knew all around him. Madame Poki, the Governor's lady, was particularly attentive to his Majesty; she supported his head from one o'clock till the time the vital spark had fled; Poki, the Governor, and the rest of the suite, were supporting their Royal master's legs at the foot of the bed. At two o'clock he became alarmingly worse, and he seemed
then not to know any person; the Admiral was brought into the room, and was affected to tears. The King took no no tice of him, nor any other person about him. From that time till four o'clock he kept continually saying, "I shall lose my tongue, I shall lose my tongue," and just before he breathed his last, his Majest faintly said, "Farewell to you all, I am dead, I am happy." After uttering these words, he expired in the arms of Madam Poki.-The bodies of the King and Queen are to be sent to New Zealand, according to their particular request.
15. Bloody Fray.-Stobb's Fair was held at Dundee on Tuesday the 13th instant; towards evening, the usual scenes of turbulence began; and by six, fights were to be seen on every part of the common. About nine o'clock, nine young men, masons, who had been working at Duntrune, came from that place towards the muir, to meet their employer, Mr Scott, mason, Hawkhill, who was there to pay them wages. This done, two of the party escorted their master off the ground, while the others went towards Stobsmuir toll, for the double purpose of getting some refreshment, and waiting the arrival of their companions. Having been refused admittance, they had only gone aside for a few paces, when a party of fellows, armed with different lethal weapons, (one, it is said, with a hatchet,) issued from the house, and began their murderous work. One young man, named John Allan, received repeated blows, which felled him to the ground; and he never afterwards opened his lips or uttered a sound. His brother rushed forward, knelt, and seized the lifeless corpse in his arms; and while in this agonizing position, he was first knocked down; twice he raised himself, and as often was he again laid prostrate and severely wounded by the relentless assassins. All the other companions of the unfortunate man were less or more -wounded-one of them very seriously. The assailing party, in number twelve or fourteen, aided by a younger crew, then attacked a ploughman, and with bludgeons so injured his head and body, that it is feared his life may also be laid to their account. A servant belonging to a bleachfield is in much the same state, for, when attacked, he in vain fled for safety to a field of corn; as he was found lying with his skull fractured, and his body fearfully bruised. The Sheriff-Substitute came to town on Wednesday, for the purpose of inquiring into this lamentable affair; and a judicial investigation is at present in progress. Warrants have been issued for the apprehension of the