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.condemned to commit to memory proverbial expression, " that a still twenty lines from the Curse of Ke- tongue makes a wise head;" this hama,' where there is neither rhyme suits my case very well ; but to shew por reason,-not one single poetical you that I am not vain, I must beg image,-not one scintillation of ge- leave to declare that I think the renius, nor one idea worth remember- verse proposition is more to be deing!” “But where,” said Mr Pear- pended upon, namely, “ that a wise son, smiling, “ where, Mr Batty, head makes a still tongue.” This is would you, in that elegant poem, my opinion ; but as different people meet with twenty lines such as you think and judge differently on the mention ?” “ Find them !" rejoined same subjects, I do not, you must our enraged host ; “why, in fifty, in observe, give it as my positive opi. a hundred, in a thousand places; nion, from which there is no apany where, all over, in every page peal ; no! and to shew you, at the twenty such lines may be discovered. same time, that I am possessed of a But pardon, excuse me, friend Pear- large portion of candour to those son ; I am vexed, you see, horridly who may differ from my decision, I vexed ; and what I was obliged to beg permission to refer it to the fuconceal at my Lord Mayor's table ture consideration of Dr Strap, or my has now burst from me like a volca- friend Batty, or, if you think it would nic eruption; but my mind is a little be better, to the majority of the good relieved from its tormenting state of people of this happy nation, who will perturbation ; its ebullitions will now probably treat it as a public question, cease,--the whirlwind of passion bas and adopt that mode of reasoning subsided, and I am now calm ; yes, commonly made use of by the ladies calm as the unruffled deep after a at their tea-parties, or by the gentleviolent storm, when scarcely a ze- men after dinner, over a glass of wine, phyr ripples its placid bosom. or a bumper of whisky punch; and
“Besides,” he resumed, “Dr Strap this will certainly be the best maningrossed nearly the whole of the ner possible ; for reasoning, every one conversation; nobody could be heard knows, is a very dry subject; where, but himself ; I hate such rudeness; then, can it be so well managed as in one could not squeeze a word an hour places where there is plenty of drink? in edgeways. He bored the company At a late hour, Mr Pearson obfor a full hour about Greek particles served that it was, he thought, nearand Latin terminations; I thought ly time for him to depart, for as it he would never have ended; then he would be high tide at two o'clock in gave us a dissertation on the origin the morning, he should have to rise of the Celtic, Erse, and Gaelic lan- from his bed at that hour to bathe. guages, which, he contended, all “ To bathe !” exclaimed Batty, " at came from the same root." “ But,” two o'clock in the morning! Why, said Mr Pearson, “ did the company Sir, you'll be then fast enough asleep, believe him, on his bare assertion ?” I warrant you.”
“ I intend, Sir, Certainly,” replied Batty, “ for no rejoined the other, “ to bathe at two one had the temerity to contradict o'clock; and let me tell you, Mr him. Why, Sir, he would have drag- Batty, I can rise at what hour I ged you back through the dark ages, please, because I have accustomed to the time of the confusion of myself to do so ; and custom, you tongues at the building of Babel; I know, is a kind of second nature, assure you I wished such learned which enables one to perform wongibberish, and the reciter of it, both ders.” " Wonders indeed !” said at Old Nick. He was so affected, too; our host; pray pardon me, but it and pomposity, affectation, and ego- must be, not a wonder, but a miracle, tism, I hold them, you know, in that would drag me from my bed at utter detestation !”
that early hour, to plunge myself How blind are men to their own into cold water. “ Because you are failings! You may perceive, Sir, that totally unacquainted, Mr Batty, with I, your faithful correspondent, am no the beneficial effects arising from talker; no, my business is to observe cold-water bathing; why, Sir, it and to listen, that I may know what is strengthens and braces the nervous said by others. There is, you know, a system,-prevents obstructions, by
keeping open the pores in the skin,- skin is perforated by a thousand holes and thus prevents disease, prolongs in the length of an inch. If we estilife, excites health, and renders our mate the whole surface of the body situation here comfortable and hap- of a middle-sized man to be sixteen py."
“ Wonderful indeed! why square feet, it must contain 2,304,000 bathing, according to your creed, pores. These pores are the mouths seems to be the grand panacea,” said of so many excretory vessels, which Batty : pray, Sir, I hope to give perform that important function in no offence, but are you not employed the animal economy, insensible per. by Bianchi to preach in favour of spiration. The lungs discharge every his baths? Why, you might make a minute six grains, and the surface of fortune, if you had not one already, the skin from three to twenty grains, by writing puffs in favour of quack- the average over the whole body bemedicines :--but now tell me, serie ing fifteen grains of lymph, consiste ously, do you positively intend to ing of water, with a very minute adrise at two o'clock, to bathe your mixture of salt, acetic acid, and a limbs, for the good of your health?” trace* of iron. If we suppose this “ Most certainly,” replied Pearson, perspirable matter to consist of glo“and I attribute your rudeness to bules only ten times smaller than the your ignorance, Mr Batty; for the red particles of blood, or about the - beneficial effects of frequently bath- five thousandth part of an inch in ing in salt water are known to every diameter, it would require a succesperson but yourself,-were known to sion of four hundred of them to isthe ancient Roinans, as well as the sue from each orifice every second.” Greeks; and the custom is recom Mr Pearson now thanked Mr Jamended as salubrious by every phy- cob for thus illustrating his argusician who puts any value upon his ments in favour of bathing. But," reputation. Let me request, Sir, that said he to that gentleman, " I think, you will in future pause, before you Sir, the fine discovery which you condemn what you have never prac- have lately made is not so well tised.” “Well, well,” replied Batty, known as it deserves to be :" then “ I am, if you wish it, as ignorant looking round, “ give me leave, my as a sheep ; I like to bathe in hot worthy friends, to inform you, that weather, but in the month of De this learned gentleman, who is indecember, you must excuse me,-nor fatigable in the cause of science, has do I yet believe, friend Pearson, that lately discovered a new substance, a you are in earnest."
" You are at
sort of pebble, which is different in liberty, my theatrical hero, to be- its composition from any known malieve or to doubt just what you terial. Some of our most profound please ; but I shall bathe if I live, chemists suppose it to belong to the that is certain." Here ended a dia. class of metals,-others are certain logue, interesting, to be sure, but it that it has an alkaline base. Till, contains an abundance of that figure however, its properties shall be better in rhetoric which is denominated known, they have agreed to call it, by me pompous nonsense.
from the name of the discoverer, (in Mr Jacob, a philosopher, and one the new noinenclature,) aŠACOBITE!” of the party, who, like myself, had All the company expressed a high remained silent to the present time, degree of satisfaction for the honour now took from his side-pocket an oc thus conferred upon one of the votatavo volume, and begged to be al- ries of science,-thanked Mr Pearson lowed to read the following article, for the information he had given which, he said, was from a valuable them-and soon after they adjournand profound work, just publisheded, each man to his home, and I to by his friend, a professor, and one my chamber, to note down, as I of the greatest men of the present usually do, the transactions of the age. “ From microscopic observa- preceding day..Ever yours, tions, it has been computed that the
Peter PedagoGUE, Jun. The chains by which horses are yoked to a plough, or cart, are called traces. Does the above author mean that one of these has ever been found in the lymph?
SKETCHES OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF TIE
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.
No. II. When the First General Assembly fered to intromitt with their rents.” broke up in December 1560, it was (Calderwood's Large MS., Vol. I., p. formally "continued to the fifteenth 102.) A meeting of Parliament was day of January next,” and all who approaching, and the Popish nobiliwere present promised that they ty, and their adherents, resorted in would either come to Edinburgh on great numbers to Edinburgh, and that day, or cause other Commis- cherished and avowed the most consioners to be sent in their place. fident anticipations of success. The There is no proof, however, of any Reformers, roused by the boldness of ecclesiastical 'meeting having been their opponents, convened and adoptheld at the time appointed. Spottis- ed the most strenuous resolutions in wood, indeed, says, that the Prior of defence of their religious liberty. St. Andrew's, who repaired to France No roll of the Members of this to the Queen, immediately upon the Assembly of the Church has been news of her husband's death, was preserved, but the place of meeting admonished “ by the Assemblie of is stated to have been in the Tol. the Kirk, then convened at Edin, booth. After consultation, it was burgh,” not to consent to her having unanimously concluded, that a hummass said when she came to Scotland. ble supplication, with articles of But the appointment of the Prior complaint and redress, should be proceeded from the Convention of presented to the Lords of the Secret ihe Estates which met about that Council. The supplication is set time, and which Spottiswood seems down in Knox's History of the Reto have mistaken for an Assembly of formation. It expresses great apo the Church. And although the in- prehension of the re-establishment struction alluded to may have been of Popery, and a firm determination suggested by the Reformers, it could to oppose it at every hazard. The not come from them as an “ Assem- Articles of complaint and redress, as blie of the Kirk then convened ;" for given by Calderwood, (Large Ms., they did not meet in that capacity Vol. I., 704,) were in substance as till the 26th (according to the Regis follow: ter,) or (according to Calderwood) 1. That idolatry, and all monuthe 27th of May 1561.
ments thereof, be suppressed, and In the “ Buik of the Universal the sayers and maintainers of mass Kirk,” the proceedings of this As- punished. sembly are set down as a continua- II. That provision be made for the tion of the First, but it may with sustenance of Superintendants, Mi. more propriety be enumerated as the nisters, Exhorters, and Readers ; Second General Assembly of the that Superintendants and Ministers Church of Scotland, as it seems to be planted where they are needed ; have met, not according to the terms and that all who contemn or disobey of any previous continuation or ad- them, in the exercise of their funcjournment, but in consequence of an tions, be punished. urgent and alarming conjuncture. III. That the abusers and conThe Popish party began, about this temners of the Sacraments be putiine, to recover from the consterna. nished. tion into which they had been IV. That no letters be issued by thrown by the rapid progress of the the Lords of Session, for the payReformation, and their hopes of re- ment of tithes, without special progaining their former affluence and au. vision that the parishioners retain as thority were greatly strengthened by much as is appointed to the Minister. the arrival of an Ambassador from V. That neither the Lords of France. He was instructed, among Session, nor any other Judges, proother things, to demand, “ that the ceed upon such precepts as may Bishops and Churchmen should be have been passed at the instance of restored to their own places, and suf- those who have lately obtained feus
of vicarages, manses, and church. It would appear that the Articles yards; and that six acres of the were presented to the Convention of best of the glebe be always reserved the Estates, as well as to the Lords of to the Minister.
the Secret Council. But whether it VI. That some punishment be ap was in consequence of this, or of some pointed for such as purchase, bring separate requisition from the leading home, and execute the Pope's bulls Reformers, it is certain that the Conwithin this realm.
vention did issue orders for destroyThese articles may serve to shew ing all places and monuments of the state of dependence and poverty idolatry throughout the kingdom. in which the Protestant teachers The execution of these orders was were still kept, and the many devices committed to the most active and which wereemployed to defraud them popular among the Reformers. The of what was allotted to them for their Earls of Arran, Argyle, and Glenmaintenance. From the third article, cairn, were directed to purify the it would appear that the religious west country; the northern districts liberty introduced by the Reforma were entrusted to the zeal of the Lord tion was accompanied by a licen- James ; and the other parts of the tious profanity. The Papists were country were assigned to men upon frequently called abusers of the Sa- whose alacrity equal dependence craments, by the Reformers. But as could be placed. Calderwood (Large the sayers and maintainers of mass MS., Vol. I., p. 708,) in describing had already been denounced in the the operations of the Reformers in first article, it is probable that, by the west, says, “ They burnt Paisthe contemners and abusers of the ley, where the Bastard Bishop narSacraments mentioned in the third rowly escaped; and demolished Failarticle, we are to understand those ford, Kilwinning, and part of Crosswho neglected the Lord's Supper as raguel.” Now, all these were places of no effect when administered ac of idolatry; but from the life of the cording to the Protestant form, and Bishop being put in peril, the work those who, without any vocation as of purification, or demolition, seems Ministers, dared to go through this to have been gone about in a very unform in derision. This kind of im- warrantable way. In an order given piety seems to have been but too by Lord James, on a similar occacommon about this time, for, in the sion, to some of the Reformers in the First Book of Discipline, a distinct north, they are desired to pass to the head is occupied in demanding the church of Dunkeld, and cast down punishment of such contemners and the images, and all monuments of profaners of the Sacraments.
idolatry, but they are strictly charThe Assembly seems to have ade ged to take care not to injure the stajourned till the 28th, when a meet- bility and comfort of the building. ing was again held, the Articles and (See Statistical Account, Vol. XX., p. Supplication produced and read, and 221.) Indeed it is quite plain, that a Committee appointed to present the intentions and the orders of the them. An Act of Secret Council, Reformers extended merely to places answering to every head of the Ar- and monuments of idolatry, that is, tieles and Supplication, was granted, to religious houses, and images in and letters were immediately raised churches. That their intentions and upon it by sundry Ministers. No orders were exceeded—that religious other business appears to have been houses were wantonly demolished, transacted by this Assembly. But and that not merely the images, but it may not be improper to add a few the churches, were in some instanremarks upon an Act which was ces destroyed-cannot be denied. passed about this time by the Con- Yet the lamentations which have vention of the Estates, as it seems been uttered upon this head have to have been passed at the special been by far too loud. Baillie, in request of the Reformers.
his Historical Vindication, (p: 40,) In the first of the articles drawn distinctly asserts, that " in all the up by this Assembly, it was required land, not more than three or four that idolatry, and all the monu churches were cast down, the rest ments thereof, should be suppressed. being peaceably purged.” As to the
“ bibliothecks which were destroyed, Fathers from a belief that their works the volumes of the Fathers, and the were not to be found in Scotland, registers of the church, which were and that he might avail himself of gathered in heaps and consumed," their authority, without fear of questhe mischief has been greatly ex tion or contradiction. But the charge, aggerated. To hear the account of how disingenuous soever it may bave Archbishop Spottiswood, one might been, may serve to shew that theolofancy that every Abbey in Scotland gical books were not at that time comhad a library as extensive and valu mon in the country. Kennedy, indeed, able as the famous and deplored in his letter to the Archbishop of collection at Alexandria, and that the Glasgow, (see Keith's App. p. 193,) Scottish Reformers were as fatally fu- says, that he had by him “all the rious in their enmity to learning as Doctoris Willock had allegeit, and dithe Caliph Omar had been. “Omne verse uthors.” But Kennedy was one ignotum pro magnifico.". But if we of the most learned and wealthy may judge of what was lost by what among the Popish Clergy, and it is has been
spared, our literary regret probable that few of his cotemporamay be very much alleviated. In ries were so well furnished with England, no such destruction of re books. A catalogue of the library ligious houses took place; and Le- belonging to one of the Bishops has land, who visited many of them, has come down to us: And these desul. given catalogues (Collectanea, Vol. tory notices of the state of theological 'iv.) of the libraries belonging to learning, (which have been brought them. They seldoin contained more forward, not to palliate the excesses than forty or fifty volumes, and these of the Reformers, but merely to mitigenerally consisted of copies of the gate the exaggerations of their eneGospels, and other portions of scrip- mies,) may be concluded with a copy ture, with postils or glosses, extracts of it. Robert Maxwell was Bishop from the Fathers, and legends of the of Orkney in 1526, and probably for Saints. There is no reason to sup- some time afterwards. His see cerpose that the libraries of religious tainly was not one of the richest; houses in Scotland were more ample but from his adding to the cathedral, or valuable than those of England. and entertaining King James V. in In an inventory of the effects belong his progress through the Scottish ing to the cathedral church of Glas- Isles, he seems to have been wealthy gow, which is preserved in the Chare and munificent. He was of the antulary of that See, scarcely any books cient family of Nether Pollock, and are mentioned but such as were ne as he had been Rector of Tarbolton, cessary to the different Priests and and Provost of the Collegiate Church Chaplains who officiated in it. In of Dumbarton, before he was promotthe church of St. Mary and St. Mi- ed to the Bishopric of Orkney, his chael, at Stirling, there were only library was probably as well furnishcopies of the Gospels, Epistles, and ed as those of many other Bishops Psalms, with a few Missals, Brevia at the time. The following extract ries, and Processionals, (See the App. is taken from an inventory of his to Birrell's Diary.) Nor do the li- effects : braries of individuals seem to have “ The names of ye bukis.” “ Item been richly furnished. Willock, one ane prent pontificall, ane small text of the earliest and most learned of ane pontificall ; item, ane auld preachers among the Reformers, in a written pontificall ; item, Seculinosermon which he delivered at Ayr, rum Scriptura; Cathena Aurea Sanc. some time in 1559, had alleged lre- ti Thomæ ; item, Psalterium cum næus, Chrysostom, Hilarius, Origen, Commento Edwardi Episcopi ; Biband Tertullian, as all condemning lia in pergameno scripta; ane Inglisse the service of the mass. Quintin buke of Goweir *; ane Inglisse buke Kennedy, Abbot of Crossraguel, in of ye Histories of Saintis liffis and speaking of this sermon, charges stories of ye Bible ; item ye CornaWillock with having alleged these killis t."
This may have been “ The Confessio Amantis,” by Gower, a favourite work with Henry VIII.
+ Probably some extracts from the Chronicles of Scotland.