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soldier. His petition was triumphantly and virtue, meet such unmerited misforvoted to be referred to a committee, who tune." should be called to scrutinize the sources of the late disorders. From the assembly, It will be apparent, from what we La Fayette repaired to the palace of the have said, that the author of this Thuilleries, where he received some affect- book is better qualified for emphatick ed symptoms of regard from the royal fami. ly and in return, he offered to devote him.: delineation than laborious research; self to their deliverance. But it cannot be and if he should come again before denied that the moyal family, most fatally the publick as a historian, we would for themselves, retained a hatred for the recommend it to him to keep this father of the revolution, which ought well distinction in view in making choice to have been stifled towards a present of his subject. His intentions appear benefactor. The court showed an alie. nation which thwarted all the general's the advocate of liberality; and his

to be irreproachable; he is always intentions. Nor did the national guards seem more devoted to him, who had been errours never bear the stamp of wilonce their idol. They remained undecided ful misrepresentation. Notwithstandand silent. When Fayette returned to his ing his predilection for liberty, he house at night, he was honoured with takes part, in his account of the some triumphant acclamations, but a few troubles in Holland in 1786, against officers of his army, and two or three hundred national guards formed his whole the patriots, or opponents of the retinue, which was unprofitably increased prince of Orange; an inconsistency by a few curious spectators. He showed with his general opinions which satisfaction in his countenance, but the must proceed, we conceive, from coolness, or rather cowardice of the nation. his being imperfectly acquainted heart. Had he seen in the national guard with the history of Dutch parties, any eagerness to follow him, his design and from confounding enmity to was to have marched immediately against the House of Orange with attach the jacobins, to have dispersed them with ment to France. Fortunate would disgrace, and to have shut the doors of it have been for the popularity of their assembly. These savages themselves the British government in foreign trembled for this event; the people on

countries, if it had at all times been whom they counted, had abandoned them. Robespierre shrunk back into all the

alike attentive to the dictates of a natural cowardice of his character, and liberal policy towards them. We abandoned himself to monotonous lamene learn from this book that in 1762, tations for the evils of his country. Their when we declared war against Spain, fears were unhappily never realized. At the moment, when some officers spoke of yessels of that nation which were

government began by releasing the marching against them, the train of La Fayette insensibly diminished. He remain. lying in our ports in the confidence ed some days-at Paris, and still found the of continued amity: but in 17951 same backwardness among his friends, when we found it necessary to reand the same stupor among his enemies. sort' to hostilities against Holland, Repeatedly were parties of the national we were not equally scrupulous in guards invited to

different points of rendezvous; as often they broke their

regard to the ships of our former promise, or arrived irresolute or discoura. ally, although they had been led inged. The court continued equally languid; to our harbours for no other purand either felt or feigned complete disa pose than that of traffick, or that of pair. Convinced that the king could uo seeking our protection. longer be safe in a city, which showed so We conclude this review with a little interest in his dangers, La Fayette short quotation expressive of that suggested a plan of conducting Louis to the army; but the king and queen dreaded

connexion which will almost always the attempt; the latter especially regarded be found to subsist between deit as the consummation of her misfortunes, pravity of morals and depravity of to be indebted for her safety to La Fayette. taste:

“ Mortified, and at last, tired with his. useless efforts, the general quitted Paris., The jacobins were the habitual Never did a project of so much courage speakers of the convention; but, in their

speeches, there was as little eloquence found to contain every thing that can be as morality. They had a style, it is true, called the bathos in bad taste, as well as in which aimed at extraordinary force and moral feeling.” gigantick expressions; but their taste was, if possible, as horrible as their disposi.

Report has assigned this productions. Phrensy and extravagance were substituted for inspiration; and, from the author of the “ Pleasures of Hope,"

tion to the pen of Mr. Campbell, poverty of their conceptions, their routine of metaphors was hackneyed and unvaried. and, alas! of “Gertrude of Wyoshould history deign to preserve the ming." archives of their debates, they will be

FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK. The Farm House, a Tale. With Amatory, Pastoral, Elegiack, and Miscellaneous

Poems, Sonnets, &c. By James Murray Lacey. 12mo. 68. 1809. THERE are a number of elegant

TO AN EARLY BEE. and pleasing poems in this volume, Wanderer, your early search is vain, but the author would better have

Winter still shows his rugged form, consulted his reputation if he had

Still his cold arm lays waste the plain,

And hurls around the icy storm. collected resolution to have made them more select. We are well Keturn, oh wanderer, to thy cell, aware, however, that to a young poet Still on thy treasured honey feast, this is no easy task. Some local For yet no blossom hangs its bell, circumstance or other intervenes

Nor yet thy store can be increased to make every one of his poetical Wait, wanderer, wait, and Spring's bright effusions of consequence

in his

hour esteem; the frown, the sigh, the Shall soon assert its genial sway, smile, the tear, and, if cynical old Shall spread the plain with every flower, criticks venture to use the word,

Shall fill with musick every spray. may the kiss of his mistress, afford subjects to the muse, each in their turn Then, little wanderer, thou mayst roam, of inestimable value. It is fair to with honied treasures seek thy home,

And glean thy stores from every bloom, give a specimen.

Nor dread the power of winter's gloom.”

FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK. Bonifacio and Bridgetina; or, the Knight of the Hermitage: or the Windmill

Turrett; or, the Spectre of the North-East Gallery. A new grand Comick, Tragick, Operatick, Pantomick, Melo-dramatick Extravaganza, altered from the French of M. Martainville, and adapted to the English Stage. By T. Dibdin, Author of about twenty Pieces enumerated in the Title page. 8vo. 49 pp. 28. 180 8.

We did not attend the performance alluded to, and warranted, in some of this whimsical burlesque piece; degree, by the popular tale from but understand that it was not ill re which it is derived. ceived. The title of it sufficiently Of the burlesque drama before us, shows its intention; which is to ri- the best that can be said is, that the dicule the melo-drames (as they are author has « out-Heroded Herod," termed) and other extravagant dra- and contrived to be even more ludimas produced of late years; some of crously extravagant than the absurd which appear, by the title page, to pieces which he exposes to ridicule. be the productions of this same au. But, recollecting several of his own thor.

dramatick performances, we must Much of his ridicule is, however, warn him against depreciating wares directed against the successful en in which he is so great a dealer: tertainment of the Forty Thieves, one

“ Tua res agitur paries cum proximus arof the best, we think, of the pieces det."

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THE Mahrattas, whether consi. and arms of those who were susdered as a nation or as individuals, pected of secreting it. .constitute a peculiar phenomenon in If it were only against the Moors, the history of human society. Super- the ferocious invaders of their counstitiously addicted to the mild rites try, the despoilers of the Hindoo of the Brahman religion; never eat temples, and the remorseless muring of any thing that has life, and by derers of the priests of Brahma, that their belief in the metempsychosis, these cruelties were directed, it restrained from killing even the most would be less a subject of wonder, noxious reptile that molests them, since Sevajce publickly announced yet barbarously mutilating, and in himself the avenger of the gods of their sanguinary warfare, putting to Hindoostan, against the sanguinary death thousands of their fellow crea violators of their shrines, meaning tures, and that often, with aggrava. Aurungzeb and the Moguls. But ted tortures, they exhibit a contrast their rage is indiscriminating, and of character wholly unparalleled. Hindoos and Mahomedans are alike The engines of that torture which the victims of their unrelenting barthey are said to carry with them to barities. How astonishing must this force confession of concealed trea- conduct appear to every reflecting sure, are of a terrible description. mind! Scrupulous minutely tó obThe iron chair in which, heated red serve all the prescribed duties of hot, the offender is placed, and the their cast, with respect to diet and envelope of the same metal, also ablutions, even amidst the tumult of -heated red hot, to encircle his head, war, and often to the obstruction of are among a few of them. These are

the business of a campaign, yet pracparticularly mentioned by the mis- tising every species of brutal inhusionaries who resided in the Carna- manity. How strange the transition tick at the time of their grand erup- from the meekness of prayer to the tion there, in 1740; and, in fact, for 'rage of plunder; from ablution in the one of them, Pere Madeira, after purifying wave that washes away sin, having been first severely flogged, to bathe in torrents of human blood. and exposed several days naked to a From all this pollution, however, the vertical sun, to make him discover Brahmans, who share in the plunder, hidden treasure, that chair and that have the effrontery to tell them they envelope were heated red hot; but are purified by the sacrifice of a by the interposition of one of the buffalo, accompanied with many generals he was respited. Their more mysterious ceremonies, and, with lenient punishments are slitting the this wretched salvo, their consciences nose, and cutting off the ears. But are appeased, Bernier, who was an eye witness of Making war their sole profession, their cruelties during the plunder of and letting themselves out to the best Surat, in 1664, says, that to make bidder, they are to be found in all the rich inhabitants discover their quarters, and are alternately engaged wealth, they were guilty of more by all parties. It is dangerous, howhorrid cruelties, cutting off the legs ever, to einploy thein, for the offer

Vol. III.

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of better terms, generally induces ble, a general engagement, but when them to change sides, and, plunder it takes place, they combat with rebeing their grand object, they often solution; and in the use of the sabre, devastate the very country which are dreadfully dexterous. If, howthey were hired to defend. Their ever, their arms are crowned with principal strength lies in their nu- victory, their principal attention is merous cavalry, which they cherish instantly directed to plundering the with the greatest care, and their camp of the vanquished, instead of horses like themselves, being inured pursuing them to extermination. to privations, and perpetually in ex Were they firmly united under one ercise, are of a hardier nature, and able commanding chief, as under more capable of bearing fatigue, Sevajee, they would be formidable than any brought into the field by indeed, and must soon be the sovethe princes of India. Rapid in their reigns of Hindoostan; but their go movements, and unincumbered with vernment being feudal, dividod baggage, they render themselves among many' chiefs, mostly at vari formidable to the Moguł armies, by ence with each other, their power is harassing their rear, by ravaging the weakened in proportion, and it is country, and by cutting off their sup- only from their devastations that plies. They avoid, as much as possi- Hindoostan has to fear.

OF THE PAGODAS OF HINDOOSTAN.

THE most durable monuments of in imitation of the natural cavems human industry are publick build- to which the first inhabitants of the ings. The productions of art formed earth retired for safety during the for the common purposes of life, night, and where they found shelter waste and perish in using them; but from the inclemency of the seasons. works destined for the benefit of The most celebrated, and, as there posterity subsist through ages, and is reason to believe, the most ancient it is according to the manner in of all these, is the Pagoda in the which these are executed, that we island Elephanta, at no great disform a judgment with respect to the tance from Bombay. It has been degree of power, skill and improve- hewn by the hand of man out of a ment to which the people by whom solid rock, about half way up a high they were erected had attained. In mountain, and formed into a spacievery part of India monaments of ous area, nearly 127 feet square. In high antiquity are found. These are order to support the roof, and the of two kinds, such as were conse- weight of the mountain that lies crated to the offices of religion, or above it, a number of massy pillars, fortresses built for the security of of a form not. inelegant, have been the country. In the former of these, cut out of the same rock, at such to which Europeans, whatever their regular distances, as on the first enstructure may be, give the general trance presents to the eye of the name of Pagodas, we may observe a

spectator, an appearance both of diversity of style, which both marks beauty and of strength. Great part the gradual progress of architecture of the inside is covered with human and throws light on the general state figures in high relief, of gigantick of arts and manners in different size as well as singular forms, and periods. The most early. Pagodas distinguished by a variety of symbols, appear to have been nothing more representing, it is probable, the than excavations in mountainous attributes of the deities whom the parts of the country, formed probably sculptors worshipped, or the actions

1

of the heroes whom they admired. pared with the more elegant works
In the isle of Salsette, still nearer to of Grecian or even Etruscan artists,
Bombay, are excavations in a similar are finished in a style considerably
style, hardly inferiour in magnifi- superiour to the hard, inexpressive
cence, and destined for the same reli manner of the Egyptians, or to the
gious purposes. These stupendous figures in the celebrated palace of
works are of such high antiquity, that Persepolis. In this light they have
as the natives cannot, either from appeared to persons abundantly
history or tradition, give any infor. qualified to appreciate their merit,
mation concerning the time in which and from different drawings, particu-
they were executed, they universally larly those of Niebuhr, à traveller
ascribe the formation of them, to the equally accurate in observing, and
power of superiour beings. From faithful in describing, we must form
the extent and grandeur of these a favourable opinion of the state of
subterraneous mansions, which in- arts in India at that period.
telligent travellers compare to the It is worthy of notice, that although
most celebrated monuments of hu- several of the figures in the caverns
man power and art in any part of the at Elephanta be so different from
earth, it is manifest that they could those now exhibited m the Pagodas
not have been formed in that stage as objects of veneration, that some
of social life where men continued learned Europeans have imagined
divided into small tribes, unac- they represent the rites of a religion
customed to the efforts of perseve. more ancient than that now esta-
ring industry. It is only in states of blished in Hindoostan, yet by the
considerable extent, and among peo- Hindoos themselves the caverns are
ple long habituated to subordination, considered as hallowed places of
and to act in concert, that the idea of their own worship, and they still re-
such magnificent works is conceived, sort thither to perform their devo-
or the power of accomplishing them tions, and honour the figures there,
can be found.

in the same manner with those in That some such powerful state their own Pagodas. In confirmation was established in India at the time of this, we are informed by an intelliwhen the excavations in the islands .gent observer, who visited this subof Elephanta and Salsette were for- terraneous sanctuary in the year 1782, med, is not the only conclusion to that he was accompanied by a sagabe drawn from a survey of them; the cious Brahman, a native of Benares, style in which the sculptures with who, though he had never been in which they are adorned is executed, it before that time, recognised, at indicates a considerable improve once, all the figures; was well acment in art, at that early period. quainted with the parentage, educa. Sculpture is the imitative art in tion, and life of every deity or buman which man seems to have made the personage there represented, and hrst trial of his own talents. But explained with fuency the meaning even in those countries where it has of the various symbols by which the attained to the highest degree of images were distinguished. 'This perfection, its progress has been ex may be considered as a clear proof tremely slow. Whoever has attend that the system of mythology now ed to the history of this art in Greece, prevalent in Benares, is not different knows how far removed the first from that delineated in the caverns rude essay to represent the human of Elephanta. Mr. Hunter, who vi. form, was from any complete deline. sited Elephanta in the year 1784, ation of it. But the different groupes seems to consider the figures there of figures which still remain entire as representing deities who are still in the Pagoda of Elephanta, however objects of worship among the Hinlow they must rank if they be com: doos. One circumstance serves to

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