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confirm the justness of this opinion. the early state of arts in India, we Several of the most conspicuous shall briefly describe two of which personages in the groupes at Ele we have the most accurate accounts. phanta are decorated with the Zen. The entry to the Pagoda of Chillamnar, the sacred string or cord pecu- brum near Porto Novo on the Coroliar to the order of Brahmans, an mandel coast, held in high veneraauthentick evidence of the distinction tion on account of its antiquity, is by of casts having been established in a stately gate under a pyramid a India, at the time when these works hundred and twenty-two feet in were finished.

height, bailt with large stones above 2. Instead of caverns, the original forty feet long, and more than five places of Worship, which could be feet square, and all covered with formed only in particular situations, plates of copper, adorned with an the devotion of the people soon be. immense variety of figures neatly gan to raise temples in honour of executed. The whole structure extheir deities in other parts of India. tends one thousand three hundred The structure of these was at first and thirty-two feet in one direction, extremely simple. They were pyra-, and nine hundred and thirty-six in inids of large dimension, and had no another. Some of the ornamental light within but what.came from a parts are finished with an elegance small door. After having been long entitled to the admiration of the accustomed to perform all the rites most ingenious artists. The Pagoda of religion in the gloom of caverns, of Seringham, superiour in sanctity the Indians were naturally led to to that of Chillambruna, surpasses it consider the solemn darkness of such as much in grandeur; and, fortua mansion as sacred. Some Pagodas nately, we can convey a more perfect in this first style of building still re. idea of it by adopting the words of an. main in Hindoostan. Drawings of two elegant and accurate historian. This of these at Deogur, and of a third, Pagoda is situated about a mile from near Tanjore in the Carnatick, all the western extremity of the island fabricks.of great antiquity, have been of Seringham, formed by the division published by M. Hodges, and though of the great river Caveri into two they are rude structures, they are of channels. “ It is composed of seven şuch magnitude, as must have re square enclosures, one within the quired the power of some considera. other, the walls of which are twentyble state to rear them.

five feet high, and four thick. These 3. In proportion to the progress enclosures are three hundred and of the different countries of India in fifty feet distant from one another, opulence and refinement, the struc- and each has four large gates, with cure of their temples gradually im a high tower; which are placed, one proved. From plain buildings they in the middle of each side of the became highly ornamented fabricks, enclosure, and opposite to the four and, both by their extent and mag- cardinal points. The outward wall nificence, are monuments of the is near four miles in circumference, power and taste of the people by and its gateway to the south is ornawhom they were erected. In this mented with pillars, several of which highly finished style there are Pa- are single stones thirty-three feet godas of great antiquity in different long, and nearly five in diameter; parts of Hindoostan, particularly in and those which form the roof, are the southern provinces, which were still larger; in the inmost enclosures not exposed to the destructive vio are the chapels. About half a mile lence of Mahomedan zeal. In order to the east of Seringham, and nearer to assist the reader in forming such to the Caveri than Coleroon, is an idea of these buildings as may another large Pagoda, called Jembi. enable him to judge with respect to kisma; but this has only one en

closure. The extreme veneration in [Voy. Part. iii. chap. 44.] They were which Seringham is held, arises examined at greater leisure, and with from a belief that it contains that more attention by M. Anquetil du identical image of the god Wistchnu, Perron. But as his long description which used to be worshipped by the of them is not accompanied with god Brahma. Pilgrims from all plan or drawing, it cannot convey a parts of the peninsula come here to distinct idea of the whole. It is eviobtain absolution, and none come dent, however, that they are the without an offering of money; and a works of a powerful people, and large part of the revenue of the among the innumerable figures in island is allotted for the maintenance sculpture, with which the walls are of the Brahmans who inhabit the covered, all the present objects of Pagoda; and these, with their fami- Hindoo worship may be distinguishlies, formerly composed a multitude ed. [Zendavesta. Disc. Prelim. p. of not less than forty thousand souls, 233. There are remarkable exca. maintained, without labour, by the vations in a mountain at Mavalipuliberality of superstition. Here, as ram, near Sadras. This mountain is in all the other great Pagodas of well known on the Coromandel coast India, the Brahmans live in a subor. by the name of the Seven Pagodas. dination which knows no resistance, A good description of the works and slumber in a voluptuousness there, which are magnificent and of which knows no wants.”

high antiquity, is given in the Asiatick In several parts of India, there Researches, vol. i. p. 145. &c. Many

other stupendous works of a other instances of similar works similar nature. The extent and might be produced if it were necesmagnificence of the excavations in sary. What has been here asserted, the island of Salsette, are such, concerning the elegance of some of that the artistemployed by governour the, ornaments in Indian buildings, Boon, to make drawings of them, is confirmed by colonel Call, late asserted that it would require the chief engineer at Madras, who urges labour of forty thousand men, for this as a proof of the early and high forty years, to finish them. [Archæo- civilisation of the Indians. “ It may logia, vol. vii. p. 336.] Loose as this safely bę pronounced,” says he, “that mode of estimation may be, it con no part of the world has more marks veys an idea of the impression which of antiquity for arts, sciences and the view of them made on his mind. civilisation, than the peninsula of The Pagodas, of Ellore, eighteen India, from the Ganges to Cape Comiles from Aurungabad, are like. morin. I think the carvings on some wise hewn out of the solid rock, and of the pagodas and choultries, as if they do not equal those of Ele. well as the grandeur of the works phanta and Salsette, in magnitude, exceed any thing executed now a they surpass them far in their extent days, not only for the delicacy of and number. M. Thevenot, who first the chisel, but the expense of congave a description of these singular struction, considering in many inmansions, asserts, that for above two stances, to what distances the comleagues, all around the mountain, ponent parts were carried, and to nothing is to be seen but Pagados. what heights they were raised.”

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REMARKABLE PHENOMENON, WHICH TAKES PLACE IN THE SEA NEAR AMBOYXA.

NOTICED IN THE JOURNAL OF A LATE VOYAGER IN THOSE SEAS. IN a violent gale last night, in changed its colour to a milky whitepassing between the islands of Bouro ness. Supposing it was owing to and Manipa, the water suddenly shoals, the lead was cast, but no bol

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tom was found with a line of eighty with on the south coast of Ceramy fathoms. This phenomenon remains keeping, however, to the south of the therefore unaccounted for. .: Uliassers and Amboyna, where it

This phenomenon is regularly pe- appears in large stripes. This milk riodical in the seas near Amboyna. sea, as Valentyn quaintly calls it, The most particular account of it is is clearly seen at night from the to be found in Valentyn's Beschry. hills at Amboyna, stretching to ving van Oost Indien, vol. II. p. 137, wards Banda. It does not often and vol. III. part ii. p. 10. He calls reach as far as Amboyna itself. it het wit-water (the white water] The more tempestous the weather and states, that it occurs twice every proves, the more it rains; and the year in the seas around Banda; the harder the southeast trade wind first time, when it is denominated blows, the more this white water the little wit-water, it takes place is seen. It is entirely unknown at the new moon in June; it is whence it proceeds, but it has gebut slight in July, but does not eno nerally been supposed to come from tirely subside before the same appear. the gulf of Carpentaria. Some have ance occurs again at the new moon considered the whiteness as in August, when it is called the great sioned by myriads of animalculæ; wit-water. In the day time the sea and others have ascribed it to a subappears as usual; but in the night it tle, sulphureous, marine exhalation, assumes a milk-white hue, and the which they have supposed to arise reflection of it in the air is so great from the bottom of the sea, and to that the sky cannot be distinguished become condensed in the water. from the water Land is very casily Brimstone is, in fact, produced in " discerned by night in it, for the land considerable quantities, at Amboyna appears very black in the middle of and Banda, and likewise, upon Nila; the whiteness. Very little fish is Teeuwer, and Dammer (three isltaught during the time that it lasts; ands, south of the two former, and the fish do not like the water, and between them and Timor, little the clearness of it makes them easi. known to any but the Dutch) and ly see the fishing tackle and boats, elsewhere in those regions; yet, re. and consequently avoid them. It has marks Valentyn, if the white water likewise been observed to rot the were caused by that circumstance, bottoms of vessels which are much it would be observed wherever sul. in it. It throws up, on the shores phur is found in large quantities. where it reaches, a great deal of He says, a similar phenomenon has slime and filth, and likewise differ. been observed at the Comorra islent species of blubber, or molusca ands, and between Madagascar and bezaantjes [holothura physalis &c. Africa. Stavorinus, in his voyage to It is dangerous for small vessels to Surat, observed the same singular be at sea in the night where it comes, appearance in latitude 17° 30' north, as, though it may be calm, the sea in which he describes the sea as always rolls with heavy surges, having lost, during the day, its usual enough to overset boats, which seem azure clearness, appearing darker as if they were occasioned by sub and browner than usual, and apaqueous exhalations pressing up pearing, at night, so white, as if the wards for a vent. It is chiefly seen whole se'a was covered with a white between Banda and the south east- sheet, or exactly like the appearance, ern islands to the southward of the in the night-time, of a flat country islands of Aroe and Keys, down to overspread with snow. This phenoTenimber, where the heaviest roll- menon, he remarks, was entirely ing of the sea is observed, and Ti: distinct from the luminous appearmorlaut; it runs westward as far as ance which is frequently observed in Timor, and to the north it is met the water of the ocean, as, instead

of giving any light, the whole was of tasting it, it seemed to have lost a deadly paleness, excepting close something of its briny and bitumito the vessel where it seemed mixed nous nature. An English navigator, with some sparks of light. No ground capt. Newland, once observed the was found with a line of 150 fathoms.

same appearance in the same part Some of the water was taken up and of the ocean, with this difference, examined immediately with a micro however, that he saw it intermixed scope, but nothing could be perceive with black stripes running in a sered in it with a glass of great mag. pentine direction through the whites nifying power. To the naked eye, it ness. appeared as clear as chrystal, and on

FROM THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

CURIOUS PARTICULARS CONCERNING THE OSAGES, A NATION OF AMERICAN

INDIANS, LIVING SOUTH OF THE RIVER MISSOURI. ADDRESSED TO LINDLEY MURRAY, ESQ. BY SAMUEL L. MITCHILL.

IT has been questioned, whether instructed and entertained with the the natives of North America have geographical delineations they made any poetical taste. For a long time of the regions they were acquainted I was inclined to the opinion, that with. They drew for me, with chalk, they had no compositions of this kind, on the floor, a sketch of the rivers or, at least, none beyond a single sen Arkansas, Missouri, and Mississippi, tence or ejaculation. This was my and of the Osage and Gasconade. belief, when, after the cession of They depicted the villages of the Louisiana to the United States, the Great and little Osages, and their Osage Indians, from the regions far route thence toward the city of west of the Mississippi, made their Washington; and they marked the first appearance on the shores of the spot, where the vast Saline exists, ta Atlantick. A party of them had been the westward and southward of their sent from Washington in 1804, to settlements. see the maritime country, and had Among other displays of their travelled as far as New York. Have knowledge, they favoured me with ing repeatedly seen these strange concerts of vocal and instrumental visiters, and the gentleman who at- musick. Four or five performers stood tended them during their stay in that up together in a row, and uttered, city, I was much gratified by the with measured tone and accent, seanswers made to many questions I veral of their popular songs. A small asked concerning them. Among o- basket, with stones in it, like a child's ther information I received, was the play-thing; a rattle-snake's tail ticd fact that the party had a poet among to the extremity of a wild turkey's them. I endeavoured to procure a re- long feather; a sort of board to be tired interview with this son of Song; beaten by the hand; and a flute, or but such was the press of company, rather whistle, made of native recd, and such was their incessant occu were the instruments employed by pation, that I found it utterly impos- this harmonious band. sible.

Their concert was animated, and The next year, another party of seemed to give the actors a great these red men of the West, came to deal of pleasure. The spirit and saWashington, the seat of the Ameri- tisfaction which they manifested, can government. I visited them, cul- made me curious to know what were tivated their acquaintance, and had the words and sentiments of the repeated visits in return. I was both songs. After various efforts, I suc

ceeded in procuring several of these Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Dearborne, and aboriginal pieces, by aid of their in- Mr. Mitchill, do when all their moterpreter. He gave me the litteral ney is gone?” translation, and this I have thrown into English verse, with but small 1. OSAGE SONG OF FRIENDSHIP, amplification or paraphrase. When

Composed on the arrival of a parI took the pen, ink, and paper the ty of their warriours at Washingtons chief musician, or poet, felt so much in December, 1805, and sung at Dr. timidity, or embarrassment that he Mitchill's, with their accompaniment could with difficulty be prevailed on

of aboriginal musical instruments. to repeat the words. At length, how, The joy of this band was the greater, ever, on being told, “ that the red

on having reached in safety the place man kept his song in his mouth, but of their destination, inasmuch as an. that I would show him the white man's other band had been killed, on their method of putting it into his pocket,” journey, by the murderous Sioux. his scruples were overcome; for he laughed, and then slowly and dis. in having had an interview with the

They also express singular delight, tinctly uttered the words of several president of the United States, whom songs.

I give you, as specimens of their they call their “Great White Father." talent in this way, three different My comrades brave, and friends of note! rhythmical compositions. These are Ye hither come from lands remote, on Friendship, War, and Peace, and To see your grand exalted Sire, afford striking illustrations of the And his sagacious words admire. manner of thinking, among those

“The Master* of your Life and Breath" simple and unlettered people. Averted accidents and death;

You will judge of the sagacity and that you might such a sight behold, quickness of wit, which they possess, In spite of hunger, foes, and cold. by the following anecdote: I observ. ed to one of the chiefs, who visited Ye Red-men! since ye here have been,

Your Great White Father ye have seen; me, “that, as the white men would

Who cheered his children with his voice, soon begin to encroach upon them, And made their beating hearts rejoice. the woods would be destroyed by fire, or cut down. Then game would Thou Chief Osage ! fear not to come, grow scarce; deer and bison would

And leave awhile thy sylvan home; disappear, and the Osages would be The path we trod is clear and free, obliged to retire, and dispossess their And wide and smother grows for thee. neighbours by force, or remain at

When here to march thou feel'st inclined, home, and adopt the manners of the We'll arm a length’ning file behind; white men. I asked him, when food And dauntless from our forests walk, grew so scarce, what he and his To hear our Great White Father's talk, countrymen would do?

« Father,"

II. OSAGE WAR SONG. said he, in reply, “ we hear, that the president of the United States is a Wanapasha, one of their chiefs, very

rich man, and has got a great encourages them to be intrepid in quantity of money: we have been

battle. told, that the secretary at war is exceedingly wealthy too, and keeps Say, warriours, why, when arms are sung,

And dwell on every native tongue, many bags of dollars; the senator, from New York, likewise, Father,

Do thoughts of death intrude?

Why weep the common lot of all ? possesses a great estate, and has as

Why fancy you yourselves may fall, much silver as he wants: what will

Pursuing or pursued ? * The Great Spirit, or Supreme Being, is called by the Osages, “ The Master of Breuth, or Master of life.”

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