« AnteriorContinuar »
land and Holland, respecting the in- mark of the Merino wool of Engjurious effects arising to sheep, from land. After the fourth generation no feeding while the dew is on the difference is to be discerned between grass, and justly attributes the opi. the fleeces of the descendants and nion to the shepherds who wished to the original stock. “ It follows then, abridge their labour as much as pos- that any farmer may, in the space of sible, by keeping up the sheep until six or seven years, convert his comthe dew was sublimed. In England, mon rock into Merinos, with this he remarks, sheep are out night and great advantage; that during the day. In America, they feed with whole of his progress he is annually most avidity when the dew is on the adding to the value of his fleeces, and grass.
selling off old sheep instead of lambs, Mr. Livingston objects to the thus reimbursing himself for the expractice of washing Merino sheep pense of his ram, which is the only before shearing. Their fleeces are extra expense he has sustained; and so thick as to render it impossible he is also parting with a number of to cleanse them on the sheep's back. male lambs, at a higher price than Colds and fatal purgings are often he was accustomed to receive from induced by the practice. Shearing is those of his old stock. Supposing the to be performed in warm and settled flock to consist of fifty ewes, and weather. As Merinos never shed fifty wethers and rams, and that their wool, like all other sheep, the thirty five are sold yearly, the clear farmer is not compelled to shear at profit will be seventy dollars upon an inconvenient season. In prepar one hundred sheep. A half blood ing wool for spinning, the various flock will bring, in the increase of sorts are to be kept separate; and quantity and value of the fleece, one they should not be kept long on hand dollar and more upon each sheept without washing, as it is liable to even counting the sales of lambs at spoil. Numerous other remarks are the rate of common sheep. The se. made, on shearing; and on circum- cond year, then, the purchaser of a stances likely to affect the health of ram will receive one hundred and the sheep; on castrating, docking, seventy dollars profit, instead of semarking and weaning lambs; all of venty. When the flocks are three which are highly important, and de- fourths bred, his wool will rise to serve the serious attention of the eighty one cents the pound; and this farmer.
will give a profit of one dollar and On the subject of the degeneracy fifty cents per head, beyond the vaof the Merino breed of sheep in the lue of his old fleece, or one hundred United States, Mr. Livingston speaks and fifty dollars added to the price confidently. A ram of last spring, of sheep sold, at seventy, bringing out of an imported ewe, is not only his profit to two hundred and twenty of uncommon size and beauty, but dollars, clear of all expense. When his fleece finer than any he has seen; his flock consists of seven-eights and is also long and abundant, hay. bred sheep, his wool will rise to one ing weighed nine pounds 6 ounces.* dollar and twenty five cents per The common opinion that fine wool pound. Supposing the fleeces of his is only to be met with in Spain, is ewes and wethers, taken together, to highly absurd. The wool of Rambou- weigh three and a half pounds, his illet (the national farm of France) is flock will bring him, after deductfiner than that imported from Spain; ing all expenses, which I rate at and Dr. Parry makes the same re one dollar and fifty cents per head,
* This wool could be sold in New York, for two dollars per pound.
t" The difference of profit between the half bred and the common sheep at Mr. Livingston's last shearing, was two dollars and six cents per head."
two dollars and seventy five cents expenses attending the importation each, exclusive of lambs, that is, of British cloth, that they amount to two hundred and seventy five dollars, but little short of cent. per cent. and which added to the sheep sold, se asks “what an immense saving to venty dollars, makes a clear profit the United States, to cultivate a of three hundred and forty five dol- breed of sheep which will furnish lars annually. When his flock are materials for an article on which full bred, he will receive two dollars they now pay one hundred per cent. per pound for his wool, which at But how much greater will be the three and half pounds the fleece,* profit, if he manufactures his wool will give him seven dollars per into fine cloth for the market ? I head, or deducting the keeping, five will venture to say, that cloth of ten and a half dollars; that is five hun- dollars the yard, may, in this way, be dred and fifty dollars, added to sheep made, superiour in quality to British sold, seventy, making an annual pro- cloth, for three dollars per yard, of fit of six hundred and twenty dole seven quarters wide, and give the lars, instead of seventy, which his farmer a profit of three dollars per common sheep would have brought pound for his wool, after allowing him.” This statement, which on the one dollar as a commission to the very face of it carries conviction, shopkeepers who sell the cloth.” would appear sufficiently encourag- These facts are certainly very ening to the farmer, to lose no time couraging. in changing his stock. But Mr. Liv. “ To those who are unacquainted ingston goes further, and says, that with Spanish wool, it may be proper in the above statement, nothing is to mention the manner in which it allowed for the increased value of should be treated, before they attempt the lambs sold, lest it should be to convert it into yarn. First, it should said, that no sale may offer for them. be carefully sorted; that on the neck, “ This, however, is an errour. In a shoulders, back, and sides, is the country so rapidly increasing as finest; that on the rump is almost ours, and which does not grow one equally as fine in the full bred sheep, fifth of the wool necessary for its but not in the mixed breeds; the own consumption, there will be a thighs and belly, the top of the head demand for lambs for at least twen- and forelock furnish a third sort. ty years, at an advanced price, so When sorted, it should be put into a that I have no hesitation in saying, vat, and pressed down, so as not to that the profit upon the lambs will float when covered with water. In be more than equal to that of the this state the vat should be filled wool. To state the account fairly with clean soft water, mixed with one then, the annual profit should be third urine, and left to soak for about doubled. Provided the farmer sets twelve or fifteen hours, or longer if out with the best stock, and takes the weather is cold. A cauldron is care to breed only from good ewes, then put on the fire, with a portion he will find demand for any number of soft water, and to this is added he may wish to part with.” Neither two thirds of the water that covers will the price of wool fall. Because, the fleece; when it is so hot that the “ besides our own, there will be a hand cannot bear it, the wool is to be foreign demand. This wool now sells taken in convenient parcels, and put in England at seven shillings and in an open basket, moving it about three pence sterling.”+
gently, so as not to twist it, for the Mr. Livingston then proceeds to space of two or three minutes; it is show by a detail of the numerous then suffered to drain into the caul
Mr. Livingston's averaged upwards of five pounds the ewe's feece. † The last price quoted from London, is twenty sis shillings. Superfine cloths are twelve dollars per yard in Philadelphia. Rev.
dron, so as not to carry off the wa than if they met each other. This ter; and when the whole is washed, operation is effected by spinning the it must be cleansed in running water. one with an open band, that is, a If the water in the cauldron gets too band that turns the spindle in the foul, it must be thrown away, and re same direction with the wheel, the plenished with more liquor from the other with a cross band, which tums vat. This mode of washing preserves the spindle in a contrary direction. in the wool a certain portion of its The woof must be spun as loose as grease, which makes it spin easier. possible, and a fourth of the weight When washed, it may either be dried of wool used in spinning it; for the in the shade (the sun rendering it warp one eighth will answer. Coarse harsh, if too hot) or what is better, it wool requires but little grease. may be pressed in a cider press, In a “ Miscellaneous Chapter," which dries it much quicker. When Mr. L. gives the apellative of the quite dry, it should be laid upon sheep a kind of technical language, cribbles, and beaten with a brush of universally adopted in England, and rods, which softens it, and takes out certainly attended with use. Some a great proportion of the dust and remarks follow on gestation, lambo hay seeds. It is then picked careful at a birth, choice of rams, folding, ly, not as common wool is, but by signs of health, season of lambs fallopening the flocks, which are in ing, food, use of salt; and closes with some measure, tied together it the Coolly's table of British sheep. In an ends, and taking care not to break appendix, he gives a short descripthe wool to pieces. To fit it for tion of the diseases of sheep, which spinning, it should be greased with he has witnessed in New York, with neat's foot oil, and carded with cot- their method of cure. The number ton cards; wool cards being too is very small, but few as they are, coarse; and, except the carding mill they deserve the serious attention is particularly fitted for it, and per- of the sheep farmer. He also gives fectly clean from common wool, it the method of bleeding sheep, with will run into knots, and be spoiled a scheme by Dr. De Witt, for transif carded in it. For domestick ma- muting a flock of one hundred comnufactures, from Spanish wool, I ewes, and their issues, into would therefore recommend the Merino sheep. The work closes carding at home by hand.” From with a very interesting table of the experiments, Mr. Livingston is in- last sheep shearing of the author, clined to believe, if it is carefully and with the profit and loss. This picked, so as to leave no hay seeds table has already been very generalin the wool, and to open it perfectly ly circulated by means of the news, before it is carded, that the finest papers; having formed part of a thread may be made of unwashed publick letter, from Mr. Livingston wool. The yarn should not be wash- to Dr. Bard; but was, unfortunately, ed before it is wove; the grease adds very incorrectly printed. By the table to the strength, and renders it un now given, it appears that the necessary to size the warp, as is loss upon each head of common usually done; more allowance should, American sheep, per year, is three however, be made for shrinking-cents, while the gain upon the half Merino wool, he adds, must not be bred ewes is two dollars; which incarded too much; and “the warp creases in proportion to the depth of and the woof must be spun in con- the blood, until it amounts to the trary directions, as both open a little; large sums of 8 17 25, 16 50, and and the object of fulling is to unite 11 50, for the full blood. the ends of the wool, so as to raise Upon the whole, the work has afthe knapp. If they untwisted the forded us the highest satisfaction, same way, they would unite less and we hope it will be universally
read by all farmers. The legislature all those legislatures which, although of New York has done itself great composed principally of farmers, honour by printing it at the expense have hitherto done but little to proof the state; and we pray that so mote the all important cause of wise an example map be followed by agriculture.
[FOR THE SELECT REVIEWS.] Letters supposed to have passed between M. De St. Evremond and Mr. Waller, col.
lected and published by Lloctor Langhorne. To which is prefixed, a biographical Sketch. 12mo. Coale and Thomas, Balticore, 1809.
THE writer of the introduction to throw a veil of elegance over the this collection, intimates the forgery deformity of impiety. To detect and of the hitherto supposed letters of substantiate then the imposture of lord Littleton. We are disposed to these letters will be to rob them af agree in this opinion. Lord Littleton a secret and powerful charm. Yet, never composed letters for the pub- we feel no hesitation in saying, that lick; and in these, the elaborate ele. should the forgery be clearly and ingance of the style and accuracy of disputably established, they will, notdiction, are marks of the lima labor withstanding, continue to be read too manifest to escape the most un as patterns of lively wit and exquisite discerning. There seems to be no composition. To the young, these question that they were prepared letters are peculiarly dangerous. If for the publick eye. Yet, how happily the Circæn smile of pleasure is of ithas the author imitated those flashes self capable of enchanting them beof fancy and scintillations of wit, to- yond resistance, what must be the gether with that loose and libertine force of its fascination when aided by strain of discourse for which this the charms of genius and wit? To youthful lord was distinguished and those in whom age and reflection reproached! Such is the airy and have tempered the ardour of the sprightly manner, and such the easy passions, these letters will be a furand familiar grace with which these ther confirmation of a truth they letters are adorned, that in reading may have gleaned from a knowledge them we flatter ourselves with have of mankind, that great elegance and ing gained the nearest possible apo refinement of mind and brilliancy af proach to the character and heart of accomplishment, are often employed the author. We are made acquainted to disguise the darkest and most dewith the errours of his understand testable principles in the heart. ing and the misguided fervour of his The letters of St. Evremond and passions. The lively interest excited Waller, are avowedly the production in the reader has power almost suf- of Dr. Langhorne. They are, thereficient to disarm the stern reproof fore, ushered into the world with a of the critick, and to silence the less auspicious introduction. Whatmore serious remonstrances of the ever respect may be entertained for moralist. There was a boldness of Dr. Langhorne, as a writer, few are eccentricity in the manners and inclined to believe that the grave principles of lord Littleton, that translator of Plutarch possessed the dazzled and captivated. We are sur fine imagination of Waller, or the prised to find the total absence of sprightly wit of St. Evremond. The religious principle accompanied by fascinating spell is broken at the powers of fascination, which can cominencement. We do not expect
to find what St. Evremond and Wal- quette of some antideluvian court. ler actually wrote, but what they In this age, when the vestibule of might or perhaps would have writ- the temple of Fame is crowded with ten. Concerning the claim this kind votaries of every character and deof writing has to be ranked among scription, it may be allowed to one or the legitimate species of composi- two happy geniuses to deviate from tion, we have some doubts. At this the high road that leads to its entrance, ..period of literature, the arts of wri. to snatch a chaplet which others ting have become so universal an had not dared to contend for. But accomplishment, and knowledge and frequent departures from the custoinformation so very nearly stationary, mary and established modes of wri. that many have availed themselves ting produce a vitious and corof the stratagem of seeing a short rupted taste, and have a tendency to lived fame through the medium of mislead the unskilful and uninformimposture. This spirit of falsifying ed. They substitute a fallacious has also gone forth among the re.
standard in place of just and approgions of poetry. Macpherson, ved models of composition, and withMickle, and lord Strangford, have draw the attention from beauties of come into notice, under the convoy a permanent lustre, to fix it on such of Celtick and Portuguese colours. as are false and transient. Having got once fairly before the Let us then review the letters, publick view, they have maintained and see if their vindication can be that post and supported their claim established on their intrinsick merits. to admiration, by the high merit of Besides the disadvantage of appeartheir performances. The Lusiad of ing as the avowed productions of Dr. Camoens has some passages of Langhorne, these letters are subjectforce and majesty. But the general ed to another inconvenience, the diffi strain of that poem borders on a dry culty, in one writer, of sustaining two and inanimate simplicity. Under the characters, and preserving them disrich embroidery of Mickle's fancy, tinct throughout a series of epistles. however, the rudeness as well as the This not only requires a thorough character of the Portuguese bard conception of the force and delicacy wholly disappears. Lord Strangford of expression, but also strong powers has ventured before the publick of discrimination, and a lively perwith more effrontéry, and has impu- ception of those distinctive shades dently cited the first words of every of character, which are not obvious sonnet and canzonet he has transla- to ordinary intellects. When the auted, and thereby invited detection. thor too is avowedly known, it subWe cannot, however, regret the dis- jects him to the appearance egoingenuousness of these two poets tism; for what else are those comwhich, instead of bald and meagre pliments which Waller and St. Evtranslations, has presented us with remond mutually exchange, and of masterly and original poems. But which they are so lavish. This obshould the present rage for ideal stacle the author of Littleton's Letters translations and epistles increase, (if they are a forgery) had not to enwe may expect soon to be presented counter in his road to fame. Indus. with complete versions of all the trious to exhibit only one character, Icelandick and Scandinavian poets, he has caught the very passions and and in reading the correspondence sentiments of the mind whose chaof two distinguished wits, who flour. racter he designed to portray. ished before the building of the ark, He stood at no hazard of mingling be surprised to find ourselves intro- his colouring, or of giving a homoduced to the acquaintance of a circle genious tint and complexion to a of beaux, esprits and fashionables, double piece. who maintained the polish and eti The characters of Waller and St.