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as might reasonably be expected, after what has passed, the King is to be crowned without the Queen, as by the constitution of the country he has an unquestionable right to be. Parliament has been actively engaged during its sittings on many points of great national importance, at a few only
of which will either our plan, or our limits, permit us to glance. The bill for the removal of most of the disabilities under which Roman Catholics still labour, after having passed the Commons, was, as might be anticipated, rejected in the Lords, and that eren by a majority of lay peers; but as the great question of Catholic emancipation is one upon which the Editors of this Work bave agreed to differ, they make no observation here on the recent failure of its friends. A bill has been introduced by Mr. Scarlett, for the entire repeal of the poor laws; a measure founded, as we conceive, as little upon principles of sound policy, as of justice and humanity. The poor we are assured, from the highest authority, shall never cease out of the land, and there are obvious reasins why they should not; nor is the obligation on the rich to maintain them, when they cannot work, at all equivocal: but it should be only then, and it is from a gross abuse of the original and expressed design of the poor laws, that the loud outcry against them in the senate, and throughout the country, has originated. Return to the principle and the letter of the act of Elizabeth, and the evil may easily be remedied, indeed, will cure itself. We are no friends to every wild scheine of reform in Parliament, which has from time to time been advocated within and without the doors of the llouse of Commons; but yet we see enough of a disproportion in the representative system, difficult to have prevented, and as hard to remedy, with a due respect to vested rights, not to rejoice at the partial reforın which has taken place in transferring the right of the borough of Grampound (justly forfeited by the frequent corruption of its roters) to the populous county of York; iv whose freeholders this additional elective franchise is, in our judgment, more safely lodged, shan, conducted as elections now are, it would be in the payers of scot and lot at Leeds. To another species of reform, the attention of ministers, and of the public, has been constantly directed during the present session that which might be effected by a due regard to economy in the rarious departinents of government, and though comparatively little has been effected by the gentlemen who have with unwearied perseverance proposed these retrenchments, as far as we can judge, from the immediate efforts of their exertions, we are not without strong hopes, that their more remote operations will soon be apparent. Whilst we regret to find, that sir James Macintosh has again failed in his humane attempts to ameliorate our criminal code, by the substitution of a milder punishment than that of death for other forgeries than those of Bank notes, we rejoice to see that an appeal has not been made in vain to a British House of Commons, for the institution of some inquiry into the horrid custom of permitting the immolation of Indian widows on the funeral piles of their husbands, in a country subjected to the British sway. This is a barbarity- a legalization of deliberate suicide, at which no Christian government can ever be justified, by any considerations of human policy, and still less of commercial or territorial aggrandizement, in conniving for a moment. Before we conclude our hasty glance at the state of affairs at home for the last six months, and turn to those of dther states, there is one subject incidentally brought before Parliament, on which we should think it a proof of great cowardice to shrink tron delivering a decided opinion, we allude to the formation of a constitutional association for the suppression of blasphemous and seditious works. To all such productions we are most decidedly opposed, holding in equal abhorrence and contenipt Wooler, Flinders, Cobbett, Carlisle, and
Hone; the Examiner, the Black Dwarf, and John Bull, (the most abusive of all, and perhaps the worst, because supported, and there is but too much reason to suppose, conducted by men in power); but we are equally opposed also to all unconstitutional and unusual modes of proceeding, for visiting with punishment, however merited, the publication of their ribaldry and abuse. There is a state prosecutor, whose duty it is to check the licentiousness of the press, and to do this he is effectually armed with unwonted power. If he neglects to use it with due vigour, tempered with discretion, let a man of firmer nerves (though we would not even insinuate that there is at present any need of such) be appointed in his place; but let us hear, or at the least, let us see, nothing ota vigour beyond the law;-of knots and bands of private individuals, self-constituted prosecutors, for the public and the state, who eventually may be the jurors (and in cases of libel they are by law the judges also) to try their own indictments. This no friend to the just liberty of the press will, from any morbid, or even a well founded tear of the rapid progress of its licentiousness, tolerate --or patiently endure. Some of the most active members of the old constitutional society made very profitable stalking horses of their loyalty-a duty of a Christian in which we will yield to none :— let those of ihe new one beware lest it be even so with them. We are not the only persons who suspect their motives; if they would prove us and the public mistaken, let thein attend without delay to the general dislike expressed by men of all parties to their proceedings, and thus give the most satisfactory proof that we have mistaken them.
Frauce is at present peaceful, but how long her peace may continue is extremely problematical, as the parties in the Chambers seem nearly equally balanced, and both the ultra royalists and liberales are too strong for the ministry, who seem to be forming rather too close an union with the former, to be long popular with the great majority of the people, who are reasonably jealous of the ascendancy of that party in restoring the feudalties, and most of the abuses of the old regime. The great prevalence of the slave trade, under the French flag, is a disgrace to the nation and the government, as it would and must be, to any state or people professing to be civilized, and still more professing the Christian faith.
Spain is still the theatre of intestine cominotions, which have, in several instances, broke out into acts of open and lawless violence. Neither the royalist nor the democratical party seem to possess that moderation which ought pre-eminently to be the guiding spirit of the present times, and between them the king, and his ministers, are placed in an awkward dilemma, the one party accusing them with having done too little, and the other as loudly reproaching them for having done too much. Most of her colonies seem lost to her for ever, Mexico being the only one that is firma in her attachment to the parent state.
Portugal presents at present one of the most gratifying sights that a lover of his race can witness, a nation establishing for itself a constitutional Jiberty without the effusion of blood. This has been the case also in Madeira, whence deputies have been sent to the Cortes, and even to a certain extent in the Brazils, where the province of Bahia is said to have declared in favour of the new constitution, and a more liberal order of things.
The struggles of the Neapolitans and the Piedmontese for constitutional independence is already a tale of other times, and we have reason to ovserve upon it now that it is over, that those, who after all their vaunting and gasconading, struck not a blow in defence of their rights, but dispersed at the firing of the first shot, were not the men to have enjoyed the freedom for which they professed, and only professed to fight. We had hoped that
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the chains of Italy were burst; but under the auspices of the holy alliance there is too much reason to fear that they will be rivetted even more firinly than they were before. We are no friends to revolutions, yet we cannot but hope that the spirit of national freedom that is abroad upon the earth, will soon walk on a more congenial soil, and find the imperial autocrat, and emperor, and king, who have presumed to dictate in what manner the internal affairs of other states shall be adıninistered, work enough for reformation, if not for contest (for that, in arms, we hope they will bare prudence to avoid) nearer home.
Nearer to Russia, at least, that may even now be cutting out ; for the insurrections in Wallacbia and Moldavia may lead to other attempts to cast off the yoke of tyranny, in which she will not be a mere looker on, as had the insurgents been successful, she would not long have remained in the contest now lingering, rather than raging between the Turkish government and her revolted Greek provinces. In that contest it seems most probable that the crescent will be triumphant, the Porte having evinced unusual energy in her contest with the Greeks, who seem to have made that mere show of resistance which seems but too much the order of the day. Viewing the subject in this light, we cannot therefore but regret an insurrection to which we should wish the most complete success, were it likely to issue in any thing more beneficial to the freedom of Greece than the murder of all its natives, and amongst them the most venerable of its priests, and the massacre or plunder of all foreigners indiscriminately, save only the English, saved by the firmness of our ambassador at the Ottoman court, in ordering some British cruizers into the Dardanelles for their protection.
America, amidst many collateral proofs of increasing prosperity, bears her share in the general pressure of the financial concerns of most, if not all, the states of the known world ; and in the amount of their revenue for the last year a deficiency appears, estimated at no less than 7,400,000 dollars, or about £1,660,000.
Necrological Retrospect of the Year 1820; including Biogra
phical Sketches of Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., and Dean Milner.
In the course of the year in which our; labours commenced, many persons, eminent for their rank, talents, or usefulness, were removed from the world, to which they were an ornament, by the hand of death. At the head of these was our late lamented monarch, whose virtues are too indelibly impressed upon the hearts of his people to require any record of them -- imperfect as it must be, at the best, in our pages. Of the son, who trod so closely in the steps of his beloved and venerated father,—with whom he may almost be said to have descended to the grave, so near were the periods of their deaths -- we have endeavoured to preserve some memorials, which, at least, are authentic; whilst, from his becoming, through the medium of his correspondence, in so great a measure, his own biographer, we may without vanity indulge the expectation, that they will be interesting to all who knew, and duly estimated, that benevolence of disposition, and active philanthropy, which were the ruling principles of his life. Nor was our own the only royal house of Europe, in which, during the past year, the ravages of death have made a void that cannot be supplied; for comparatively few are there, on the contrary, but have suffered, from his resistless stroke; though we shall only allude parti-, cularly to that of France, which the hand of an assassin plunged in the deepest grief, by cutting off, in the prime of life, and at the moment when he was quitting one of Plea-, sure's gayest haunts—the duke de Berri, a prince from whom the nation was expecting much.
If from kings and princes we pass to the great and the noble of the earth, we shall find that death has spared them not. Cardinal Carracciolo, the firm friend of Pius VI. in his adversity—the companion, indeed, of his captivity; Cyprian y Valde, patriarch of the Indies, and grand almoner of the king of Spain, another member of the sacred college; and
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Father Thaddeus Bogozowski, general of the order of the Jesuits, an office whose possessor, half a century since, was, in fact, more powerful than the most powerful of princes; because his influence ruled their couneils, and often thwarted or promoted their measures at his will, were nearly about the same time laid, with all their honours, titles, and dignities, in the silent and the unconscious grave. Thither they were soon afterwards followed by cardinal Litta, bishop of Sabina, whose name is often introduced into the state papers of the pontifical court, during the unjustifiable confinement of the pope in France,
. Amongst the nobles of our own country, the dukedom of Richmond, and that of Hamilton, and Buccleuch; the marquisate of Ormond; the earldoms of Suffolk, Leven and Melville, Harewood, Stamford and Warrington, Malmesbury, Selkirk, (of whose late possessor we have already given some account) Lisburne, Strathmore, Roden, Eglington ; the viscounties Curzon, Ranelagh, and Doneraile; the baronies of Sherborne, Dundas, Gwydir, Stawell, Willoughby de Broke, and Elibank, were, during the year 1820, devolved by death
peers who bear those titles now. The bench of spiritual peers has also, within the same period, lost one of its ornaments, in as far as extensive learning, and great political activity, can ornament it, in Dr. Lort Mansell, bishop of Bristol, and master of Trinity College, Cambridge; a prelate who owed his elevation to the patronage of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Perceval, the latter of whom was his fellow-collegian, and gave him his bishopric, and the valuable rectory of Barwick, in Yorkshire, worth £2000 per annum. We hope, however, that he owed none of his preferments, at least in the church, to the report generally believed of his having materially contributed to the composition of that very witty, but malignant political satire, the Pursuits of Literature. In the venerable Dr. William Bennet, bishop
Cloyne, the church, in which he was a prelate; the country, to which he was an ornament- literature and science, which he assiduously cultivated, and liberally patronized - philanthropy, whose claims he was ever ready to advocate by his eloquence, to support by his purse-have alike sustained a loss not easy to be repaired. We fear that Ireland will not soon be supplied with a new bishop as liberal in his sentiments and conduct -as laborions in the discharge of his duties as beloved wherever he lived, and wherever he was known, by those who were not, as by those who were, of his flock-without, as within the pale of the establishment, whose highest dignity no one better could adorn. In a good old