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previous to licensing them; and to candidates for orders, before he ordained them; have, in our judgment al least, been very properly brought before. parliament: for united as the church is with the state, and inseparable as are the temporal and spiritual interests of the former, whilst by law it is established, we cannot but deem it perfectly regular that the legislature should have an effectual control over the usurpations of the bishop, which, if unchecked, might by possibility altogether change the doctrines of the church, the integrity of whose articles it is their bounden duty to maintaio. That those articles are Calvinistic has been asserted, and we think abusdantly proved, by some of her ablest members, both amongst the laity and clergy, including with the latter not a few of the most devoted, learned, and orthodox, of her prelates. But this point we may, perhaps, discuss more at length on some future occasion, and in a different department of our Work; for be the articles and homilies of the church of England Calvinistic or Armenian, we cannot but view it as a very dangerous precedent for any bishop to found, on his own particular view and construction of them, a set of queries, which, if not answered to his satisfaction, will render nugatory and invalid subscription to the thirty-nine articles; the only test which either the law, or the rubric, requires. This would, indeed, be establishing any thing rather than that uniformity of faith and practice, on which the church of England prides herself; and might iotroduce as many creeds as there are dioceses. Every real friend to that church must, therefore, rejoice in the decided disapprobation of the bishop's. novel procedure, expressed by the leading members of the House of Peers; both on the ministerial, and the opposition benches. Most cordially, at least, do we agree with the prudent admonition of the premier, to the right reverend bench, exhorting them not to draw tighter and closer the liberal construction of the thirty-nine articles; as by so doing they would violate the spirit of the church, and run a risk of excluding from its clergy, those who had, at all times, been its most useful meinbers, and sincere friends. Most earnestly did he recommend them, and as earnestly would we enforce that recommendation, could we hope that our exhortations might find their way to their palaces and their thrones — that they would, on these points, continue to exercise that forbearance, which, for centuries past, their predecessors have exercised with so much prudence, and so much advantage.
The friends of humanity have been vigilant and active in both houses, and, on the whole, successful; for beside directing the attention of the legislature to the horrid barbarity of suffering the burning of widows in India, an unchristian and idolatrous practice, which we, as a nation, undoubtedly have the power of preventing, if we have the will ; the full concurrence of ministers has been obtained, to an address to his majesty, praying him to take more effectual means for procuring the co-operation of foreign powers in the entire abolition of the slave trade: a measure certainly most loudly called for, when it is considered, that within the short space of one year, no less than 60,000 slaves were taken from Africa; 18,000 of whom were imported into the Portuguese settlements alone: for though the mother country has by solemn treaty formally relinquished this iniquitous traffic, by a shameful evasion it is continued in her colonies; as is also the case, under similar circumstances, with those of Holland and of Spain. But of all the governments of the civilized world, that of France appears, in this respect, to be the most culpable; and we rejoice to find, that to them particularly will the remonstrance of our ministry be directed, we hope, not without effect.
The bill so properly introduced into the lower house by Mr. Martin, of Galway, for preventing cruelty to animals, has also, we are happy to leam;
passed into a law, after an opposition not very honourable to those engaged in it; and with exemptions, procured by their exertions, in favour of cockfighting and bull-baiting, two brutal diversions, disgraceful to the English name and character; but which several of our legislators, in other respects most enlightened men, have been most unaccountably anxious to perpetuate and preserve. The voice of humanity has, however, prevailed over the cupidity of commercial speculation, though it could not over the love of barbarous sports, in procuring the rejection of the extra post bill, on the ground that the proposed speedier conveyance of letters could not be obtained without great cruelty to horses, in driving them at the furious rate of eleven iniles in an hour, including stoppages
- a rate at which, except in cases of extreme emergence, no animal should ever be driven.
France seems to be making rapid approximations to the constitutional freedom which this country has so long enjoyed. The censorship of the press has been rejected by the chamber of deputies; but whilst, as sincere friends to the diffusion of liberal sentiments throughout the world, we rejoice at this measure, we would not forget that there was a time when such a censorship was established by law in England. The abolition, for a period of near a hundred and fifty years, of such an intolerable restriction on the liberty of the press, whilst it teaches us gratitude for ourselves, should inspire us with hope for others.
· These are still early days to expect that Spain should be in any thing like that settled state, which we yet trust, and fully anticipate, that her constitutional monarchy will, ere long, attain. A new penal code has been submitted to the Cortes, ameliorating, in some material points, the old one; yet containing some traces of bigotry and puerility, which we could wish it to have been without. Of the former description is the denunciation of the punishment of death by strangulation, by the pressure of an iron collar, against those who conspire to establish any religion differing from the Catholic. To the latter we may, perhaps, assign the seclusion of a wife, convicted of adultery, for as long a period as her husband wishes, provided it does not exceed ten years, though the same character scarcely can apply to the legal declaration of infamy pronounced against the husband, in the like case offending. It is highly creditable to the government, that very urgent representations have been made by them to the local authorities of the country, on the importance of establishing universities, schools, and charitable institutions, in the suppressed convents, wbich are to be repaired for these purposes at the public expense. The general diffusion of knowledge by these, and similar means, will soon, we doubt not, introduce into Spain more enlightened notions than those which the drones maintained in these convents were so active, and it is the only thing in which they were active, in promulgating. Their great patrons, the pope and his conclare, have just taken as effectual a step as could be desired, to shake the influence which they have long had in Spain, to a much greater extent than in any other transalpine country of Europe, by refusing to confirm the election of two bishops, on the ground that they took a part in the deliberations of the Cortes, hostile to the privileges and immunities of the ecclesiastical orders. The sitting of the Cortes has been peaceably and constitutionally terminated, by a speech from the throne; and it appears, that before they are assembled again, the extraordinary Cortes will be convoked, as the only means to set at rest the machinations of the disaffected. The establishment of peace and order in the Spanish provinces beyond the sea, is talked of in the king's speech as an object to which his attention will be primarily directed; though it would seem now to be so directed too late, as the time is, we suspect, rapidly approaching, when
Spain will have no provinces beyond the sea to govern, or to care for. Caraccas has surrendered to the patriot army, who, in all human probability, will soon be masters of most of the provinces of South America, still owning their allegiance to the Spanish crown.
The king of Portugal has returned from the Brazils to his European dominions, as a constitutional monarch; though we regret to notice, in the proceedings of the national Cortes, a tendency to depress the monarchical authority beneath its due weight in the three estates. The return of this monarch to Lisbon seems to have been, in some measure, accelerated by some disturbances in the Brazils, in consequence of the soldiers having been called in to disperse a meeting of electors convened to choose deputies to the Cortes; but who, instead of confining themselves to the business for which they were assembled, sent a deputation to the king, at midnight, requiring a provisional government, on the principles of the Spanish constitution, which was granted: but following up this step by other irregular proceedings, too evidently of a revolutionary tendency, the military fired into the Exchange, and killed and wounded many individuals, and apprehended several others. Tranquillity was soon restored, but the stagnation of all business proves that the public have no very strong faith in the stability of the present order of things.
The affairs of Greece and Turkey still remain in the unsettled and uncertain state in which we left them in our last, save that hostilities have been attended by greater atrocities, we fear upon both sides, and certainly upon that of the followers of the crescent, who have forcibly driven from Scio that excellent man, professor Bambas, of whom honourable mention has frequently been made in our Missionary Report; and have also broken up the school, formed upon the British system at Smyrna, by our benevolent countryman, William Allen, during his recent philanthropic tour. The savage execution of the venerable Greek patriarch, and of four bishops of his church, at Constantinople, seems to have excited great indignation in the provinces over which the creed of their church is spread; but it is extremely doubtful, whether the flame it has aroused will not, in the issue, be more destructive to themselves than their oppressors. The great European powers are said, however, to have remonstrated with the Porte upon the severity of its proceedings, not only against the Franks, but the Greeks ; and it is not likely, if this course is persisted in, that Russia and Austria, at least, and especially the former, will stand by, quiet spectators of the destructive scene. The great danger to be feared from their interference, is the territorial aggrandizement of Russia --a power already, at the least, sufficiently large. Should this be attempted, as we trust it will not, the peace of Europe may be disturbed; and England again become a principal in an expensive, a lengthened, and, we fear, it would prove a general war.
END OF VOL. III.
PRINTED BY J. MOYES, GREVILLE STREET, LONDON.
THE THIRD VOLUME.
Fuego, 265; influence at Otaheite,
266, 361; exposure to danger at
board of Commissioners for Fo New Zealand, 362—at New Gui-
public services, 376; illness and
Rome, 190; Roman found at matra, account of them, 1.
the Merchant Seaman's Auxiliary,
Lee, 121; dean Milner, 244; sir
Books, list of new ones, 193, 413.
life, 258; his family, ib.; educa tions written by bim on the blank
of 354; conduct of the Edinburgh
Gardener, Colonel, original letter
from him, 312.
on population, 86; his answer to
wheat, 184; mode of destroying from him, 311; Rev. Philip, ori-
succedaneum for leeches, ib. paper, ib. ; printing copper-plates,
paralus, ib, ; burning smoke, ib.
Independents, examination of their
promulgators of toleration, 330;
Intelligence, American, 153, 379;
fording it to the inhabitants of the 406; religious, 204, 421; philan-
trophic, 206; provincial, 212, 446,