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warfare is desultory. They do not fight in large bodies, but in parties of forty or fifty. The native weapons are the kris, long spears, and sumpits, from which they discharge poisoned arrows, not, it may be presumed, very fatal weapons, for they are thrown with little force, and the strength of the poison is always precarious.

The nature of the country, in all probability, precludes the general use of cavalry, for the Balinese never fight on horseback, though they have small horses of a similar breed with those of Java. There is not a single fortification throughout the whole island, unless a trifling place in the vicinity of Karang Assam, not capable of containing a hundred men, deserve that name. The Balinese do not even entrench themselves behind walls or ditches, or stockades, a practice frequent with the more western natives of the Archipelago, but occasionally have recourse to a temporary abatis made by felling trunks of trees. The kratons, or palaces of the princes, one might expect to find of some strength as in Java, but this is not the case; some of them are built of brick and mortar, and that of one of the rajahs of stone, but the walls have neither height nor thickness in any of them. Muskets of their own manufacture are occasionally used by the Balinese, and it is said they have a few pieces of cannon, but in their unskilful hands these must be the least dangerous of all weapons to an enemy. It is superfluous to observe, that the roads of such a country as Bali are mere path-ways: the rivers are numerous, their banks steep and precipitate, and their beds full of rocks and stones: there is not a bridge in the island.

States.-Bali is divided into seven estates, the names of which are, Blilleng, Karang Assam, Klung-kung, Gelgel, Badung, Geyancar, Manguive, and Tabawan.

Blilleng.-This state is situated towards the north-west part of the island, being bounded to the east by Karang Assam, and to the south by the territories of Manguive and Tabawan. The town is on a river, about three miles from the shore; close to the beach is the Mahomedan kumpumg, and between that and the town are some rice fields. The population is estimated at 12 or 15,000. There are a few Chinese who live with the Mahomedans, who themselves do not exceed two hundred families : they consist of Macassarese, Bugis, and a few converted natives. The total population of the territory of Blilleng, capable of bearing arms, is reported to be 18,000. Blilleng is the smallest of the principalities of Bali.

Karang Assam. This is at present the most powerful of the principalities of the island, not so much on account of the extent of its territories on Bali itself, as those belonging to Lombock, called Sasak. Karang Assam is situated to the east end of the island opposite to Lombock.

Klung-kung lies south of Karang Assam, between it and Badung. It is a small state, but the prince, who is styled Dewa Agung, is the first in rank on the island. Kusumba is the port of Klung-kung, the capital itself, about three miles distant in the interior.

Badung lies south of Klung-kung, and is but of inconsiderable extent; the town is on a small river, in a bay opposite to which, and not above a mile distant, is Noosa Bali, a small island: there is, from report, good anchorage in the bay. Badung is the chief resort of the traders from Borneo, Celebes, and Java. Close to Badung is the most southerly point of the island of Bali, called Ujung Selatan: from this to the entrance of the straits of Balambangan the sea is boisterous, and the coast dangerous;

along the shore are the states of Girjanian, Manguive, and Tabawan.

Girjanian, or Geeanger, lies west of Badung; it is a small unimportant state, the prince assuming the inferior title of pengeran, and not that of rajah like the rest.

Manguive lies west of Girjanian, between it and Tabawan; the residence of the prince, also styled pengeran, is distant from the shore of the South Sea about half a day's journey. It is the largest town on the island. The prince, it is said, has built a kraton, the walls of which are of stone, curiously ornamented, in relief, with figures of various descriptions. Manguive is frequently at war with Badung and Girjanian.

Tabawan lies west of Manguive, and south of the territories of Blilleng. The town is situated in the interior, and about a day's journey from the south-west coast: the rajah's kraton consists of a brick wall, neither high nor thick. The people of Tabawan are engaged in frequent hostilities with those of Blilleng and other states.

Character and Death of William LORD Russell, Baron

of Thornhaugh. TO THE EDITORS OF THE INVESTIGATOR. Dear Sirs,-Public interest in the illustrious Family of Russell has recently been additionally excited, by the interesting and valuable memorials of a younger son of the pre

sent head of that illustrious house. In his history of William Lord Russell, and the times in which he lived, many facts have been narrated which will endear to Englishmen, whatever may be their political views, various characters therein delineated; among others, the following description may be noticed.

“ Francis, the second Earl of Bedford, was present at the battle of Saint Quintin, and held many great offices under Queen Elizabeth. He married a daughter of Sir John St. John, sister to the first Lord St. John of Bletsoe. succeeded by his grandson, Edward, who died without issue, in 1627.

The title then passed to the issue of Sir William Russell, the fourth son of Francis. Sir William was a person of considerable talents and enterprize. In 1580, he was knighted for his services in Ireland. He afterwards went, with the Earl of Leicester, to the assistance of the Dutch. His conduct at the battle of Zutphen is thus quaintly described by Stowe. “He charged so terribly, that after he had broke his lance, he so played his part with his cuttle-axe, that the enemy reported him to be a devil, and not a man; for where he saw six or seven of the enemies together, thither would he, and so behave with his cuttle-axe, that he would separate their friendship.”

" He was afterwards Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he made himself very conspicuous for prudence, as well as valour.

“ He took great pains to prevent the excesses of the army. He directed,

by his general orders, that the soldiers should give money or a ticket for their diet; that there should be no charge on the country for more men then there really were; that they should not ask for more than a breakfast and supper; and that their quarters should be assigned by the civil magistrate. These regulations were well calculated to conciliate the lower orders. Had the Court taken his advice, another measure which he recommended, would probably have gained over the nobility. He proposed that the lands of the church, which had been confiscated, should be given equally to the leading men of both religions. Had the Catholics accepted the spoils of their own church, it is evident they would have become attached to the Government from which they had obtained them. On the accession of James, he was created Baron Russell of Thornhaugh. He died in 1613, leaving an only son Francis, who, fourteen

years afterwards, succeeded to the title of Earl of Bedford.” Pages 5, 6, 7.

Here the statement terminates, but it being probable that a more minute account will gratify your readers, I submit the following pages to your consideration, and I shall be glad to see them inserted in your valuable journal. They are transcribed from a curious and scarce sermon, "preached at the funeral of the Right Honourable William Lord Russell, Baron of Thornhaugh, at Thornhaugh, in Northamptonshire, the 16th September, 1613, by William Walker, bachelor of divinity, and preacher of the word of God, at Cheswicke, in Middlesex. London, printed for John Hodges, 1614.

I will now come to this present occasion that hath brought us hither. And that I may excite you to imitate the gracious life and death of this noble Lord, that ye may live in the faith and die in the favour of the Lord, as hee did; I must entreat you to heare mee with patience, in relating some worthy parts of his life and death, such as may tend to our edification, in being samplars for us to follow.

“ If there be any that doe dislike or condemne all praising of any in this manner; I must desire such to consider what Gregory Nazianzene assures us, namely, That when wee praise vertue in any one, we doe praise God the giver of that vertue. Yea, and besides the pious precedents whom wee doe follow, we want not reasons also out of the word of God to warrant our practice.

“ For will Christ have Maries name remembered in the Gospell, to the worlds' end, for one boxe of oynment broke upon his head? and will he have, thinke you, so many worthy works of christian pietie and charitie, with which, as with so many boxes of precious oyntment, this late Lord annoynted Christ in his poore members, will Christ, I say, have all these to perish without mention or memorie? No verely, God will have good men to be, as Paul speakes, types or samplars of good works: and Christ will have them to shine to others; which I take is meant, both by their good works while they live, and by their good name when they are dead: that soe they may doe good service to the Lord, and to the Lord's people both alive and dead. For how otherwise, and for what other cause can or should the just be had in everlasting remembrance? or how can the memoriall of the just be blessed, or the name of the wicked rot, if an ill fame remaine not as a curse upon the name of an ill man, and a good fame, as a blessing upon the name of

a good man, when both of them are departed out of this life?

“ As I will not feare then that any good man will dislike this course, sith I will not speake any

thing, either without or above desert; so I know that many will expect much more, and yet but due commendation. These and all, I must desire in Saint Hieromes words, Suscipite non vires sed voluntatem, take in good worth not what I can doe, but what I would doe; and accept an estimate of his life so honourably led, and so christianly ended, by this little, which I can deliver in this short time, as Pythagoras did of Hercules his stature by the length of his foot. For I must let you see a goodly pallace thorow a little hole, and a large country in a little mappe, and desire you to discerne the lyon by his pawe.

Quintillian I know doth require, that we should looke backe to the honourable race, and noble acts of his progenitors, and bring them in, as additions to his honour. And this also Nazianzen, Ambrose, Hierome, and others have ordinarily used in funerall orations : and Sidonius Appolinaris, in his praise of Simplicius, strengthens his practise herein with a precedent of scripture : and telles us, that St. Luke entring into the praise of John the Baptist, held him most excellent, for that he was descended of the honourable race of the priests: Et nobilitatem vitæ prædicaturus, prius tamen extulit familiæ dignitatem ; and being, saith he, to praise the noblenesse of his life, he did first extall the worthinesse of his line.

“Againe, I am not ignorant, that, qui genus inactat suum aliena laudat, that he that boasts of his birth bragges of that which is none of his owne; and that nobilitas sola est acq. vnica virtus, noble vertues only make men truly noble; yea, that nobilis fit, non nascendo sed vivendo, a man's life and not his birth makes him rightly noble; and that when noble men will not be good and wise men, God makes good and wise men noble. Yea, I believe Euripides, when he saith, that there is no 'noblenesse in naughtie men. And sith that God's grace is neither entailed to the children of good parents ; for Ismael, Esau, and Absolon, are bad sonnes of good fathers; neyther yet cutt off from the good sons of bad parents ; for Jepthe, reckoned of the apostle in the catalogue of the just, was the sonne of an harlot; we must not esteem men er gradu, but ex mereto, not by their place, but by their worth : for none is worse in Christ, because hee

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