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13 When he uttereth his voice, there is a

13 multitude of waters in the heavens, and he 1 The unequal comparison of God and idols. 17 The causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends prophet echorteth to flee from the calamity to come. 19 He lamenteth the spoil of the tabernacle by foolish rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his

of the earth; he maketh lightnings "with pastors. 23 He maketh an humble supplication.

treasures. HEAR Hear ye the word which the Lord speaketh 14 Every man is "brutish in his knowunto you, O house of Israel :

ledge: every founder is confounded by the 2. Thus saith the Lord, Learn not the way graven image: for his molten image is falseof the heathen, and be not dismayed at the hood, and tirere is no breath in them. signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed 15 They are vanity, and the work of errors : at them.

in the time of their visitation they shall perish. 3 For the 'customs of the people are vain : 16 "The portion of Jacob is not like them : for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the for he is the former of all things; and Israel work of the hands of the workman, with the ax. is the rod of his inheritance: The LORD of

4 They deck it with silver and with gold; hosts is his name. they fasten it with nails and with hammers, 17 1 Gather up thy wares out of the land, that it move not.

O inhabitant of the fortress. 5 They are upright as the palm tree, but 18 For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will speak not: they must needs be borne, be- sling out the inhabitants of the land at this cause they cannot go. Be not afraid of them ; once, and will distress them, that they may for 'they cannot do evil, neither also is it in

find it so. them to do good.

19 | Woe is me for my hurt ! my wound 6 Forasmuch as there is none like unto is grievous : but I said, Truly this is a grief, thee, O LORD; thou art great, and thy name and I must bear it. is great in might.

20 My tabernacle is spoiled, and all my 7 Who would not fear thee, O King of cords are broken: my children are forth nations ? for 'to thee doth it appertain : for- of me, and they are not : there is none to asmuch as among all the wise men of the na- stretch forth my tent any more, and to set up tions, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee.

21 For the pastors are become brutish, and 8 But they are altogether obrutish and have not sought the LORD; therefore they

' foolish : the stock is a doctrine of vanities. shall not prosper, and all their flocks shall be

9 Silver spread into plates is brought from scattered. Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of 22 Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, the workman, and of the hands of the founder: and a great commotion out of the ''north blue and purple is their clothing: they are all country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, the work of cunning men.

and a "den of dragons. 10 But the Lord is the ''true God, he is 23 T O Lord, I know that the a'way of the living God, and an "everlasting king : at man is not in himself: it is not in man that his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the na- walketh to direct his steps. tions shall not be able to abide his indigna- 24 O Lord, "correct me, but with judgtion.

ment; not in thine anger, lest thou bring me 11 Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods to nothing. that have not made the heavens and the earth, 25 ?*Pour out thy fury upon the heathen even they shall perish from the earth, and from that know thee not, and upon the families under these heavens.

that call not on thy name : for they have 12 He''hath made the earth by his power, eaten up Jacob, and devoured him, and conhe hath established the world by his wisdom, sumed him, and have made his habitation and hath stretched out the heavens by his dis- desolate. cretion. i Heb. statutes, or, ordinances are vanity.


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2 Psal. 115.5.
3 Isa. 46. 1. 7.

4 Isa. 41. 23.

5 Psal. 86. 8. 10 6 R 5.4.

7 Or, it

Hab. 2. 18. Zech. 10. 2. 8 Heb. in one, or, at once.

9 Isa. 41.2 10 Heb. God of truth. 11 Heb. king of eternity.

12 Gen, 1. 1, 6. Chap. 51. 15.

13 Or, noise. 14 Or, for rain. 15 Or, is more brutish than to know.

18 Heb, inhabitress.

16 Chap 51. 17, 18. 17 Chap. 51. 19. 19 Chap. 1. 15, and 5. 15, and 6. 22. 20 Chap. 9. 11.

21 Prov. 61. 1, and 20.24. 22 Psal. 6. 1, and 38. 1. Chap. 30, 11. 23 Heb. diminish me.

24 Psal. 79, 6.


Verse 2. Be not dismayed at the signs of heaven.'- of a human head or bust. This form of representing the This is generally applied to astrology ; but we should gods was preserved, with improvements suggested by adrather think it to refer to those unusual natural phenomena, vanced taste, in the terminal statues of Hermes and of such as eclipses, which in the ancient superstitions certainly Pan, long after the art of sculpture had progressed far did . dismay the heathen, being regarded by them as the beyond the circumstances in which such forms originated. harbingers and tokens of great public calamities. Many A step beyond this original contrivance is exhibited in the instances of the dismay which eclipses inspired might be Egyptian statues which meet our eyes in every exhibition cited. We may quote two of them. Nicias, the Athenian general, had determined to quit Sicily with his army; but an eclipse of the moon happening at that juncture, filled him with such alarm that he lost the favourable moment. This was the occasion of his own death and the ruin of his army; and this was so unhappy a loss to the Athenians, that the decline of their state may perhaps be dated from that event. Even the army of Alexander, before the battle of Arbela, was so frightened at an eclipse of the moon, that the soldiers, deeming it a sign that the gods were displeased at the enterprise of their leader, refused to proceed on their march from the Tigris, till assured by the Egyptian soothsayers that an eclipse of the moon was an omen of peculiar evil to their enemies the Persians. R. Jarchi expressly refers the present text to the terror which eclipses occasioned.


of Egyptian antiquities, or in books containing representa-
tions of them, in which the statues stand bolt upright,
resting equally on both legs, which are close to each other,
with the arms straight down by the sides. It is the same
even in seated figures, which sit perfectly erect, and all
the forms are rectangular, the back parts being indeed
never rounded, but attached to a perpendicular mass of
stone. This form of representation, as the most ancient,
seems in Egypt to have been retained for all gods (as it
was elsewhere for some gods) long after the Egyptians
had acquired the art of representing the human form in
sculpture under various circumstances of spirited action.
To all such figures, which doubtless typify the forms of
idols which prevailed in the time of the prophet, the com-
parison 'upright as the palm-tree' is singularly appro-
priate, and is no doubt intended to characterise the stiff-
ness, lifelessness, and want of natural action which belonged
to such representations.
9. · Uphaz'—This is probably the same as Ophir.
Blue and purple is their clothing.'- This of course


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taste, and was in its origin a substitute for skilful imitation
by art, we have ample evidence of its existence in Europe;
and, as consecrated by antiquity and appropriated to par.
ticular idols, of its being retained and extensively displayed
in Greece and Rome, even when the art of sculpture had
attained its most perfect condition. Pausanias mentions
numerous statues thus attired in the various cities of
Greece which he visited; and there is much other testi-
mony to the same effect. Tertullian says, that the gods
and goddesses, like opulent females, had ministers parti-
cularly entrusted with the duty of arraying their images.
The practice was far more general than is commonly sup-
posed; for not only were imperfect statues, made to be
dressed, thus attired, but perfect and highly-finished ones
of bronze and marble. Vopiscus has an anecdote, which
furnishes a very striking illustration of the present text,
Sextus Julius Saturninus, a general under Probus, having
been saluted as Augustus at Alexandria, and wishing to
avoid this dangerous honour, retired into Palestine. But
he was there also assailed by the soldiers, who extorted
from him a reluctant acquiescence; when, in their haste
to invest him with the ensigns of his imperial rank, they
divested a statue of Venus of its purple robe, and covered
with it the new emperor.

However strange this practice of clothing statues with
real draperies may appear to us, there can be no doubt
that it told effectively upon the minds of the undiscerning
multitude, to whom the less there was of art the more
perfect was the illusion. Images so arrayed were thus
adapted to impress upon their

credulous minds the sense of a material existence, effective and local, in the god which was thus placed before them in a palpable form, invested with the attributes of reality and life. Thus the superstitious spirit of all idolatry concurred with the attachment to ancient customs to keep up this usage. And a still more operative reason was found in the interest of the priests, who derived no small profits from the robes and ornaments which were lavishly offered by the devotees, and which, when they had been a little worn by! the idols, became their due. It seems that, at least in some instances, the illusion was carried on so far, that the dresses of the idols were changed according to the season. Thus Pausanias mentions a brazen statue of Neptune at Elis, which was about the size of a large man, and was clad sometimes in woollen raiment, and at others in linen and byssus. There is much information in this and other

matters concerning the ancient idols in the sixth chapter SEATED EGYPTIAN IDOL.--Verse 5.-British Museum.

of the Apocryphal book of Baruch. Of the Babylonian alludes to the idol-statues, and to the custom of clothing idols it is said, “Whose gold, and silver, and garments them with real dresses of rich stuffs. This was a very wherewith they are clothed, they that are strong do take, ancient and general practice, which still subsists in Pagan neither are they able to help themselves.'... The priests Asia, where may be seen pagodas full of coloured images, also take off their garments to clothe their wives and clothed in costly manufactured stuffs and ornaments. This children.'...' And ye shall know them to be no gods by practice arose in the early state of the imitative art, or the bright purple that rotteth upon them' (verses 32, 58, rather it exemplifies imitation without art; and scarcely 72). See Le Jupiter Olympien, by M. Quatreinère de perhaps even imitation-being rather the repetition of a Quincy, par. 2; where this subject is fully and very ably reality. Although this practice was peculiarly in Asiatic investigated.

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3 And say thou unto them, Thus saith the

LORD God of Israel ; 'Cursed be the man 1 Jeremiah proclaimeth God's covenant, 8 rebuketh the that obeyeth not the words of this covenant,

Jews' disobeying thereof, 11 prophesieth evils to come
upon them, 18 and upon the men of Anathoth, for day that I brought them forth out of the land

4 Which I commanded your fathers in the conspiring to kill him.

of Egypt, from the iron furnace, saying, 'Obey The word that came to Jeremiah from the my voice, and do them, according to all which LORD, saying,

I command you: so shall ye be my people, 2 Hear ye the words of this covenant, and and I will be your

God: speak unto the men of Judah, and to the in- 5 That I may perform the Soath which I habitants of Jerusalem ;

have sworn unto your fathers, to give them a 1 Deut. 27. 26. Gal. 3. 10.

2 Lev. 26. 3. 12.

3 Deut. 7. 12.


land flowing with milk and honey, as it is this neither lift up a cry or prayer for them: for day. Then answered I, and said, 'So be it, I will not hear them in the time that they cry O LORD.

unto me for their trouble. 6 Then the LORD said unto me, Proclaim 15 15 l*What hath my beloved to do in all these words in the cities of Judah, and in mine house, seeing she hath wrought lewdness the streets of Jerusalem, saying, Hear ye the with many, and the holy flesh is passed from words of this covenant, and do them.

thee? when thou doest evil, then thou re7 For I earnestly protested unto your joicest. fathers in the day that I brought them up out

16 The LORD called thy name, A green of the land of Egypt, even unto this day, olive tree, fair, and of goodly fruit: with the rising early and protesting, saying, Obey my noise of a great tumult he hath kindled fire voice.

upon it, and the branches of it are broken. 8 Yet they obeyed not, nor inclined their 17 For the LORD of hosts, that planted thee, ear, but walked every one in the 'imagination hath pronounced evil against thee, for the evil of their evil heart: therefore I will bring of the house of Israel and of the house of upon them all the words of this covenant, Judah, which they have done against themwhich I commanded them to do; but they did selves to provoke me to anger in offering inthem not.

cense unto Baal. 9 And the LORD said unto me, A con

18 1 And the Lord hath given me knowspiracy is found among the men of Judah, and ledge of it, and I know it: then thou shewedst among the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

me their doings. 10 They are turned back to the iniquities 19 But I was like a lamb or an ox that is of their forefathers, which refused to hear my brought to the slaughter; and I knew not that words; and they went after other gods to they had devised devices against me, saying,

; serve them: the house of Israel and the house Let us destroy the tree with the fruit thereof, of Judah have broken my covenant which I and let us cut him off from the land of the made with their fathers.

living, that his name may be no more remem11 | Therefore thus saith the LORD, Be- bered. hold, I will bring evil upon them, which they 20 But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest shall not be able to escape ; and though they righteously, that "triest the reins and the

' shall cry unto me, I will not hearken unto heart, let me see thy vengeance on them : for them.

unto thee have I revealed my cause. 12 Then shall the cities of Judah and inha- 21 Therefore thus saith the LORD of the bitants of Jerusalem go, and cry unto the gods men of Anathoth, that seek thy life, saying, unto whom they offer incense: but they shall Prophesy not in the name of the Lord, that not save them at all in the time of their thou die not by our hand : Strouble.

22 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, 13 For according to the number of thy Behold, I will punish them: the young men 'cities were thy gods, 0 Judah ; and according shall die by the sword ; their sons and their to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have daughters shall die by famine: ye set up altars to that '°shameful thing, even

23 And there shall be no remnant of them : altars to burn incense unto Baal.

for I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, 14 Therefore ''pray not thou for this people, even the year of their visitation. 4 Heb. Anen.

6 Heb. to go forth of. 7 Prov. 1. 28. Isa. 1. 15. Chap. 14. 12. Ezek, 8. 18. Micah 3. 4.

15 Or, when thy evil is.
17 i Sam. 16. 7. 1 Chron, 28. 9. Psal. 7. 9. Chap. 17. 10, and 20. 12. Rev. 2. 25.

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5 Or, stubbornness. a Heb. evil. 9 Clap. 2. 28. 10 Heb. shame.

14 Heb. What is to my beloved in my house !

11 Chap. 7. 16, and 14. 11.

12 Heb, evil. 13 Isa. 1. 11, &c. 16 leb, the stalk with his bread.

18 Heb. visit upon.

Verse 13. ' According to the number of thy cities were thy gods.'-This seems to indicate about the lowest depth of idolatry. This deplorable manifestation of the corruption of the Hebrews was evidently borrowed from their heathen neighbours, among whom there were not only certain great gods worshipped everywhere in common, but others who were honoured as the tutelary divinities of particular towns; and there was scarcely any town without one. Some of these idols were little known beyond the town or district in which they were specially honoured. The gods particularly selected as tutelary divinities were such as,

from some cause or other, were supposed to regard the place with peculiar favour; and many were believed to have been born in the towns they protected. This practice certainly existed among all the natious bordering ou Palestine; but it is best known to us as existing among the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. There are instances in Scripture of the disposition of the heathen to regard JEHOVAH as such a god as this, without allowing that he alone was entitled to the general and exclusive worship of mankind. See 2 Kings xvii., and the note there.


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9 Mine heritage is unto me as a ''speckled

bird, the birds round about are against her; 1 Jeremiah, complaining of the wicked's prosperity, by faith seeth their ruin. 5 God admonisheth him of *come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, his brethren's treachery against him, 7 and lamentelh come to devour. his heritage. 14 He promiseth to the penitent a re- 10 Many pastors have destroyed my vineturn from captivity.

yard, they have trodden my portion under foot, Righteous art thou, O LORD, when I plead they have made my ''pleasant portion a desowith thee: yet 'let me talk with thee of thy late wilderness. judgments : Wherefore doth the way of the 11 They have made it desolate, and being wicked prosper? wherefore are all they happy desolate it mourneth unto me; the whole land that deal very treacherously ?

is made desolate, because no man layeth it to 2 Thou hast planted them, yea, they have heart. taken root : "they grow, yea, they bring forth 12 The spoilers are come upon all high fruit : thou art near in their mouth, and far places through the wilderness : for the sword from their reins.

of the LORD shall devour from the one end of 3 But thou, O LORD, 'knowest me : thou the land even to the other end of the land : no hast seen me, and tried mine heart 'toward flesh shall have peace. thee: pull them out like sheep for the slaugh- 13 "They have sown wheat, but shall reap ter, and prepare them for the day of slaughter. thorns: they have put themselves to pain, but

: 4 How long shall the land mourn, and the shall not profit: and they shall be ashamed of herbs of every field wither, "for the wicked- your revenues because of the fierce anger ness of them that dwell therein ? the beasts the LORD. are consumed, and the birds ; because they 14 9 Thus saith the Lord against all mine said, Ile shall not see our last end.

evil neighbours, that touch the inheritance 5 If thou hast run with the footmen, and which I have caused my people Israel to inhetliey have wearied thee, then how canst thou rit; Behold, I will pluck them out of their contend with horses ? and if in the land of land, and pluck out the house of Judah from peace, wherein thou trustedst, they wearied

among them. thee, then how wilt thou do in the swelling of 15 And it shall come to pass, after that I Jordan ?

have plucked them out I will return, and have 6 For even 'thy brethren, and the house of compassion on them, and will bring them thy father, even they have dealt treacherously again, every man to his heritage, and every with thee; yea, @they have called a multitude man to his land. after thee : believe them not, though they 16 And it shall come to pass, if they will speak "fair words unto thee.

diligently learn the ways of my people, to 7 9 I have forsaken mine house, I have left swear by my name, The Lord liveth ; as they mine heritage; I have given the dearly be- taught my people to swear by Baal; then shall

'° loved of my soul into the hand of her enemies. they be built in the midst of my people.

8 Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the i7 But if they will not · Robey, I will utterly forest ; it'l'crieth out against me: therefore pluck up and destroy that nation, saith the have I hated it.







3 Heb, they go on.

4 Psal. 17, 3. 1 Or, let me reason the case with thec. 2 Job 21. 7. Psal. 37. 1, and 73. 3. Hab. 1. 1. 5 Heb. with thee.

6 Psal. 107, 34, 7 Clay. 9. 4. 8 Or, they cried after thee fully. 9 Heb. good things. 10 Ileb. the lore. 11 Or, yelleth. 12 Heb. gireth out his voice. 13 Or, having talons. 14 Or, cause them to come.

17 Deut. 30. 3. Chap. 32. 37.

18 Isa. 60. 12. 15 Feb. portion of desire. 16 Levit. 26. 16. Deut. 28. 38. Micah 6. 13. Ilag. 1. 6.

Verse 5. Run with the footmen,' etc.—There is perhaps an allusion here to the running footmen, concerning whom an explanation has been given under Sam. viii. 8, 11. Here they seem to be supposed to run with mounted horsemen, but there with chariots. A statement regarding both is given in the note upon the text referred to.

9. 'A speckled bird?- The words (YITY O'Yn ha-'ait tzaboa) have occasioned considerable perplexity to the interpreters of Scripture. The Seventy render it" hyena' (vaiń), which is sanctioned by the use of the word tzaboa in the Arabic, and is followed by Bochart, Gesenius,

Boothroyd, and many others. In the language of the Talmud it means a she leopard or panther. But then some difficulty arises from the fact that b'y usually deuotes birds of prey, and the above explanations render it necessary that it should be a beast in the present instance. This consideration operated so strongly with Dr. Blayney, that he translates the bird tzaboa,' not professing to understand what bird the tzaboa was. Jerome supposes it was the peucock, and various doubtful alternatives of speckled or spotted birds have been suggested by others.

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