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hid it: and, behold, the girdle was marred, it

was profitable for nothing. 1 In the type of a linen girdle, hidden at Euphrates,

8 Then the word of the LORD came unto God prefigureth the destruction of his people. 12 Under the parable of the bottles filled with wine, he me, saying, foretelleth their drunkenness in misery. 15 He ex- 9 Thus saith the LORD, After this manner horteth to prevent their future judgments. 22 He

will I mar the pride of Judah, and the great sheweth that their abominations are the cause thereof.

pride of Jerusalem. Thus saith the LORD unto me, Go and get 10 This evil people, which refuse to hear thee a linen girdle, and put it upon thy loins, my words, which walk in the 'imagination of

a and put it not in water.

their heart, and walk after other gods, to serve 2 So I got a girdle according to the word them, and to worship them, shall even be as of the Lori, and put it on my loins.

this girdle, which is good for nothing. 3 And the word of the LORD came unto me 11 For as the girdle cleaveth to the loins of the second time, saying,

a man, so have I caused to cleave unto me the 4 Take the girdle that thou hast got, which whole house of Israel and the whole house of is upon thy loins, and arise, go to Euphrates, Judah, saith the LORD; that they might be

, and hide it there in a hole of the rock. unto me for a people, and for a name, and for

5 So I went, and hid it by Euphrates, as a praise, and for a glory: but they would not the LORD commanded me.

hear. 6 And it came to pass after many days, that 12 | Therefore thou shalt speak unto them the LORD said unto me, Arise, go to Eu- this word ; Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, phrates, and take the girdle from thence, which Every bottle shall be filled with wine : and I commanded thee to hide there.

they shall say unto thee, Do we not certainly 7 Then I went to Euphrates, and digged, know that every bottle shall be filled with wine? and took the girdle from the place where I had 13 Then shalt thou say unto them, Thus

i Or, stubbornness. VOL. III.


saith the LORD, Behold, I will fill all the in- 20 Lift up your eyes, and behold them that habitants of this land, even the kings that sit come from the north : where is the flock that upon David's throne, and the priests, and the

was given thee, thy beautiful flock ? prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 21 What wilt thou say when he shall with drunkenness.

*punish thee? for thou hast taught them to be 14 And I will dash them 'one against an- captains, and as chief over thee: shall not other, even the fathers and the sons together, sorrows take thee, as a woman in travail ? saith the LORD : I will not pity, nor spare, 22 1 And if thou say in thine heart, 'Wherenor have mercy, 'but destroy them.

fore come these things upon me? For the 15 I Hear ye, and give ear; be not proud: greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts disfor the LORD hath spoken.

covered, and thy heels made bare. 16 Give glory to the LORD your God, be- 23 Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or fore he cause darkness, and before your feet the leopard his spots ? then may ye also do stumble upon the dark mountains, and, while good, that are ''accustomed to do evil. ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow of 24 Therefore will I scatter them as the death, and make it gross darkness.

stubble that passeth away by the wind of the 17 But if ye will not hear it, my soul shall wilderness. weep in secret places for your pride; and 25 This is thy lot, the portion of thy mea'mine


shall weep sore, and run down with sures from me, saith the LORD; because tears, because the LORD's flock is carried away thou hast forgotten me, and trusted in falsecaptive.

hood. 18 Say unto the king and to the queen,

26 Therefore will I discover thy skirts upon Humble yourselves, sit down: for your oprin- thy face, that thy shame may appear. cipalities shall come down, even the crown of 27 I have seen thine adulteries, and thy your glory.

neighings, the lewdness of thy whoredom, and 19 The cities of the south shall be shut up, thine abominations on the hills in the fields. and none shall open them : Judah shall be Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem! wilt thou not carried away captive all of it, it shall be wholly be made clean? 'when shall it once be ? carried away captive. 2 Heb. a man against his brother.

3 Heb. from destroying them. 6 Or, head tires. 8 Chap. 5. 19, and 16. 10. 9 Or, shall be violently taken away.

10 Heb. ungkt. 11 Heb. after when yeti



4 Isa. 8. 22.

5 Lam. 1.2, 16, and 2, 18,

7 Heb. visit upon.

Verse 1. Get thee a linen girdle.'— The prophet had probably been accustomed to wear a girdle of leather; and hence the particular direction as to the quality of the girdle he was now to procure. The girdles now most usually worn in the East consist of long pieces of linen, cotton, or silk, wound in numerous folds around the waist. The girdles of linen or cotton are usually plain, but sometimes figured with silk. Girdles of silk are in some countries confined to the upper classes, but in others they form a part of national costume, as among the Koords, whose girdles are wholly, or in great part, of silk, and usually exhibit a plaided pattern. But muslin is the most general material of girdles. These are commonly white; but those who cannot afford the expense or trouble of keeping them clean often wear them coloured. The girdles of white muslin are sometimes flowered or embroidered with gold, silver, coloured silk, or ingrain cotton. Rich shawls, or shawl stuffs, are also used by persons of station for the same purpose. Great importance is attached to the girdle; the size, richness, and fineness of which marks the dignity of the wearer. From this seems to arise the meaning of the present figurative action, in


which marring the girdle is understood as equivalent to
marring the pride, the dignity, and importance of Judah.
The fashion of wearing the girdle varies in different parts ;
in some countries we find it folded wide upon the waist

, as
among the Turks and Arabians; whilst in Persia it is
folded in as narrow and thick a mass as possible over the
tight body vest, and has thus a very singular appearance.
When a loose robe is worn over it, it adds greatly to the
apparent bulk of the figure: and bulk is dignity in the
East. Girdles of other classes have already been noticed
in the course of this work.

4. · Hide it there in a hole of the rock.'—This seems to have been in accordance, for typical purposes, with a practice some traces of which may be found in most nations. Mr. Roberts says :— The Hindoos have a custom of burying certain articles by the side of a tank or river, in order to inflict or prefigure evil in reference to certain ob noxious individuals. Thus eggs, human hair, thread, a ball of saffron, or a little of the earth on which the de. voted person has had his feet, are buried in the situations alluded to.'


the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see

the sword, neither shall ye have famine; but I 1 The grievous famine 7 causeth Jeremiah to pray. 10 The Lord will not be entreated for the people.

' will give you 'assured peace in this place.

14 Then the Lord said unto me, The pro13 Lying prophets no excuse for them. 17 Jeremiah is moved to complain for them.

phets prophesy lies in my name: 'I sent them

not, neither have I commanded them, neither Tue word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah spake unto them : they prophesy unto you a

a concerning 'the dearth.

false vision and divination, and a thing of 2 Judah mourneth, and the gates thereof nought, and the deceit of their heart. languish ; they are black unto the ground; 15 Therefore thus saith the LORD concernand the cry of Jerusalem is gone up:

ing the prophets that prophesy in my name, 3 And their nobles have sent their little and I sent them not, yet they say, Sword and ones to the waters : they came to the pits, and famine shall not be in this land ; By sword found no water; they returned with their and famine shall those prophets be consumed. vessels empty; they were ashamed and con- 16 And the people to whom they prophesy founded, and covered their heads.

shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem 4 Because the ground is chapt, for there because of the famine and the sword; and was no rain in the earth, the plowmen were they shall have none to bury them, them, ashamed, they covered their heads.

their wives, nor their sons, nor their daugh5 Yea, the hind also calved in the field, and ters : for I will pour their wickedness upon forsook it, because there was no grass.

them. 6 And the wild asses did stand in the high 17 | Therefore thou shalt say this word places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons ; unto them ; 'Let mine eyes run down with their eyes

did fail, because there was no grass. tears night and day, and let them not cease : 79

7. O Lord, though our iniquities testify for the virgin daughter of my people is broken against us, do thou it for thy name's sake: for with a great breach, with a very grievous our backslidings are many; we have sinned blow. against thee.

18 If I go forth into the field, then behold 8 O the hope of Israel, the saviour thereof the slain with the sword ! and if I enter into in time of trouble, why shouldest thou be as a the city, then behold them that are sick with

the stranger in the land, and as a wayfaring man famine! yea, both the prophet and the priest that turneth aside to tarry for a night? ogo about into a land that they know not.

9 Why shouldest thou be as a man asto- 19 Hast thou utterly rejected Judah? hath nished, as a mighty man that cannot save? yet thy soul lothed Zion? why hast thou smitten thou, O LORD, art in the midst of us, and 'we us, and there is no healing for us? 'we looked are called by thy name; leave us not. for peace, and there is no good ; and for the

10 ? Thus saith the LORD unto this people, time of healing, and behold trouble ! Thus have they loved to wander, they have 20 We acknowledge, O LORD, our wicknot refrained their feet, therefore the LORD edness, and the iniquity of our fathers : for doth not accept them; he will now remember ''we have sinned against thee. their iniquity, and visit their sins.

21 Do not abhor us, for thy name's sake, do 11 Then said the LORD unto me, 'Pray not disgrace the throne of thy glory: rememnot for this people for their good.

ber, break not thy covenant with us. 12 “When they fast, I will not hear their 22 Are there any among the vanities of the cry; and when they offer burnt offering and Gentiles that can cause rain? or can the heaan oblation, I will not accept them: but I will vens give showers ? art not thou he, O LORD consume them by the sword, and by the famine, our God ? therefore we will wait


thee : and by the pestilence.

for thou hast made all these things. 13 | Then said I, Ah, Lord God! behold, 1 Heb. the words of the dearths, or, restraints.

3 Exod. 32. 10. Chap. 7. 16, and 11. 14.

5 Heb. peace of truth.
7 Chap. 13. 17. Lam. 1. 16, and 2. 18. 8 OT, make merchandize against á land, and men acknowledge it not, chap. 5. 31.

9 Chap. 8. 15.

2 Heb. thy name is called upon us. Isa. 1. 15. Chap. 11. 11. Ezek. 8. 18. Mic. 3. 4.

4 Prov. 1. 28.

6 Chap. 23. 21, and 27. 15, and 29. 8, 9.

10 Psal. 106. 6. Dan. 9. 8.

Verse 4. ' The ground is chapt, for there was no rain in the earth.'— The whole of this remarkable description of the effects of continued drought upon the earth, and upon men and animals, is very beautifully illustrated by the

description which Tasso gives of the sufferings of the Christian army under the walls of Jerusalem. We may quote from it rather largely, with the less hesitation, as it is perfectly clear, from the minute accuracy of the details,

that the poet, in this and many of his other descriptions, Now weak and feeble cast their limbs along,
spoke from authentic records or traditional information. Unwieldy burdens, on the burned clay ;
We must omit some parts of the description, though its And in each vein a smould'ring fire there dwelt,
effect will be much impaired by abridgment:-

Which dried their flesh, and solid bones did melt.'

FAIRFAX. Edit. Windsor ; 1817. • The leaves grew wan upon the wither'd sprays,

The grass and growing herb all parched were; A more true description than this, of an Oriental drought, Earth cleft in rifts, in floods each stream decays,

in its leading circumstances and effects, we have never And barren clouds with lightning bright appear.

yet seen. After long drought in the East, particularly Still was the air, the rack nor came nor went,

where the soil is rich and hard, the ground splits into But o'er the land, with lukewarm breathing, flies

wide and deep fissures, which, when exhibited to any conThe southern wind, from sunburnt Afric sent,

siderable extent, render cultivation impracticable, and Which, thick and warm, his interrupted blast

travelling troublesome if not dangerous. This did not Upon their bosoms, throats, and faces cast.

escape Tasso, and is noticed in our present text.

22. Are there any among the vanities of the Gentiles Nor yet more comfort brought the gloomy night;

that can cause rain ?'-—By this it would seem that a pracIn her thick shades was burning heat uprolid,

tice common among barbarous tribes-such as those of Her sable mantle was embroider'd bright

America and South Africa—was not known anciently in With blazing stars and gliding fires for gold;

Western Asia. Among those nations there are always Nor to refresh (sad Earth!) thy thirsty sprite

men who pretend to such special power with heaven as to The niggard moon let fall her May-dews cold;

be able to cause rain at their will. This is, however, a And dried up the vital moisture was

profession of some danger, as in a season of excessive In trees, in plants, in herbs, in flowers, in grass.

drought the rain-maker is liable to the suspicion of reAnd little Siloe, that his store bestows

fusing or neglecting to employ the powers rested in him. Of purest crystal on the Christian hands,

The Rev. J. Campbell says that a nation seldom employs The pebbles naked in his channel shows,

its own rain-maker, generally thinking that those at a And scantly glides above the scorched sands.

distance have more power to produce rain than those at He that the gliding rivers erst had seen,

home. These men will seldom bear close questioning. Adown their verdant channels gently roll’d,

Campbell asked one of them if he seriously believed that Or falling streams that to the valleys green,

he had power to make rain when he pleased ? He replied

that he could not say he had, but that he used means to Distillid from tops of Alpine mountains cold, These he desired in vain, new torments been

bring it, such as rolling great stones down the sides of the Augmented thus with wish of comforts old;

mountains to bring down the clouds. A more recent traThose waters cool he drank in vain conceit,

veller, pressing an American Indian rain-maker, extracted Which more increased his thirst, increased his heat.

from him that the secret of his power lay in a brilliant

talisman which he had found buried under a tree, and The sturdy bodies of the warriors strong,

which he wore constantly about him. This was relucWhom neither marching far, nor tedious way, tantly produced, and being withdrawn from the envelopes Nor weighty arms which on their shoulders hong, by which it was carefully protected, proved to be the Could weary make, nor death itself dismay,

stopper of a glass decanter.


into all kingdoms of the earth, because of | The utter rejection and manifold judgments of the

'Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, Jews. 10 Jeremiah, complaining of their spite, for that which he did in Jerusalem. receiveth a promise for himself, 12 and a threatening 5 For who shall have pity upon thee, O for them. 15 He prayeth, 19 and receiveth a

Jerusalem ? or who shall bemoan thee? or who gracious promise.



aside ''to ask how thou doest ? They said the LORD unto me, 'Though 6 Thou hast forsaken me, saith the LORD, ? Moses and 'Samuel stood before me, yet my thou art gone backward : therefore will I mind could not be toward this people: cast stretch out my hand against thee, and destroy them out of my sight, and let them go forth. thee; I am weary with repenting.

2 And it shall come to pass, if they say unto 7 And I will fan them with a fan in the thee, Whither shall we go forth ? then thou gates of the land ; I will bereave them of shalt tell them, Thus saith the LORD; Such children, I will destroy my people, since they as are for death, to death ; and such as are for return not from their ways. the sword, to the sword; and such as are for 8 Their widows are increased to me above the famine, to the famine ; and such as are for the sand of the seas: I have brought upon the captivity, to the captivity.

them "against the mother of the young men a 3 And I will 'appoint over them four okinds, spoiler at noonday: I have caused him to fall saith the LORD: the sword to slay, and the upon it suddenly, and terrors upon the city. dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and 9 She that hath borne seven languisheth: the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy. she hath given up the ghost ; ''her sun is gone 4 And 'I will cause them to be Sremoved down while it was yet day: she hath been 1 Ezek, 14. 14. 2 Exod. 32. 11, 14.

31 Sam. 7. 9.

4 Chap. 43. 11. Zech. 11. 9. 6 Heb. families. 7 Heb. I roill gire them for a remoring.

8 Deut. 28. 25. Chap. 24. 9. 10 Heb. to ask of thy peace.

11 Or, whatsoerer is dear. 12 Or, against the mother city a young man spoiling, &c., or, against the mother and the young men.

5 Levit. 26. 16, &c.

9 2 Kings 21. 11.

13 Amos 8. 9.


ashamed and confounded : and the residue of 16 Thy words were found, and I did 'eat them will I deliver to the sword before their them; and thy word was unto me the joy and enemies, saith the LORD.

rejoicing of mine heart: for "'I am called by 10 q 'Woe is me, my mother, that thou thy name, O Lord God of hosts. hast borne me a man of strife and a man of 17 I sat not in the assembly of the mockers, contention to the whole earth! I have neither nor rejoiced; I sat alone because of thy hand : lent on usury, nor men have lent to me on for thou hast filled me with indignation. tisury; yet every one of them doth curse me. 18 Why is my pain perpetual, and my

11 The LORD said, Verily it shall be well wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed ? with thy remnant; verily "I will cause the wilt thou be altogether unto me as a liar, and enemy to entreat thee well in the time of evil as waters that fail ? and in the time of affliction.

19 | Therefore thus saith the LORD, If 12 Shall iron break the northern iron and thou return, then will I bring thee again, and the steel?

thou shalt stand before me: and if thou take 13 Thy substance and thy treasures will I forth the precious from the vile, thou shalt be give to the 'ospoil without price, and that for as my mouth : let them return unto thee; but all thy sins, even in all thy borders.

return not thou unto them. 14 And I will make thee to pass with thine 20 And I will make thee unto this people enemies into a land which thou knowest not: a fenced brasen a'wall : and they shall fight for a ''fire is kindled in mine anger, which against thee, but they shall not prevail shall burn upon you.

against thee: for I am with thee to save thee 15 0 LORD, thou knowest : remember and to deliver thee, saith the LORD.

O me, and visit me, and revenge me of my per- 21 And I will deliver thee out of the hand secutors ; take me not away in thy long-suf- of the wicked, and I will redeem thee out of fering: know that for thy sake I have suffered the hand of the terrible. rebuke. 14 Job 3. 1, &e. Chap. 20. 14. 15 Or, I will intreat the enemy for thee. 18 Chap. 17. 3.

19 Heb. thy name is called upon me. 90 Chap. 30. 15. 22 Chap. 1. 18, and 6. 27.

23 Chap. 20. 11, 12.

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17 Deut. 32. 22. 91 Heb. be not sure.

18 Ezek. 3. 3. Rev. 10. 9.

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Verse 3. I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord: the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy.' - The best commentary on this would be the description of an oriental battle-field after the action. Forbes (i. 365) has partly supplied this :- > The river dividing the armies, our fatigued troops were incapable of pursuing flying cavalry; we therefore marched a mile farther, and encamped near Hossamlee, on the ground lately occupied by the enemy, who in that expectation had cut down the trees, destroyed the villages, and burnt all the corn and provender they could not carry off; the surrounding plain, deprived of its verdant ornaments, was covered with putrid carcases and burning ashes; the hot wind wafting from these fetid odours, and dispersing the ashes among the tents, rendered our encampment extremely disagreeable. During the night, hyænas, jackals, and wild beasts of various kinds, allured by the scent, prowled over the field

with a horrid noise; and the next morning a multitude of vultures, kites, and birds of prey were seen asserting their claim to a share of the dead."

12. The northern iron.'-- This text of course intimates that this northern iron was superior to all other then known. Grotius, with whom some later commentators concur, supposes that it denotes, in the primary sense, that kind of hardened iron or steel, called in Geeek xáxuy, from the Chalybes, a people bordering on the Euxine Sea, and consequently to the north of Judæa, by whom the art of tempering steel is said to have been discovered. In this verse the iron' of course represents the Jews, and the northern iron' the Chaldeans, as some explain, or, as others, Jeremiah himself.

18. As a liar, and as waters that fail.' —Blayney translates, “As the lying of waters that are not sure. However translated, the allusion is probably to the sarab--the delusive appearance of water in the desert.


1 The prophet, under the types of abstaining from

marriage, from houses of mourning and feasting, foresheweth the utter ruin of the Jews, 10 because they were worse than their fathers. 14 Their return from captivity shall be stranger than their deliverance out of Egypt. 16 God will doubly recompense their

idolatry. The word of the LORD came also unto me, saying,

2 Thou shalt not take thee a wife, neither shalt thou have sons or daughters in this place.

3 For thus saith the LORD concerning the sons and concerning the daughters that are born in this place, and concerning their mothers that bare them, and concerning their fathers that begat them in this land;

4 They shall die of 'grievous deaths; they shall not be lamented; neither shall they be

1 Chap. 15, 2.

9 Chap 25. 33.

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