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buried; but they shall be as dung upon the the imagination of his evil heart, that they
'' face of the earth : and they shall be con- may not hearken unto me: sumed by the sword, and by famine; and 13 "Therefore will I cast you out of this their carcases shall be meat for the fowls of land into a land that ye know not, neither ye heaven, and for the beasts of the earth. nor your fathers; and there shall ye serre
5 For thus saith the LORD, Enter not into other gods day and night ; where I will not the house of ‘mourning, neither go to lament shew you favour.
. nor bemoan them : for I have taken away my
14°1 Therefore, behold, the "days come, peace from this people, saith the LORD, even saith the LORD, that it shall no more be said, lovingkindness and mercies.
The LORD liveth, that brought up the chil6 Both the great and the small shall die dren of Israel out of the land of Egypt ; in this land: they shall not be buried, neither 15 But, The Lord liveth, that brought shall men lament for them, nor "cut themselves, up the children of Israel from the land of nor make themselves bald for them :
the north, and from all the lands whither he 7 Neither shall men 'tear themselves for had driven them : and I will bring them them in mourning, to comfort them for the again into their land that I gave unto their
I dead; neither shall men give them the cup of fathers. consolation to drink for their father or for 16 | Behold, I will send for many fishers, their mother.
saith the LORD, and they shall fish them; 8 Thou shalt not also go into the house and after will I send for many hunters, and of feasting, to sit with them to eat and to they shall hunt them from every mountain, drink.
and from every hill, and out of the holes of 9 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the the rocks. God of Israel ; Behold, 'I will cause to cease 17 For mine eyes are upon all their ways: out of this place in your eyes, and in your they are not hid from my face, neither is their days, the voice of mirth, and the voice of iniquity hid from mine eyes. gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the 18 And first I will recompense their inivoice of the bride.
quity and their sin double ; because they have 10 9 And it shall come to
when defiled my land, they have filled mine inhethou shalt shew this people all these words, ritance with the carcases of their detestable and they shall say unto thee, 'Wherefore and abominable things. hath the LORD pronounced all this great evil 19 O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, , against us? or what is our iniquity? or what and my refuge in the day of affliction, the is our sin that we have committed against the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends LORD our God?
of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers 11 Then shalt thou say unto them, Be have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein
. cause your fathers have forsaken me, saith there is no profit. the Lord, and have walked after other gods, 20 Shall a man make gods unto himself, and have served them, and have worshipped and they are no gods?
' them, and have forsaken me, and have not 21 Therefore, behold, I will this once kept my law;
cause them to know, I will cause them to 12 And ye have done 'worse than your know mine hand and my might; and they fathers; for, behold, ye walk every one after shall know that my name is The LORD.
Lord 3 Psal. 79. 2. Chap. 7. 33, and 34. 20. 4 Or, mourning feast.
5 Levit. 19. 28. Deut. 14. 1. 6 Or, break bread for them, as Ezek. 24. 17. 7 Isa. 24. 7, 8. Chap. 7. 34, and 25. 10. Ezek. 26. 13. 8 Chap. 5. 19, and 13. 2. ġ Chap. 7. 26. 10 Or, stubbornness. 11 Deut. 4. 27, and 28. 64, 65. 19 Chap. 23. 7, 8.
13 Job 34. 21. Prov. 5. 21. Chap. 32. 19. 14 Chap. 2. 11.
Verse 6. ' They shall not be buried, etc.-In what follows there is a distinct allusion to the prominent funeral observances which appear to have prevailed among the Hebrews. In the following notes we shall offer a few observations on such of those practices as have not already been noticed, or which may not more conveniently be reserved for future illustration.
• Cut themselves.'_ The law forbade this manifestation of grief (Lev. xix. 28; Deut. xiv. 1); but from the present and other intimations we learn that it still continued to be exhibited, at least at times. The prohibition shews the custom. In like manner Mohammed endeavoured to
put a stop to this and other forms of the ancient mournings of ignorance,' as he called them; but the custom still maintains its ground in Moslem countries, particularly among the women, who, in this and many other instances, appear to have considered themselves exempted from the operation of the general precepts of their lawgiver, which they seem to regard as only intended for inen. Even men, however, sometimes wound themselves in excess of grief; but, when they do so, they usually employ lancets or other instruments, whereas the women are content to lacerate themselves with their nails. In the annual mourn. ing in Persia for Hossein, the son of the khaliph Ali, men, LAYING OUT AND MOURNING OVER THE DEAD.-From Camparini's Etruscan Tombs. wrought to a high pitch of excitement, run about as if sorrow. In some parts of the East, however, where the frantic, uttering doleful cries, and occasionally wounding men let their hair grow, they cut or shave it off on mournthemselves with lancets, till their persons were covered ing occasions. It appears from the curious narrative of with blood. Similar customs prevailed to some extent Peter Covillan (in Purchas) that the practice is retained among the Greeks. The women, more particularly, beat in Abyssinia, where so many customs analogous to those their breasts and thighs, and tore their flesh with their of the Hebrews are still in operation. The party received nails; but this practice was forbidden by Solon. Even the information of the death of their king, Emmanuel of Spartans, although they bore the loss of their relations Portugal: “And because it is the fashion of this country, with great moderation, yet bewailed the death of their when their friends die, to shave their heads, and not their great men by tearing their flesh with pins and needles. beards, and to clothe themselves with black apparel, we (See the authorities cited in Harwood's Grecian Antiqui- began to shave one another's head, and while we were ties, p. 364.) But examples of this custom might be ob- doing this, in came they which brought us our dinner ; tained from all parts of the world in different stages of who, when they saw this, they set down the meat upon the civilisation. Among others, the ancient Huns, and the ground, and ran to tell it unto the Prete, who suddenly modern islanders of the South Sea, might be cited : the sent two friars unto us, to understand what had fallen out. latter testified their grief by wounding themselves with a The ambassador could not answer him for the great lasharp shell or a shark's tooth.
mentation which he made, and I told them, as well as I • Make themselves bald.'—This is another custom of could, that the sun which gave us light was darkened, that mourning, as ancient and as prevalent as the preceding. is to say, that the king Don Emmanuel was departed this Its patriarchal antiquity is shewn in the case of Job, who, life ; and suddenly all of us began to make our moan, and when he heard of the desolation of his house, .arose, and the friars went their way.' It was also the well-known rent his mantle, and shaved his head.' It is not clear custom of the ancient Greeks to tear, cut off, or shave the whether more than a particular form of this practice was hair. Among them, the hair thus separated was someforbidden by the law of Moses (Deut. xiv. 1); but to the times laid upon the dead body as a mark of affection and priests it was certainly altogether interdicted'( Lev. xxi. 5). regret; sometimes it was cast upon the funeral pile to be It seems to have been
the custom of the Jews to cut, shave, consumed with the corpse; and on other occasions it was or rend the hair, both of the head and beard (see Ezra laid upon the grave. Upon the death of men of eminence ix. 3), but more particularly the former. Mohammed for- and valour, it was not unusual for whole cities and counbade the practice, as well as the other. The women, how- tries to be shaved. • This ceremony,' says Harwood, ever, do not attend to the prohibition : but the men, having was observed, because, as long hair was considered as their heads habitually shaven, cannot exhibit this sign of very becoming, they might appear careless and negligent
CUP OF CONSOLATION.- From Camparini's Etruscan Tombs.
of their beauty, and to render the ghost of the dead person propitious by throwing the hair together with the body into the fire. In times of public mourning they extended this ceremony even to the beasts. (Grec. Antiq. p. 363, where the authorities are given.) There was also a custom, any analogy to which among the Hebrews we do not remember, of hanging the hair of the dead person himself upon the door, to signify that the inmates were in a state of mourning.
7.' • The cup of consolation.'—This is doubtless the refreshment which after the funeral is supplied to the mourners, and by which they break, or are supposed to break, the fast they have maintained since the death took place. This is prepared and sent by the neighbours; the mourners being supposed to be too much absorbed in grief to think of their necessary food. The refreshment was of a very slight description, usually bread, wine, and fruits. At present it consists of eggs boiled hard, with a little salt, and a small loaf. (Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 439.) This is sometimes called the 'bread of bitterness ;' and is alluded to also in 2 Sam. iii. 35; Hos. ix. 4; Ezek. xxiv. 16, 17.
8. The house of feasting.'--This appears to refer to the funeral feast with which it was customary among different nations to conclude all the ceremonies of death, except those of the continued mourning by the relatives. It is not very clear when this took place; but it could not be till after the first three days, called the days of weeping,' were passed, as during that time the mourner could have no food prepared in his house, nor eat anything of his own.
(Lightfoot, Evercit, upon John xi. 19.) During this time he was supplied with food by his neighbours; and, as after this he might return to his customary fare, it is probable that the feast then took place. This entertainment was given by the chief mourner at his own house, if distinct from that in which the deceased had lived. Those invited were usually the friends and acquaintance of the family, including those neighbours who had sent food to the mourners during the days of weeping. The custom
of the funeral feast was well known to the classical an. cients, was kept up in England and other European countries till a comparatively recent period, and still prevails in many parts of the world. In these cases, however, the feast usually took place after the funeral. In this country, during the plague of 1569, one of the precautions taken to prevent the spread of the contagion was to prohibit the funeral dinners. (Maitland's London, i. 260.) As our engravings are derived from classical sources, we may just mention the custom of the Greeks, which, with
two exceptions, seem to have been similar to those of the Hebrews. When the funeral was over, it was a very ancient and long-continued custom to proceed to the house of the nearest relations of the dead, where an entertainment was provided. This ceremony was however omitted at the funeral of slaves. It seems that sometimes the entertainment preceded the funeral. The fragments that fell from the tables were considered sacred to the departed souls, and which it was therefore not lawful to eat. These were carried to the tomb and left there for the ghost. This piece of superstition we find very common among different nations, in which it is customary for a time to lay food near or upon the graves. These entertainments consisted of flesh, with all sorts of pulse, beans, peas, lettuces, parsley, eggs, etc.; and the persons present usually conversed upon the merits and qualities of the dead person. (Harwood, pp. 372, 373.) The Roman customs were very little different. Concerning the funeral banquet of the Jews, oue remarkable fact is furnished by Lightfoot :-—They drank ten cups in the house of mourning; two before meat, five while they were eating, and three after meat. When Rabban Simeon Ben-Gamaliel died, they added three
But, when the Sanhedrim saw that hence they became drunk, they made a decree against this.' (Exercit, upon Matt. ix. 23.) It is hence clear that no indecent excess in drinking was considered proper at such entertainments.
5 Thus saith the LORD; Cursed be the I The captivity of Judah for her sin. 5 Trust in man
man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh is cursed, 7 in God is blessed. 9 The deceitful heart his arm, and whose heart departeth from the cannot deceive God. 12 The salvation of God. LORD. 15 The prophet complaineth of the mockers of his 6 For he shall be like the heath in the prophecy. 19 He is sent to renew the covenant in
desert, and shall not see when good cometh; hallowing the sabbath.
but shall inhabit the parched places in the The sin of Judah is written with a 'pen of wilderness, in a salt land and not inhabited. iron, and with the point of a diamond : it is 7 °Blessed is the man that trusteth in the graven upon the table of their heart, and Lord, and whose hope the Lord is. upon the horns of your altars;
8 For he shall be as a tree planted by the 2 Whilst their children remember their waters, and that spreadeth out her roots by altars and their "groves by the green trees the river, and shall not see when heat cometh, upon the high hills.
but her leaf shall be green ; and shall not be 3 O my mountain in the field, 'I will give careful in the year of drought, neither shall thy substance and all thy treasures to the cease from yielding fruit. spoil, and thy high places for sin, throughout 9 9 The heart is deceitful above all things, all thy borders.
and desperately wicked: who can
can know 4 And thou, even 'thyself, shalt discon- it? tinue from thine heritage that I gave thee; 10 I the LORD 'search the heart, I try the and I will cause thee to serve thine enemies reins, even to give every man according to in the land which thou knowest not : for ye his ways, and according to the fruit of his have kindled a fire in mine anger, which shall doings. burn for ever.
11 As the partridge løsitteth on eggs, and
3 Judges 3. 7. Isa. 1. 29. • Chap. 15. 13. 3 Heb, in thyself. 6 Psal. 2. 12, and 34. 10, and 125. 1. Prov. 16. 20. Isa. 30. 18. 91 Sam. 16. 7. Psal. 7. 9. Chap. 11. 20, and 20. 12. 10 Or, gathereth young which she hath not brought furth.
1 Job 19. 24.
2 Heb, nail.
7 Psal. 1. 3.
8 Or, restraint.
hatcheth them not; so he that getteth riches, 21 Thus saith the LORD; Take heed to and not by right, shall leave them in the yourselves, and bear no burden on the sabbath midst of his days, and at his end shall be a day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerufool.
salem ; 12 1 A glorious high throne from the be- 22 Neither carry forth a burden out of ginning is the place of our sanctuary:
your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye 13 O LORD, the hope of Israel, all that any work, but hallow ye the sabbath day, as
Lord' forsake thee shall be ashamed, and they that I *'commanded
[ commanded your fathers. depart from me shall be written in the earth, 23 But they obeyed not, neither inclined because they have forsaken the Lord, the their ear, but made their neck stiff, that they 1? fountain of living waters.
might not hear, nor receive instruction. 14 Heal me, 0 LORD, and I shall be 24 And it shall come to pass,
dilihealed ; save me, and I shall be saved : for gently hearken unto me, saith the LORD, to thou art my praise.
bring in no burden through the gates of this 15 ( Behold, they say unto me, ""Where city on the sabbath day, but hallow the sabis the word of the Lord ? let it come now. bath day, to do no work therein ;
16 As for me, 'I have not hastened from 25 Then shall there enter into the gates being a pastor "sto follow thee: neither have of this city kings and princes sitting upon
the I desired the woeful day; thou knowest : throne of David, riding in chariots and on that which came out of my lips was right horses, they, and their princes, the men of before thee.
Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem : and 17 Be not a terror unto me: thou art my this city shall remain for ever. hope in the day of evil.
26 And they shall come from the cities of 18 Let them be confounded that perse- Judah, and from the places about Jerusalem,
but let not me be confounded : let and from the land of Benjamin, and from the them be dismayed, but let not me be dis- plain, and from the mountains, and from the mayed: bring upon them the day of evil, and south, bringing burnt offerings, and sacrifices, 17 18 destroy them with double destruction. and meat offerings, and incense, and bringing
19 ( Thus said the LORD unto me; Go sacrifices of praise, unto the house of the and stand in the gate of the children of the LORD. people, whereby the kings of Judah come in, 27 But if ye will not hearken unto me to and by the which they go out, and in all the hallow the sabbath day, and not to bear a gates of Jerusalem ;
burden, even entering in at the gates of 20 And say unto them, Hear ye the word Jerusalem on the sabbath day; then will I of the Lord, ye kings of Judah, and all kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall Judah, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall that enter in by these gates :
not be quenched.
14 Chap. 1. 4, &c. 15 Heb. after thee.
81 Chap. 22. 4.
11 Psal. 73. 27. Isa. 1. 28.
13 Isa. 5. 19.
20 Exod. 20. 8, and 23. 12, and 31. 13. Ezek. 20. 12.
19 Nehem. 13. 19.
Verse 6. • Heath.'—The original word hy arur, is 45. In proceeding further south he states ---Large trees rendered heath’also in ch. xlviii. 6; but this translation
of the juniper became quite common in the wadys and on is generally allowed to be erroneous. The corresponding
the rocks. It is mentioned in the same situations by Arabic name, arar, is applied to a totally different plant, a
other travellers, and is no doubt common enough, parspecies of juniper, as is clearly shewn by Celsius (Hiero- ticularly in wild, uncultivated, and often inaccessible botanicon, ii. 195), who states that Arias Montanus is the
situations. It therefore well agrees with this text as well orly translator who has given it this name, which he be
as with xlviii. 6. In the latter text, however, the Septualieves to be the right one. Several species of juniper are
gint seems to have found the word ninu orud, and acfound in Syria and Palestine. Robinson met with some cordingly translates ovos šypios, “wild ass. Whether their in proceeding from Hebron to Wady Musa, near the reading was right and ours wrong it may be difficult to romantic pass of Nemela. “On the rocks above,' writes determine. We have a good and sufficient sense in that Dr. Robinson,' we found the juniper-tree, Arabic, Ar’ar: text as it stands; but it must be allowed that the Septuaits berries have the appearance and taste of the common gint reading affords one very significant and expressive; juniper, except that there is more of the pine. These trees the ass, in its natural or wild state, never seeks woody but were ten to fifteen feet in height, and hung upon the rocks upland pasture, mountainous and rocky retreats; and it is even to the summit of the cliffs and needles.' He adds, habituated to stand on the brink of precipices (a practice in a note;— This ('ar'ar) is doubtless the Hebrew quicy not entirely obliterated in our own domestic races) where, aroes (Jer. xlviii. 6), which both the English version and
with protruded ears, it surveys the scene below, blowing, Luther read incorrectly heath. The juniper of the same
and at last braying with extreme excitement. The question translation is the Relem.' See the note on 1 Kings xix.
as to the meaning of the reading in that text does not how
ever apply to the present text, where the Septuagint itself camels without giving way in the least. There are other has dyplouvuían, 'wild tamarisk.'
such spots on the borders of the Mediterranean and of the The parched places in the wilderness...a salt land Red and Dead Seas, and being well known to the Israelites, and not inhabited:'-In the wilderness south of Judea, suggested the allusion in this and other passages of their advancing towards el-Arish, Captains Irby and Mangles prophetical and poetical books. passed over a plain about four miles in length, covered 13. · Written in the earth.' - See the note ou Jolin with thick, hard salt, resembling in appearance sheets of viii, 6. firmly frozen snow. The surface bore the weight of the
will every one doʻthe imagination of his evil
heart. 1 Under the type of a potter is shewed God's absolute 13 Therefore thus saith the LORD ; 'Ask
power in disposing of nations. 11 Judgments threatened to Judah for her strange revolt. 18 Jeremiah ye now among the heathen, who hath heard prayeth against his conspirators.
such things: the virgin of Israel hath done a
very horrible thing. The word which came to Jeremiah from the 14 Will a man leave the snow of LeLORD, saying,
banon which cometh from the rock of the 2 Arise, and go down to the potter's house, field ? or shall the cold flowing waters that and there I will cause thee to hear
words. come from another place be forsaken? 3 Then I went down to the potter's house, 15 Because my people hath forgotten "me, and, behold, he wrought a work on the they have burned incense to vanity, and they 'wheels.
have caused them to stumble in their ways 4 And the vessel "that he made of clay was from the 'ancient paths, to walk in paths, in marred in the hand of the potter: so he a way not cast up; *made it again another vessel, as seemed good
16 To make their land 'desolate, and a to the potter to make it.
perpetual hissing; every one that passeth 5 Then the word of the LORD came to me, thereby shall be astonished, and wag his head. saying,
17 I will scatter them as with an east 6 O house of Israel, 'cannot I do with you wind before the enemy; I will shew them the as this potter? saith the Lord. Behold, as back, and not the face, in the day of their the clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye in calamity. mine hand, O house of Israel.
18 4 Then said they, Come, and let us 7 At what instant I shall speak concerning devise devices against Jeremiah ; '*for the a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to 'pluck law shall not perish from the priest, nor up, and to pull down, and to destroy it; counsel from the wise, nor the word from the
8 If that nation, against whom I have pro- prophet. Come, and let us smite him "with nounced, turn from their evil, ‘I will repent the tongue, and let us not give heed to any of the evil that I thought to do unto them. of his words.
9 And at what instant I shall speak con- 19 Give heed to me, O LORD, and hearken cerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to the voice of them that contend with me. to build and to plant it;
20 Shall evil be recompensed for good? 10 If it do evil in my sight, that it obey for they have digged a pit for my soul. Renot my voice, then I will repent of the good, member that I stood before thee to speak wherewith I said I would benefit them. good for them, and to turn away thy wrath
11 | Now therefore go to, speak to the from them. men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of 21 Therefore deliver up their children to Jerusalem, saying, Thus saith the Lord; the famine, and "pour out their blood by the Behold, I frame evil against you, and devise force of the sword ; and let their wives be a device against you: "return ye now every
bereaved of their children, and be widows; one from his evil way, and make your ways and let their men be put to death ; let their and your doings good.
young men be slain by the sword in battle. 12 And they said, There is no hope : but 22 Let a cry be heard from their houses, we will walk after our own devices, and we when thou shalt bring a troop suddenly upon i Or, frames, or, seats. 2. Or, that he made was marred, as clay in the hand of the potter,
* Chap. 1. 10. 7 2 Kings 17. 13. Chap. 7. 3, and 25. 5, and 35. 15. 8 Chap. 2. 25. 10. Or, my fields for a rock, or, for the snow of Lebanon I shall the running waters be forsaken for the strange cold waters? 11 Chap. 2. 13, and 17. 13.
lý Clap. 6. 16.
18 Chap. 19. 8, and 49. 13, and 50. 13. 15 Or, for the tongue.
17 Heb. pour them out.
Isa. 45. 9. Wisd. 13. 7. Rom. 9. 20.
8 Heb. returned and made. 6 Jonah 3. 10.
9 Chap. 9, 10,
14 Mal. 2. 7.
16 Psal. 109. 10.