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31 And I will 'punish him and his seed gave it to Baruch the scribe, the son of and his servants for their iniquity; and I will Neriah ; who wrote therein from the mouth bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jerusalem, and upon the men of Judah, all Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the the evil that I have pronounced against them; tire : and there were added besides unto them but they hearkened not.

many "like words. 32 | Then took Jeremiah another roll, and

8 Heb. as they.


7 Heb. visit upon.

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Verse 7. ' They will present their supplication, etc.- ink-grains with water—in nearly the same way that artists Literally, Peradventure their supplication may fall down prepare their colours, and then put it into their inkstand. before the face of Jehovah.' In this and some other pas- In the manuscripts written with this ink, the characters sages of the poetical Scriptures it seems as if a figure is appear of a most intense and glossy black, which never drawn from the demeanour of the petitioner, and prayer changes its hue, never eats into the paper, nor ever beis represented as coming, like a thing of life, and taking comes indistinct or obliterated, except from the action of the posture of a suppliant, poor and humble, in the Lord's water, by which it is even more easily spoiled than our presence. Something of the same personification occurs own manuscripts. The Eastern scribes also write in gold, in the old heathen writers, particularly in Homer's fa- and with inks of various brilliant colours—particularly mous allegory, which, as Cowper observes, considering red and blue-their diversified applications of which often when and where it was composed, forms a very striking give a very rich and beautiful appearance to the page in passage :-

the higher class of manuscripts. These details respecting Prayers are Jove's daughters, wrinkled, lame,

modern Oriental ink will be found to agree remarkably slant-eyed,

with what has been said concerning the ink of the an. Which, though far distant, yet with constant pace

cients ; and this concurrence may be taken to furnish a Follow Offence,' etc.-Il. ix. COWPER.

very satisfactory conclusion with regard to the ink or

inks used by the ancient Hebrews. 10. In the higher court, at the entry of the new gate.'

22. There was a fire on the hearth burning before him.' The higher court is generally believed, on what seems -Dr. Blayney's translation is, • There was set before him very good grounds, not to have been the court of the

a hearth with burning coals. The word (hx akh), renpriests, but the court of Israel, which was open to the male population in general. The new gate is stated by

dered hearth, may mean anything on which fire was the Rabbins to have been on the east side. It is possible placed, without determining that it was the hearth of a that the chamber from which Baruch read the prophecies

chimney; and that it was not such, but a moveable brazier was over the gateway leading to this court, or elevated

or fire-pan, will appear from the turn of the original, lost near it; and that he read it from a window or balcony,

in the common translation, which says not that the king looking into the court, so that he could be beard by the

was sitting before the fire on the hearth,' but that the people assembled there, and by those who passed in and

hearth' containing the fire was brought or set before the out at the gate.

king. This is corroborated by the existing usages, as well 18. Ink.'—Some writers have doubted whether ink

as by those which anciently prevailed. Chimneys are incan be intended by the word here employed (i'? deyo);

deed found in some parts, as in the north of Persia; but

in Asia generally, apartments are warmed in cold weather and Blayney, instead of • I wrote them with ink in a

by means of pans or braziers of various kinds, and either book,' has • I wrote in a book after him. The Chaldee,

of metal or earthenware, which are set in the middle of Syriac, and Vulgate, however, agree with our version, which is also supported by the use of a similar word in Arabic and Persian. One objection supposes that iuk was not at this time known to the Jews, and that they exclusively engraved their writing upon tablets. But a kind of ink is clearly mentioned even in the time of Moses (see Num. v. 23, and the note there); and Ezekiel (ix. 2, 3, 11) repeatedly speaks of the 'inkhorn' which writers employed. From the word (uédar), by which ink' is expressed in the New Testament, it appears that the ink

www was usually black, as in other nations; but it seems that they had also coloured inks; and Josephus (Antiq. xii. 2) states that the seventy elders who made the Greek transJation, brought from Jerusalem parchments on which the law was written in letters of gold. From the particulars collected by Wincklemann and others concerning the ink of the ancients, it would seem that it differed very little from that which the Orientals still employ; and which is really better adapted than our own thin vitriolic inks to the formation of their written characters; and this is also

EASTERN BRAZIERS, ETC. true of the Hebrew, the letters of which are more easily the room after the fire of wood which it contains has been and properly formed with this ink than with our own, allowed to burn for some time in the open air, till the and with reeds than with quill pens. The ink is usually flame and smoke have passed away. Wood previously composed of lampblack, or powdered charcoal, prepared charred is also employed for this purpose. The fire is with gum and water, and sold in small particles or grains, commonly left open in the apartment, as was clearly the like gunpowder. The writer who wants to replenish his case in the present instance; but in Western Asia, when inkhorn puts some of this into it, and adds a little water, the inmates wish to sit comfortably warm in their rooms, but not enough to render the ink much thinner than that they often cover the brazier with a low table, over which of our printers. Those who use much of it, work up the is laid a carpet or thickly padded counterpane, of such

ample dimensions, that the parts which overlap the table grateful and equable warmth, without being able to discan be drawn over their persons, as they sit or recline cover its source, until apprised that it proceeded from ove upon their sofas or cushions, which are arranged properly of these pits covered over with a mat or carpet so as not around this centre of warmth. They usually sit covered to be distinguished from any other portion of the floor to the waist by the counterpane, which they sometimes These are the common methods by which apartments are draw up to their shoulders, and then present an appear.

warmed in the East, under different circumstances and in ance which would suggest the idea of a family sitting up dwellings of different pretensions; and most of which in a large bed with their feet turned towards a common were probably in use among the ancient Hebrews. Most centre. The quilt, with the surrounding cushions, of of them furnish a comfortable warmth at but a very small course detains much warmth around their persons ; but expense of fuel ; and the greater quantity required, as well the plan appears unwholesome, and could only exist among as other considerations arising from the manner in which an indolent people who have no active in-door occupations. the Orientals like to sit in their rooms, probably operate In cottages, a fire of wood or animal dung is frequently to prevent them from regarding the use of chimneys with burnt upon the floor, either in the middle of the room or much favour. Grates are not known even where chimagainst one of the side walls, with an opening above for neys are found; but the fuel is burnt on the hearth, on the escape of the smoke. It is also common to have a fire which, if wood is employed, the pieces are set on end, in a pit sunk in the floor : and, when travelling in winter, leaning against the back of the chimney. we have, on entering some rooms, been sensible of a


selves, saying, The Chaldeans shall surely i The Egyptians having raised the siege of the Chal depart from us : for they shall not depart.

deans, king Zedekiah sendeth to Jeremiah to pray 10 For though ye had smitten the whole for the people. 6 Jeremiah prophesieth the Chal- army of the Chaldeans that fight against deans' certain return and victory. 11 He is taken

you, and there remained but 'wounded men for a fugitive, beaten, and put in prison. 16 He assureth Zedekiah of the captivity. 18 Intreating among them, yet should they rise up every for his liberty, he obtaineth some favour.

man in his tent, and burn this city with fire.

11 1 And it came to pass, that when the And king 'Zedekiah the son of Josiah reigned army of the Chaldeans was 'broken up fron instead of Coniah the son of Jehoiakim, whom Jerusalem for fear of Pharaoh's army, Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon made king 12 Then Jeremiah went forth out of Jein the land of Judah.

rusalem to go into the land of Benjamin, 'to 2 But neither he, nor his servants, nor the separate himself thence in the midst of the people of the land, did hearken unto the words people. of the LORD, which he spake by the prophet 13 And when he was in the gate of BenJeremiah.

jamin, a captain of the ward was there, whose 3 And Zedekiah the king sent Jehucal the name was Irijah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Shelemiah and Zephaniah the son of son of Hananiah ; and he took Jeremiah the Maaseiah the priest to the prophet Jeremiah, prophet, saying, Thou fallest away to the saying, Pray now unto the LORD our God Chaldeans.

14 Then said Jeremiah, It is 'false ; I fall 4 Now Jeremiah came in and went out not away to the Chaldeans." But he hearkened among the people : for they had not put him not to him: so Irijah took Jeremiah, and into prison.

brought him to the princes. 5 Then Pharaoh's army was come forth 15 Wherefore the princes were wroth with out of Egypt: and when the Chaldeans that Jeremiah, and smote him, and put him in besieged Jerusalem heard tidings of them, prison in the house of Jonathan the scribe : they departed from Jerusalem.

for they had made that the prison. 6 | Then came the word of the LORD 16 | When Jeremiah was entered into the unto the prophet Jeremiah, saying,

dungeon, and into the cabins, and Jeremiah 7 Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel; had remained there many days; Thus shall ye say to the king of Judah, that 17 Then Zedekiah the king sent, and took sent you unto me to enquire of me; Behold, him out : and the king asked him secretly in Pharaoh's army, which is come forth to help

help his house, and said, Is there any word from you, shall return to Egypt into their own land. the LORD? And Jeremiah said, There is:

8 And the Chaldeans shall come again, for, said he, thou shalt be delivered into the and fight against this city, and take it, and hand of the king of Babylon. burn it with fire.

18 Moreover Jeremiah said unto king 9 Thus saith the LORD ; Deceive not 'your- Zedekiah, What have I offended against thee, 1 2 Kings 24. 17. 2 Chron, 36. 10. Chap. 22. 24. 2 Heb. by the hand of the prophet.

4 Heb. thrust through. 6 Or, to slip away from thence in the midst of the people. 7 Heb. falsehood, or, a lie.

8 Or, celle

for us.

3 Heb. souls.

5 Heb. made to ascend.

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or against thy servants, or against this people, cause me not to return to the house of Jonathat ye have put me in prison ?

than the scribe, lest I die there. 19 Where are now your prophets which 21 Then Zedekiah the king commanded prophesied unto you, saying, The king of that they should commit Jeremiah into the Babylon shall not come against you, nor court of the prison, and that they should give against this land ?

him daily a piece of bread out of the bakers' 20 Therefore hear now, I pray thee, O street, until all the bread in the city were my lord the king : 'let my supplication, I spent. Thus Jeremiah remained in the court pray thee, be accepted before thee; that thou of the prison.

9 Heb. let my supplication fall,

Verse 15. ' For they had made that the prison.'—It is them, or to divert their attention from the more real not an unusual circumstance in the East for some part of causes of public distress. the house of a public functionary to be employed as a The present verse is interesting in another respect, as prison. In Persia, where there are no large public shewing that it was, in those early times, customary, as it prisons, the magistrates appropriate three or four chambers is at present in the East, for persons of the same trades to in their ample dwellings to the officers or domestics carry on their business in the same streets, so that the whose duty it is to keep safely those accused or suspected purchaser sees at one view all the shops which offer the persons whom it is considered necessary to detain in article he requires. This custom has also prevailed, with custody. Imprisonment is by no means generally recog- respect to some trades, even in Western Europe, and some nised in the East as a judicial punishment—but rather as very marked traces of it may still be found in London, a measure for the detention of accused or convicted persons :—it is an incident rather than a system; and hence the condition of prisoners is not defined by any specific regulations. It often happens that any place which seems to be sufficiently secure, is temporarily employed as a prison; and in general the situation of the prisoner is determined by the caprice, pleasure, or interest of the person to whose custody he is consigned, and who has no other charge than to keep the culprit in safe custody, and produce him when required. To this it may be added, that royal persons, governors of towns, and public functionaries, claim the right to imprison offenders in their own extensive establishments and households, and hence some place in their residences is usually appropriated or employed for the purpose. In some towns of the East even the European consuls have such prisons in their houses, where they confine such of their own nation or household as have been guilty of offences; and this by allowance from the governing powers of the town or country, who proceed upon the idea that a functionary should possess magisterial authority over those whose affairs he generally superintends. This may partly explain the existence of prisons in palaces and houses, in those countries where imprisonment being not at all, or only partially, regarded as a means of punishment and correction, no public prisons have been provided. It will be recollected that our old nobles had prisons in their own castles.

21. The bakers' street.'—We have had former occasions to observe that, in the East, every family generally griods its own corn and bakes its own bread. There is, however, in eastern towns, ample room for the craft of the baker. Many persons with small families, and consuming but little bread, find it cheaper to buy of the baker than to have daily grinding and baking at home. The bakers also get the custom of those loose members of society who have no households, and who buy food as they want or can afford it; under which denomination may be included strangers sojourning temporarily in the towns. They also sell much bread to the shopkeepers, artizans, and others who spend the day at a distance from their homes. Thus, upon the whole, the bakers are, in large towns, an active and flourishing body of tradesmen. But their situation is one of peculiar danger, the people being very apt to suspect them, in hard times, of conspiring to raise the price of bread. Hence popular outcries and tumults, which seldom end till one or more bakers have been sacrificed, either by the people themselves, or by their rulers, who thus endeavour to appease


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Jeremiah the prophet out of the dungeon,

before he die. 1 Jeremiah, by a false suggestion, is put into the dungeon of Malchiah. 7 Ebed-melech, by suit, getteth

11 So Ebed-melech took the men with him some enlargement. 14 Upon secret conference him, and went into the house of the king he counselleth the king by yielding to save his life.

under the treasury, and took thence old cast 24 By the king's instructions he concealeth the con

clouts and old rotten rags, and let them down ference from the princes.

by cords into the dungeon to Jeremiah. THEN Shephatiah the son of Mattan, and 12 And Ebed-melech the Ethiopian said Gedaliah the son of Pashur, and Jucal the unto Jeremiah, Put now these old cast clouts son of Shelemiah, and Pashur the son of and rotten rags under thine armholes under Malchiah, heard the words that Jeremiah had the cords. And Jeremiah did so. spoken unto all the people, saying,

13 So they drew up Jeremiah with cords, 2 2 Thus saith the LORD, 'He that remaineth and took him up out of the dungeon: and in this city shall die by the sword, by the Jeremiah remained in the court of the prison. . famine, and by the pestilence : but he that 14 [ Then Zedekiah the king sent, and goeth forth to the Chaldeans shall live ; for took Jeremiah the prophet unto him into the he shall have his life for a prey, and shall othird entry that is in the house of the LORD: live.

and the king said unto Jeremiah, I will ask 3 Thus saith the LORD, This city shall thee a thing ; hide nothing from me. surely be given into the hand of the king of 15 Then Jeremiah said unto Zedekiah, If Babylon's army, which shall take it.

I declare it unto thee, wilt thou not surely 4 Therefore the princes said unto the king, put me to death ? and if I give thee counsel, We beseech thee, let this man be put to wilt thou not hearken unto me ? death : for thus he weakeneth the hands of 16 So Zedekiah the king sware secretly the men of war that remain in this city, unto Jeremiah, saying, As the LORD liveth, and the hands of all the people, in speak- that made us this soul

, I will not put thee to ing such words unto them: for this man death, neither will I give thee into the hand seeketh not the 'welfare of this people, but of these men that seek thy life. the hurt.

17 Then said Jeremiah unto Zedekiah, 5 Then Zedekiah the king said, Behold, Thus saith the LORD, the God of hosts, the he is in your hand : for the king is not he God of Israel ; If thou wilt assuredly go forth that can do any thing against you.

unto the king of Babylon's princes, then thy 6 Then took they Jeremiah, and cast him soul shall live, and this city shall not be into the dungeon of Malchiah the son of burned with fire; and thou shalt live, and Hammelech, that was in the court of the thine house : prison : and they let down Jeremiah with cords. 18 But if thou wilt not go forth to the king And in the dungeon there was no water, but of Babylon's princes, then shall this city be mire : so Jeremiah sunk in the mire.

given into the hand of the Chaldeans, and 7 Now when Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, they shall burn it with fire, and thou shalt one of the eunuchs which was in the king's not escape out of their hand. house, heard that they had put Jeremiah in 19 And Zedekiah the king said unto Jerethe dungeon; the king then sitting in the gate miah, I am afraid of the Jews that are fallen of Benjamin;

to the Chaldeans, lest they deliver me into 8 Ebed-melech went forth out of the king's their hand, and they mock me. house, and spake to the king, saying,

20 But Jeremiah said, They shall not 9 My lord the king, these men have done deliver thee. Obey, I beseech thee, the voice evil in all that they have done to Jeremiah of the LORD, which I speak unto thee : so it the prophet, whom they have cast into the shall be well unto thee, and thy soul shall dungeon; and "he is like to die for hunger in live. the place where he is : for there is no more 21 But if thou refuse to go forth, this is bread in the city.

the word that the Lord hath shewed me : 10 Then the king commanded Ebed- 22 And, behold, all the women that are melech the Ethiopian, saying, Take from left in the king of Judah's house shall be hence thirty men 'with thee, and take up | brought forth to the king of Babylon's princes,


? Heb. peace.

* Or, of the king.

4 Heb. he will die,

1 Chap. 21. 9.

6 Heb. in thine hand.

& Or, principal.

and those women shall say, 'Thy friends have thou hast said unto the king, hide it not from set thee on, and have prevailed against thee : us, and we will not put thee to death ; also thy feet are sunk in the mire, and they are what the king said unto thee: turned away back.

26 Then thou shalt say unto them, I pre23 So they shall bring out all thy wives sented my supplication before the king, that and thy children to the Chaldeans : and thou he would not cause me to return to Jonathan's shalt not escape out of their hand, but shalt house, to die there. be taken by the hand of the king of Babylon : 27 Then came all the princes unto Jereand thou shalt cause this city to be burned miah, and asked him : and he told them acwith fire.

cording to all these words that the king had 24 1 Then said Zedekiah unto Jeremiah, commanded. So 'they left off speaking with Let no man know of these words, and thou him ; for the matter was not perceived. shalt not die.

28 So Jeremiah abode in the court of the 25 But if the princes hear that I have prison until the day that Jerusalem was talked with thee, and they come unto thee, taken: and he was there when Jerusalem was and say unto thee, Declare unto us now what | taken. 7 Heb. Men of thy peace.

Heb. they were silent from him.

8 Heb. thou shalt burn, &c.


Verse 6. The dungeon of Malchiah..... that was in suggested probably by an insulting reference to the former the court of the prison.'—

There is no book of Scripture in employment of his great strength, if not with a view to the which so much is said of prisons and imprisonment as in profitable employment of that portion of it which remained this of Jeremiah. As we have not hitherto said much on to him. At a later day, we see the last kings of Judah the subject, we may take the opportunity now offered of treated in the same manner by the Egyptian and Babylonian explaining what appears to us to have been the practice kings, and in all these cases we may find that the conof the ancient Hebrews in this important matter.

querors had an interest in detaining them securely. The 1. In the law of Moses there is no one crime to which case of Zedekiah, who was blinded and kept in prison by the imprisonment is attached as a punishment. 2. There is king of Babylon, is very similar to that of Samson, except no instance of imprisonment mentioned in Scripture which as to the labonr at the mill. Among the Hebrews, the first appears to have been the result of a regular trial and case of imprisonment after the time of Moses was when judicial sentence. 3. There is no instance of imprison- Micaiah, having foretold the disastrous result of an exment inflicted by Hebrews, in which merely the safe cus- pedition on which Ahab was bent, and in which he tody of the prisoner, for a specific purpose, does not appear perished, the king ordered, . Put this fellow in the prison, to be the sole or primary object. 4. Imprisonment, as a and feed him with bread of affliction and with water of punishment and correction, can only be traced when affliction, until I come in peace.' (1 Kings xxii. 27.) inflicted by foreigners, and even in such instances it is by This was arbitrary and extra-judicial; but although the no means clear that detention was not the primary object, idea of punishment is incidentally included, it is evident and the punishment merely an incident. It is easy for that the primary intention was to detain the prophet for the reader to test these conclusions ; in explanation or final punishment, when his prediction should, as the king support of which we shall therefore only subjoin a few hoped, be falsified by the event; as well, probably, as to remarks, which may assist the investigation.

deprive him of the means of promulgating his adverse and In the patriarchal times only two instances of imprison- condemnatory prophecies to the people. The case of ment occur, both of which happened in Egypt, and are Jeremiah himself, which is the next that occurs in point therefore foreign. The imprisonment of Joseph and of of time, seems to be precisely similar to this. He was at the two servants of Pharaoh has already been noticed in first put under personal restraint in the court of the the proper place: the other was when Joseph, acting as an prison,' a place open to the public, and where his friends Egyptian, detained Simeon in custody, probably not in a had free access to him ; but as his prophecies were thus prison, as a security for the return of his brethren. Under made public, he was ultimately removed under a general the direction of Moses himself, only one instance of con- permission from the king, to the disagreeable and danfinement occurs, and that was in a peculiar case, when the gerous dungeon mentioned in the text, by which his persabbath-breaker was detained in custody until the Lord's sonal enemies added punishment to confinement; but pleasure concerning him should be ascertained. (Num. when the king heard this, he caused him to be released, xv. 34.) From that time till so late as the reign of Ahab, and restored to the simple confinement of the prison-court, in Israel, no instance of imprisonment occurs among the till his sad prophecies were accomplished. The last menHebrews; but the imprisonment of Samson by the Phi- tion of imprisonment occurs after the Captivity (Ezra vii. listines is a remarkable foreign example. He was blinded, 26); and as read in our own and many other versions, and afterwards kept in confinement and obliged to labour this, more precisely thau any other passage of Scripture, at the mill, furnishing the earliest instance on record of would describe confinement in a prison as a regular imprisonment and hard labour. As we are not speaking punishment. If so understood, it is, however, a foreign of heathen practices, it is of little importance what deduc- instance, and occurs in a Persian edict. But we find the tion may be derived from this case : but

appears to us

word thus translated to be one (71Dx èsor) which denotes not to bear on any general custom; for Samson was a dis- a bond or fetter, and which never means a prison unless tinguished captive belonging to an adverse nation, and the when the word nie 'house’ is prefixed. In this text that treatment of such persons affords no evidence of the domestic usages of a people. Such transactions are extra

word is not prefixed, and moreover the word is in the judicial. The imprisonment is considered necessary for

plural (1'71Dx esurin), clearly shewing bonds or fetters, the safe keeping of captive chiefs and kings; and, in the

not imprisonment in the usual sense, to be intended. case of Samson, the labour was a superadded indiguity,

We have thus alluded to all the cases of imprisonment

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