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5 For in the going up of Luhith Scon- 20 Moab is confounded; for it is broken tinual weeping shall go up; for in the going down : "howl and cry; tell ye it in Arnon,

" down of Horonaim the enemies have heard a that Moab is spoiled, cry of destruction.

21 And judgment is come upon the plain 6 Flee, save your lives, and be like the

country; upon Holon, and upon Jahazah, and "heath in the wilderness.

upon Mephaath, ? | For because thou hast trusted in thy 22 And upon Dibon, and upon Nebo, and works and in thy treasures, thou shalt also upon Beth-diblathaim, be taken: and Chemosh shall go forth into 23 And upon Kiriathaim, and upon Bethcaptivity with his priests and his princes to- gamul, and upon Beth-meon, gether.

24 And upon Kerioth, and upon Bozrah, 8 And the spoiler shall come upon every and upon all the cities of the land of Moab, city, and no city shall escape: the valley also

far or near. shall perish, and the plain shall be destroyed, 25 The horn of Moab is cut off, and his as the Lord hath spoken.

arm is broken, saith the Lord. 9 Give wings unto Moab, that it may flee 26 | Make ye him drunken : for he magand get away : for the cities thereof shall be nified himself against the LORD: Moab also desolate, without any to dwell therein.

shall wallow in his vomit, and he also shall be 10 Cursed be he that doeth the work of the in derision. LORD 'deceitfully, and cursed be he that 27 For was not Israel a derision unto keepeth back his sword from blood.

thee? was he found


thieves ? for since 1l Moab hath been at case from his thou spakest of him, thou "skippedst for joy. youth, and he hath settled on his lees, and 28 0 ye that dwell in Moab, leave the hath not been emptied from vessel to vessel, cities, and dwell in the rock, and be like the neither hath he gone into captivity: therefore dove that maketh her nest in the sides of the his taste ''remained in him, and his scent is hole's mouth. not changed.

29 We have heard the ''pride of Moab, 12 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith (he is exceeding proud) his loftiness, and his the LORD, that I will send unto him wan- arrogancy, and his pride, and the haughtiness derers, that shall cause him to wander, and of his heart. shall empty his vessels, and break their 30 I know his wrath, saith the LORD ; bottles.

but it shall not be so; his lies shall not so 13 And Moab shall be ashamed of Che- effect it. mosh, as the house of Israel was asiamed of 31 Therefore will I howl for Moab, and I "Beth-el their confidence.

will cry out for all Moab; mine heart shall 14 I How say ye, We are mighty and mourn for the men of Kir-heres. strong men for the war?

32 O vine of Sibmah, I will weep for thee 15 Moab is spoiled, and gone up out of her with the weeping of Jazer: thy plants are cities, and '*his chosen young men are gone gone over the sea, they reach even to the sea down to the slaughter, saith the king, whose of Jazer: the spoiler is fallen upon thy summer name is the Lord of hosts.

fruits and upon thy vintage. 16 The calamity of Moab is near to come, 33 And joy and gladness is taken from and his affliction hasteth fast.

the plentiful field, and from the land of 17 All ye that are about hiin, bemoan Moab; and I have caused wine to fail from him; and all ye that know his name, say, the winepresses : none shall tread with shoutHow is the strong staff broken, and the beau- ing; their shouting shall be no shouting. tiful rod !

34 From the cry of leshbon even unto 18 Thou daughter that dost inhabit Dibon, Elealeh, and even unto Jahaz, have they come down from thy glory, and sit in thirst; uttered their voice, ''from Zoar even unto for the spoiler of Moab shall come upon thee, Horonaim, as an heifer of three years old : and he shall destroy thy strong holds.

for the waters also of Nimrim shall be ade19 O "inhabitant of Aroer, stand by the solate. way, and espy; ask him that fleeth, and her 35 Moreover I will cause to cease in Moab, that escapeth, and say, What is done? saith the Lord, him that offereth in the high 4 Heb. weeping with weeping.

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7 Chap. 17. 6. 8 Chap. 49. 3. 9 Or, negligently: 11 i kings 12. 29.

15 Or, movedst thyself. 13 Isa. 16. 6, &c.

17 Or, those on whom he stayeth (Heb. his bars) do not right,

5 Isa. 15. 5. o Or, a naked tree.

12 Heb, the choice of. 13 Heb. inhabitress.

10 Heb. stood.

14 Isa. 16. 7. 18 Isa. 16. 10.

19 Isa. 15. 5, 6.

20 Heb. desolations.



places, and him that burneth incense to his 42 And Moab shall be destroyed from gods.

being a people, because he hath magnified 36 Therefore mine heart shall sound for himself against the LORD. Moab like pipes, and mine heart shall sound 43 ***Fear, and the pit, and the snare, shall like pipes for the men of Kir-heres : because be upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab, saith the the riches that he hath gotten are perished. LORD.

37 For *'every head shall be bald, and every 44 He that fleeth from the fear shall fall beard "clipped : upon all the hands shall be into the pit; and he that getteth up out of cuttings, and upon the loins sackcloth. the pit shall be taken in the snare: for I will

38 "There shall be lamentation generally bring upon it, even upon Moab, the year of upon all the housetops of Moab, and in the their visitation, saith the LORD. streets thereof: for I have broken Moab like 45 They that fled stood under the shadow a vessel wherein is no pleasure, saith the LORD. of Heshbon because of the force : but "a fire

39 They shall howl, saying, How is it shall come forth out of Heshbon, and a flame broken down ! how hath Moab turned the from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the ?back with shame! so shall Moab be a deri- corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of sion and a dismaying to all them about him. the 27tumultuous ones.

40 For thus saith the LORD ; Behold, he 46 Woe be unto thee, O Moab! the people shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread his of Chemosh perisheth : for thy sons are taken wings over Moab.

2&captives, and thy daughters captives. 41 "Kerioth is taken, and the strong holds 47 Yet will I bring again the captivity are surprised, and the mighty men's hearts in of Moab in the latter days, saith the Lord. Moab at that day shall be as the heart of a Thus far is the judgment of Moab. woman in her pangs.

24 Or, The cities.

28 Heb. in captivity,



21 Isa. 15. 2, 3.

22 Heb, diminished. 26 Num. 21. 28.

23 Heb, nech.
27 Heb. children of noise.

25 Isa, 24. 17, 18,

Verse 1. Against Moab.—The references to former notes collected under Isa. xv. 1, together with the other notes on chaps. xv., xvi. and xvii. of the same prophet, will be found to contain much information illustrative of the extended prediction concerning Moab which the present chapter contains. It is considered by Rosellini and others that they have found figures of the Moabites of Rabbah among the figures of the captives of Ipsambul. The inscription certainly points to the inhabitants of some place named Rabbah. This name was far from an uncommon one, and there was a Rabbah of the Ammonites as well as of the Moabites ; but, upon the whole, we are inclined to think that the figure is intended for that of a

all the rest of the hair being combed backward and bound with a fillet, as among the modern Albanians. This is a custom which

frequently referred to in the Bible as prevalent among the Canaanites. They are repeatedly designated by Jeremiah, by the epithet 7N? '*?y? ketzutzai pēah, as in xxiv. 3, which the marginal reading properly renders by cut off into corners,' and supposes to mean, “ having the corners of their hair polled; and the same epithet is pointedly applied as one descriptive of Moab, Ammon, and Edom in ix. 26. These passages, taken in connection with the figures (as also those of the Hittites as given under 2 Chron. viii.), in which we see not only the hair of the head thus remarkably treated, but

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MOABITE.–From Rosellini, M. R. Ixili.

HEAD OF MOAVITE.- From Rosellini, M. R. clx. the whiskers shaven away, and the head curiously trimmed, throw much light upon the nature of the usages prevalent in the countries of the Jordan, which are prohibited in Lev. xix. 27; ‘Ye shall not cut (or shave) your hair into corners; neither shalt thou eradicate (pluck up?) the corners of thy beard.'

Misgab.– This word occurs nowhere else as a proper name, and probably should be regarded as an appellative, and translated according to its signification. It means a height, a hill or rock, as a place of security, and hence a

Moabite, if not of an Ammonite; for between these allied nations there was probably no difference of appearance, and their capitals have both the same name. We give this figure. It is curious in more respects than one. It is seen that the forehead is shaved halfway to the crown,


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refuge. It therefore probably denotes here a place on an towns of Judah, with which they have, through great elevated site, strong by nature and art. Blayney renders absence of mind, been identified by some commentators, it, the high fortress, but whether it denotes a distinct who forgot that Jordan and the Dead Sea were interposed and celebrated fortress, or is a phrase of variation, applied between the lands of Moab and Judea. All the other to Kiriathaim itself, must remain uncertain.

places have been duly noticed elsewhere. 2. Madmen.'—This name of a town in Moab occurs And here, in concluding our remarks, the notices of the nowhere else, and we have no information concerning it. places beyond the Jordan whose sites are still discoverable

6. Heath.'—The Septuagint renders the word here by under the same names, embodied in the prophecies of Isaiah wild ass.' See the note on xvii. 6.

and Jeremiah, we must permit ourselves to transcribe the 8. The valley also shall perish, and the plain shall be excellent remarks of Professor Moses Stuart, in reference destroyed.'—Compare the notes on Num. xxxii. 1; Deut. to them, which we find in the Biblical Repository, vii. ii. 8 (last paragraph); and Isa. xvii. 2.

108, 109: How obviously everything of this kind serves 9. The cities ihereof shall be desolate, without any to to give confirmation to the authority and credibility of the dwell therein.'—How remarkably the existing state of the sacred record. Do sceptics undertake to scoff at the Bible, country verifies this and the other prophecies concerning and aver that it is the work of impostors who lived in Moab, may be seen in the notes referred to under verse 1. later ages? Besides asking them what object impostors We may however here add Keith's interesting comment could have in forging a book of such high and lofty prinon this verse. The most populous and fertile province ciples, we may ask-and ask with an assurance that must in Europe (especially any situated in the interior of a not fear the danger of being put to the blush-whether country like Moab) is not covered so thickly with towns impostors of later ages could possibly have so managed as as Moab is plentiful in ruins, deserted and desolate though to preserve all the localities in complete order which the now it be. Burckhardt enumerates about fifty ruined Scriptures present ? Rare impostors they must indeed sites within its boundaries, many of them extensive. In have been-men possessed of more knowledge of antigeneral they are a broken down (see verse 39) and undis- quity than we can well imagine could ever be possessed tinguishable mass of ruins; and many of them have not by such as would condescend to an imposition of such a been closely inspected. But in some instances, there are character. In fact the thing appears to be morally imthe remains of temples, sepulchral monuments, the ruins possible, if one considers it in the light of antiquity, when of edifices constructed of very large stones, tracks of so little knowledge of a geographical kind was in existhanging gardens; entire columns lying on the ground, ence, and when mistakes respecting countries and places three feet in diameter, and fragments of smaller columns; with which one was not personally familiar were almost, and many cisterns cut out of the rock. ...But not one of if not altogether, unavoidable. the ancient cities of Moab exists as tenanted by man.' *How happens it now that the authors of the Old -Evidence of Prophecy, p. 159, 15th edit.

Testament Scriptures should have possessed such a 12. “ Wanderers, that shall cause him to wander.'— The wonderful tact in geography, as it would seem they did, wanderers may be supposed the Bedouin Arabs, to whom, unless they lived at the time and in the countries of which of all people, that designation is peculiarly applicable. they have spoken? This happens not elsewhere. It is They, as we have stated on former occasions, are almost but yesterday since one of the first scientific writers on the sole occupants of, or rather wanderers in, the land of geology in Great Britain, published to the world the deMoab; and in that, and other countries similarly circum- claration that our Mississippi and Missouri rivers belong to stanced, they cause to wander,' by their exactions and the tropics. Respectable writers, even in Germany, the spoliations, those who are tempted, by a fertile soil and land of classical attainments, have sometimes placed every natural advantage, to sit down and cultivate an Cælo-Syria on the east of the Antilibanus ridge, or even abandoned country. What Burckhardt says of the neigh- seemed to transfer Damascus over the mountains, and bouring district of the Hauran, is more widely true, and place it between the two Lebanon ridges in the valley. is only less true of the land of Moab, because the operation No such mistakes occur in the sacred writers. They of the system has there rendered the presence of the cul- write as men who were familiar with the geography of tivator still more rare than in the Hauran :— The op- places named; they mention places with the utmost famipressions of the government on the one side, and those of liarity ;-and after a lapse of almost three thousand years, the Bedouins on the other, have reduced the Fellah of the every successive traveller who visits Moab, Idumaa, or Hauran to a state little better than that of the wandering Palestine, does something to confirm the accuracy of Arab. Few individuals, either among the Druses or Isaiah. Towns bearing the same name, or the ruins of Christians, die in the same village where they were born. towns, are located in the same relative position in which Families are continually moving from one place to he said they were; and the ruins of once splendid cities, another.' — Travels in Syria, p. 299.

broken columns, dilapidated walls, trodden-down vine21. 'Holon,' etc.- In the list of names of towns in Moab yards, half-demolished temples and fragments broken and contained in this chapter, there are several which do not consumed by time, proclaim to the world that those cities elsewhere occur as such. These are Holon, Mephaath, are what he said they would be, and that he was under Bethgamul, Kerioth, of which no whatever is known. the inspiration of God.' The two first and the last are the same as the names of

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2 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith

the LORD, that I will cause an alarm of war 1 The judgment of the Ammonites. 6 Their restora

to be heard in 'Rabbah of the Ammonites; tion. 7 The judgment of Edom, 23 of Damascus, 28 of Kedar, 30 of Hazor, 34 and of Elam. 39

and it shall be a desolate heap, and her The restoration of Elam.

daughters shall be burned with fire: then

shall Israel be heir unto them that were his 'CONCERNING the Ammonites, thus saith the heirs, saith the LORD. LORD; Hath Israel no sons ? hath he no 3 Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is spoiled : heir ? why then doth otheir king inherit Gad, cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with and his people dwell in his cities?

sackcloth; lament, and run to and fro by the i Or, Against. 2 Or, Melcom.

3 Amos l. 13.

4 Amos 1. 14.



16 17



hedges; for their king shall go into captivity, make thy ''nest as high as the eagle, I will and his 'priests and his princes together. bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.

4 Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, 17 Also Edom shall be a desolation : "thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter ? 'every one that goeth by it shall be astothat trusted in her treasures, saying, Who nished, and shall hiss at all the plagues shall come unto me ?

thereof. 5 Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, 18 "As in the overthrow of Sodom and saith the Lord God of hosts, from all those Gomorrah and the neighbour cities thereof, that be about thee; and ye shall be driven saith the LORD, no man shall abide there, out every man right forth ; and none shall neither shall a son of man dwell in it. gather up him that wandereth.

19 Behold, he shall come up

like lion 6.9 And afterward I will bring again the from the swelling of Jordan against the habicaptivity of the children of Ammon, saith the tation of the strong: but I will suddenly LORD.

make him run away from her: and who is a 7 9 Concerning Edom, thus saith the LORD chosen man, that I may " appoint over her?

' of hosts ; 'Is wisdom no more in Teman ? is for who is like me ? and who will appoint me counsel perished from the prudent ? is their the time? and who is that shepherd that will wisdom vanished ? ?

stand before me? 8 Flee ye, "turn back, dwell deep, O inha- 20 Therefore hear the counsel of the LORD, bitants of Dedan; for I will bring the cala- that he hath taken against Edom; and his mity of Esau upon him, the time that I will purposes, that he hath purposed against the visit him.

inhabitants of Teman: Surely the least of the 9 If ''grapegatherers come to thee, would flock shall draw them out: surely he shall they not leave some gleaning grapes ? if make their habitations desolate with them. thieves by night, they will destroy till they 21 The earth is moved at the noise of their have enough.

fall, at the cry the noise thereof was heard in 10 But I have made Esau bare, I have the "Red sea. uncovered his secret places, and he shall not 22 Behold, he shall come up and fly as be able to hide himself: his seed is spoiled, the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah : and his brethren, and his neighbours, and he and at that day shall the heart of the mighty is not.

men of Edom be as the heart of a woman in 11 Leave thy fatherless children, I will her pangs. preserve them alive ; and let thy widows trust 23 I Concerning Damascus. Hamath is in mne.

confounded, and Arpad : for they have heard 12 For thus saith the LORD; Behold, they evil tidings : they are ''fainthearted ; there is

to drink of have assuredly drunken ; "and art thou be 24 Damascus is waxed feeble

, and turneth that shall altogether go unpunished ? thou herself to flee, and fear hath seized on her: shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely anguish and sorrows have taken her, as a drink of it.

woman in travail. 13 For I have sworn by myself, saith the 25 How is the city of praise not left, the LORD, that Bozrah shall become a desolation, city of my joy ! a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the 26 Therefore her young men shall fall in cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes. her streets, and all the men of war shall be

14 I have heard a 'rumour from the LORD, cut off in that day, saith the Lord of hosts. and an ambassador is sent unto the heathen, 27 And I will kindle a o'fire in the wall of saying, Gather ye together, and come against Damascus, and it shall consume the palaces her, and rise up to the battle.

of Ben-hadad. 15 For, lo, I will make thee small among 28 4 Concerning Kedar, and concerning the heathen, and despised among men. the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrez

16 Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, zar king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the and the pride of thine heart, O thou that Lord; Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the men of the east. the height of the hill: though thou shouldest 29 Their tents and their flocks shall they


20 sorrow

6 Chap. 48. 7. 7 Or, thy valley floweth away.
11 Heb. their suficiency..

17 Job 41. 10. Chap. 50. 44, 45. 18 Heb, weedy sea.

8 Obad, vers, 8.

9 Or, they are turned back. 13 Obad. vers. 4.

14 Chap. 50. 13.

5 Or, Melcom.
10 Obad. vers. 5.

12 Obad. vers, I. 15 Gen. 19. 25. Chap. 50. 40. 16 Or, conrent me in judgment.

19 Heb. melted.

10 Or, as on the sca.

21 Amos ). 4.



take away: they shall take to themselves Jeremiah the prophet against Elam in the their curtains, and all their vessels, and their beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of camels ; and they shall cry unto them, Fear Judal, saying, is on every side.

35 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; Behold, 30 q "Flee, "get you far off, dwell deep, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of O

ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith the LORD; their might. for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath 36 And upon Elam will I bring the four taken counsel against you, and hath conceived winds from the four quarters of heaven, and a purpose against you.

will scatter them toward all those winds; and 31 Arise, get you up unto the wealthy there shall be no nation whither the outcasts nation, that dwelleth without care, saith the of Elam shall not come. LORD, which have neither gates nor bars, 37 For I will cause Elam to be dismayed which dwell alone.

before their enemies, and before them that 32 And their camels shall be a booty, and

seek their life: and I will bring evil upon the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I them, even my fierce anger, saith the LORD; will scatter into all winds them that are ?Sin and I will send the sword after them, till í

, I the utmost corners; and I will bring their have consumed them : calamity from all sides thereof, saith the 38 And I will set my throne in Elam, and LORD.

will destroy from thence the king and the 33 And Hazor shall be a dwelling for princes, saith the LORD. dragons, and a desolation for ever: there 39 | But it shall come to pass in the latter shall no man abide there, nor any son of man days, that 26I will bring again the captivity of dwell in it.

Elam, saith the LORD. 34 | The word of the LORD that came to

22 Verse 8.
23 Heb. frit greatly.

24 Or, that is at ease.
25 Heb. cut off into corners, or, that have the corners of their hair polled. 26 Chap. 48. 47. Verse 6.

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Verse 2. Rabbah of the Ammonites....shall be a de- Jerome it still subsisted under the name of Philadelphia, solate heap.'—A general notice of the Ammonites has been The Orientals however preserve old names with remark. given under Deut. ii. ; and the details there offered may able tenacity; and the ruined city of the Ammonites is be advantageously compared with the contents of the pre- still called Amman by the natives of the country. The sent prophecy. We have now to notice Rabbah, which researches of Seetzen, Burckhardt, and Buckingham have was the metropolis of the Ammonites; and as it was such made us fully acquainted with this site, concerning which even when the Hebrews conquered much territory to the Europe previously possessed no information. The site is east of the Jordan, before the entered the land of in a valley, but is still very elevated. The road toward Canaan, it must have been very ancient. The city was it from the north-west is an ascending one, and ultimately besieged by Joab and taken by David, who appears to conducts the traveller to an elevated plain—so high, that have given it with the conquered territory to the tribe of in the extensive view which is then commanded, the snowGad. But it seems from this chapter, that when the invested summits of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon appear tribes beyond Jordan were carried into captivity the Am- rather below than above the spectator, though they must monites got possession of the cities then taken from them, certainly be far higher; while, in another direction, the and also, apparently, of their more ancient possessions plains of the Hauran seem in a profound abyss. This which the Hebrews conquered from Sihon, and which elevated plain, like other parts in this region, presents an formed the subject of the memorable controversy between extent of fertile soil, equal to the best portions of Galilee them and Jephthah (see Judges xi, and the note there). and Samaria, and capable of producing sustenance for a But for their cruelties and indecent triumph over the large population—but lying entirely waste. The plain is fallen Israelites, on this and other occasions, the Am- interspersed with low hills of irregular form, and for the monites incurred the judgments denounced against them most part crowned with ruins. Traversing this plain, in this and other prophecies. Although Rabbah appears the traveller enters a broad valley, leading southward, to have been several times wholly or partially destroyed which in half an hour brings him into another narrower in war, by the kings of Babylon and the Greek monarchs valley, running east and west, and in which the ruins of of Syria and Egypt, the successive conquerors down to the Rabbah lie. They chiefly occupy an area formed by the Romans appear to have rebuilt and improved the city, openings of the two valleys, but extend some way eastbeing sensible of the advantages of its situation, so that it ward down the entered valley, which narrows as it extends. very long maintained its rank as the local metropolis. It At the point where the valleys meet, and commanding the ultimately received the name of Philadelphia, from entrance, there is a high hill, the summit of which is Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whom it was restored and for- occupied by a strong and most extensive fortress-almost tified; but some of the ancient writers continued to call a town in itself—and the walls of which appear to be of it by its Oriental name. Thus Polybius calls it Rabbat- very remote antiquity. It is an oblong square, filled amana (Rabbath-ammon), and gives such an account of with buildings, of which as much remains as of the its siege by Antiochus as shews its great strength. The private houses in the lower town. It appears clear to us Roman character of some of the existing remains shew that this was the strong part which Joab wished David that the place was improved and embellished while pos- to have the honour of taking, after he had himself taken sessed by the Romans; but after their time, it seems to the lower town, which he calls the city of waters.' This bave lost its consequence, although the date of its final lower town stood chiefly in the valley, between this and desolation cannot be ascertained: but in the time of the other northern hills and the river, which flows much VOL. III. 2 B


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