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Book of Psalms, 1771; Seiler, Die Psalmen, 1788; Mendelssohn, Uebersetzung der Psalmen Davids, 1788; Berthier, Les Pseaumes trad. en François avec des Notes et des Réflexions, 1785 ; Street, New Literal Version of the Book of Psalms, 1790; Müntinghe, De Psalmen, uit het Hebreuusch Vertaald, 1791 ; Dimock, Notes on the Book of Psalms and Proverbs, 1791 ; Wake, New and Literal Translation of the Psalms, 1799; Geddes, New Translation of the Book of Psalms, 1807; Goode, An entire New Version of the Book of Psalms, 1811 ; Horsley (Bishop), The Book of Psalms, 1815; Fry, Lyra Davidis, 1819; Boys, Key to the Book of Psalms, 1825; French and Skinner, New Translation of the Book of Psalms, 1830; Noyes, New Translation of the Book of Psalms, 1831, Boston, U. S. ; Eichhorn, Die Psalmen übersetzt, 1834; Hitzig, Die Psalmen : hist.-krit. Commentar, nebst Uebersetzung, 1835; De Wette, Commentur über die Psalmen, 1836; Walford, The Book of Psalms, a New Trunslation with Notes, 1837; Bush, A Commentary upon the Book of Psalms, 1838; Ewald, Poetische Bücher, 1839; Bondel, Le Livre des Pseaumes, 1840 ; Cresswell, The Psalms of David, 1843; Tholuck, Uebersetzung und Auslegung der Psalmen, 1843; Hengstenberg, Commentar über die Psalmen, 1843-5. The two lastnamed works are by far the most important that have of late years been produced. Of that by Hengstenberg an excellent translation has lately been produced in Clark's Foreign Theological Library. [The Psalms, Translated and Explained, by J. L. Alexander, 1850.]

PSALM I.

delight is in the law of the Lord); and in his

law doth he meditate day and night. 1 The happiness of the godly. 4 The unhappiness of

3 And he shall be like a tree *planted by the ungodly.

the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his LESSED 'is fruit in his season ; his leaf also shall not the man that $wither; and whatsoever he doeth shall proswalketh not in

per. the counsel of 4 The ungodly are not so: but are like the 'ungodly,

the chaff which the wind driveth away. standeth 5 Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in in the way of the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation sinners,

nor

of the righteous. sitteth in the 6 For the Lord knoweth the way of the seat of the righteous : but the way of the ungodly shall scornful. perish.

2 But his

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Psalm I.—There is a general impression that this Psalm was of comparatively late composition, drawn up probably by the compiler of the book, and set by him as a sort of introduction to it. Basilius calls it a short preface' to the Psalms; and that this view is of great antiquity may be gathered from Acts xiii. 53, where Paul, according to the correct text, as is agreed by the most approved critics (Erasmus, Mill, Bengel, Griesbach, &c.), quotes as the first Psalm that which, in our collection, occupies the second place. If the first was considered only as a sort of preface, the numbering would consequently take its commencement at the one following, as, indeed, is the case in some manuscripts. The matter of the Psalm is admirably suited to this application of it. That the Psalm is introductory does not, however, prove the lateness of its date. The compiler might quite as probably have set at the beginning that one of the old Psalms which he judged most suitable for the purpose.

That it must, at any rate, have been composed before Jeremiah, appears from his imitation of it. This is the only determinate conclusion that can be formed; but from the close resemblance it offers to the Psalms of which David was undoubtedly the author, we should probably not be mistaken in

ascribing it to him. Compare in particular Psalms viii., XV., xxiii.

Verse 3. ' A tree planted by the rivers of water.'—Here is a beautiful comparison, derived from the contrast, often exhibited in the East, between the exuberant production near the rivers and water-courses, and the desolation and nakedness of places destitute of natural or artificial irrigation. Often, while traversing plains perfectly destitute of tree, shrub, or bush of any kind, have we been able to trace for miles the course of a distant stream by the thick and tall growth of trees and underwood upon its banks. Indeed, to perceive this was to feel assured of the presence of the water that could not be seen. The scenery of Asia, generally speaking, is a continual alternation of such marked contrasts. The soil is thronged with vegetation wherever water can be found; while, beyond the extent in which the streams, usually few and distant, can be made to operate, there is only a waste howling wilderness.'As a suitable illustration of this, we have introduced a cut of one of the streams of Lebanon-the Nahr Kades, or • Holy River,' shewing the rich and crowded vegetation which its valley exhibits.

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PSALM II.

5 Then shall he speak unto them in his

wrath, and 'vex them in his sore displeasure. I The kingdom of Christ. 10 Kings are exhorted to

6 Yet have I ‘set my king "upon my holy accept it.

hill of Zion. Why 'do the heathen frage, and the people 7 I will declare the decree: the LORD 'imagine a vain thing?

hath said unto me, 'Thou art my Son; this 2 The kings of the earth set themselves, day have I begotten thee.

, and the rulers take counsel together, against Š ''Ask of me, and I shall give thee the the LORD, and against his anointed, saying,

heathen for thine inheritance, and the utter3 Let us break their bands asunder, and most parts of the earth for thy possession. their cords from us.

9 "Thou shalt break them with a rod of 4 'He that sitteth in the heavens shall iron ; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a laugh: the LORD shall have them in derision. potter's vessel.

cast away

2 0r, tumultuously assemble. llob. upon Zion, the hill of my holiness. 8 Or, for a decree.

I Acts 4. 25.

3 Heb, meditate.

4 Prov. 1. 26. 9 Acts 13. 33. Heb. 1. 5.

5 Or, trouble. 6 Hel, anointed. 10 Psal. 72. 8. 11 Revel. 2. 27. and 19. 15.

10 Be wise now therefore, Oye kings : be 12 Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye instructed, ye judges of the earth.

perish from the way, when his wrath is 11 Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice kindled but a little. "Blessed are all they with trembling.

that put their trust in him.

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PSALM II.--Although this Psalm has no superscription, earth, who do not believe the pretended divine mission yet that David was the author may be gathered from the of Mohammed, Kafirs, and, by a corrupted pronunciation, manifest relation which it bears to the affairs of his time. Gaurs, or Giaours, which signifies unbelievers and infidels. It is supposed to have been written when the nations sub- Hence the name Kafirs, which the inhabitants of the southdued by David were meditating a revolt, or had already eastern coast of Africa received from the Mohammedan revolted. The authorship is expressly assigned to David Arabs. in Acts iv. 25. Its reference, by application, to the Messiah, is admitted by the Jews.

12. «Kiss the Son.'-This is doubtless to be understood

as an act of homage and reverence. There are few acts Verse 1. · The heathen. — The Hebrew word, dia bearing more diversified and contrasted significations than goyim, usually translated "Heathen, signifies, in fact, the kiss. It denotes as well the tenderest affection as the peoples' or nations' in general. But it is used in the most profound and even adoring reverence. As an act of Old Testament for the most part, and by the later (and even homage it needs little explanation, since it is still our own modern) Jews, and that with contemptuous and odious custom to express homage by kissing the monarch's hand. secondary meaning. Other nations, also, have similar It was also so far a mark of general respect among our names for foreigners, and for such as are not of their own fathers, that for one person to say in a letter or message, religious faith. Thus the Greeks and Romans called them that he kissed the hands' of another, was a formulary Barbarians, that is, properly, inhabitants of the desert. for expressing his respect for that person, and was of equiThe Arabs called them Adjhemi, by which they mean, valent import with the expressions of servitude and obedifirst, their neighbours the Persians, and then all foreigners ence with which communicatious to superiors are now in general. The Mohammedans call all the people of the i usually attended. See the note to 1 Sam. x. 1.

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PSALM III.

5 'I laid me down and slept; I awaked ;

for the LORD sustained me. The security of God's protection.

6 'I will not be afraid of ten thousands of A Psalm of David, 'when he fled from Absalom his son.

people, that have set themselves against me Lord, how are they increased that trouble round about. me? many are they that rise up against me. ?

7 Arise, O LORD; save me,

;

o 2 Many there be which say of my soul, for thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon There is no help for him in God. Selah. the cheek bone; thou hast broken the teeth

3 But thou, O LORD, art a shield "for me; of the ungodly. my glory, and the lifter up of mine head. 8 'Salvation belongeth unto the LORD: thy

4 I cried unto the LORD with my voice, blessing is upon thy people. Selah. and he heard me out of his holy hill. Selah.

my God:

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1 2 Sam. 15. 14.

2 Or, about.

3 Psal. 4, 8.

4 Psal. 27. 3.

5 Isı. 43. Il. Hos. 13. 4.

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Verse 2. • Selah.'— This is evidently a musical term, probably, with Jerome, that "Selah' connected what fol. occurring only in the Psalms, and in Habakkuk iii. Its lowed with that which went before, and further expresses nieaning has been a subject of much dispute. It usually that the words to which it is affixed are of eternal mo. nccurs at the end of a period or strophe; but sometimes ment—not applicable to any particular person, or to any at the end of a clause only. One of the principal expla- temporary circumstances, but such as ought to be remeninations is that advocated by Herder, De Wette, Ewald, bered by all men and for ever. Aben Ezra says that it and others, who suppose that the word comes from

is like the conclusion of a prayer, answering nearly to the verb miso salah, “to raise up, or elevate,' which

• Amen;' and that the Jews, in this sense, usually put it

at the end of their books and epitaphs. Fenwick, Parkwould make it signify an elevation of the voice; and so hurst, and others, hold that the word is intended to direct perhaps be a sign for changing the key, or for repeating particular attention to the passage, as : N.B., attend to, or the same tune some notes higher. Not very different from mind this. Dr. Wall is of opinion that it is a note directthis is the interpretation usually given to the word diá- ing that the last words to which it is added should be reyaxua, diapsalma, which is explained to mean a variation peated by the chorus; and observes that it is always put in singing and melody, to correspond perhaps with a after some remarkable or pathetic clause. Meibomius also transition from one subject or sentiment to another in the thinks it means ' a repeat,' and is equivalent to the Italian words; or to be a musical sign for a bold symphony, in- Da Capo. Some conclude that it directed the time of the timating that the singers should raise their voices, and music, and was perhaps equivalent to our word slow,' or that all the instruments should sound along with them in according to some of our provincial dialects, slaw,' which one grand chorus. (See Ewing in Alávaduo.) The in a rapid pronunciation might easily be taken for Selah. Chaldee Paraphrast renders it by for ever,' understanding Calmet thinks the word was sometimes put in the margin

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of the Hebrew psalters, to indicate that a musical pause was to be made and that the tune was ended : and this is also the opinion which Dr. Burney deduces from the diapsalmaof the Septuagint. Rosenmüller, after detailing the opinions of others, decides to prefer that which supposes that the word Selah indicates a rest, or pause, for the vocal performers, and that the musical instruments only were to be heard: with him Gesenius, Tholuck, and Hengstenberg concur, and it seenis to us the most probable of the opinions which have been advanced. Calmet, in his

Commentaire Littéral, has a · Dissertation sur ces deux termes Hébreur, Lámnatseach et Séla.'

7. Cheek bone .... teeth.'— The allusion is here, probably, to the condition of a beast of prey which is completely disabled from taking and devouring its prey by having the jaws and teeth broken. (See the note on Job xix. 20.) However, the breaking of the jaws and knocking out of the teeth were common circumstances in ancient warfare, in which the opposing parties were much accus. tomed to fling stones at one another's heads.

PSALM IV.

him that is godly for himself; the LORD will.

hear when I call unto him. 1 Darid prayeth for audience. 2 He reproveth and 4 Stand in awe, and sin not: commune exhorteth his enemies. 6 Man's happiness is in God's favour.

with your own heart upon your bed, and be

still. Selah. To the 'chief Musician on Neginoth, A Psalm of David.

5 Offer 'the sacrifices of righteousness, and

put your trust in the LORD. Hear me when I call, O God of my right- 6 There be many that say, Who will shew eousness : thou hast enlarged me when I was us any good ? LORD, lift thou up the light of in distress ; 'have mercy upon me, and hear thy countenance upon us. my prayer.

7 Thou hast put gladness in my heart, 2 Oye sons of men, how long will ye more than in the time that their corn and their turn my glory into shame? how long will wine increased. . ye love vanity, and seek after leasing ? 8 ‘I will both lay me down in peace, and Selah.

sleep: for thou, LORD, only makest me dwell 3 But know that the Lord hath set apart in safety. 2 Or, be gracious anto me.

3 Psal. 50. 14, and 51. 19.

1 02, overseer.

Psal. 3. 5.

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Psalm iv.-That this Psalm was composed in a time of persecution and distress is manifest from the contents. It is usually supposed to have been written by David, either during the persecutions of Saul or the rebellion of Absalom; and there are grounds on which the latter alternative may seem entitled to preference.

TITLE.To the chief Musician.'— The word thus rendered (oseph lamnatzeuch) stands at the head of fiftythree of the Psalms, and has occasioned considerable discussion. The general opinion, which our translators followed, seems to be well authorized in rendering it to the chief musician. Whenever the word occurs historically, with a reference to persons, it denotes those who have the superintendence or oversight, whether of works or workmen; and hence, in the general sense, an 'overseer. So when it thus occurs, as prefixed to a psalm, it is not easy to suppose it can allow of any other reference than to the president or leader of a band of singers or musicians. The Septuagint, and after it the Vulgate, regards it as without a personal application, and renders it by for ever;' understanding it to denote a psalm which deserved to be sung eternally, and to be ever in the mouth of God's servants. The Chaldee has, “for praise,' seemingly under a similar impression. The Jews themselves are not agreed about it; but the majority concur with our version. The old Greek interpreters differ also ;

but in general they suppose it to denote the psalm to be one of victory. One very good reason for adhering to our own version is, that on examining the numerous psalms which are thus inscribed, they have by no means that uniformity of subject or general purport which a characterizing title would seem to require. The reader who wishes to look further into this, may consult Calmet's

Dissertation sur ces deux termes Hébreur, Lámnatseach et Séla;' De Wette, Einleitung die Psalmen, p. 35; and Ewald, Poet. Bücher, i. 169.

* Neginoth!—This word (nis??), which occurs in the titles of seven psalms, is in the Septuagint and the Vulgate rendered by song. (Sept. Guvos, yahuós. Vulg. carmen, canticum.) The verb from which the noun is derived implies to play upon a stringed instrument,' whence it is concluded that the plural noun in the titles of the psalms, denotes such stringed instruments. What they were we do not know; but under this view Neginoth may possibly be a general word for all the stringed instruments then in use.

Wherever the word does occur as a noun, however, other than in the titles of the psalms, the cootext determines that it must mean songs' (as in Job xxx. 9: Lam. iii. 14), and probably such songs as were intended for the accompaniment of stringed instruments. The difference is therefore not greater than whether stringed instruments, or songs or music intended for stringed in. struments, be denoted by the word Neginoth.

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PSALM V.

ing: the Lord will abhor “the bloody and de

ceitful man. 1 David prayeth, and professeth kis study in prayer. 7 But as for me, I will come into thy house 4 God favoureth not the wicked. 7 David, professing his faith, prayeth unto God to guide him,

in the multitude of thy mercy: and in thy fear 10 to destroy his enemies, 11 and to preserve the

will I worship toward thy holy temple. godly.

8 Lead me, O Lord, in thy rigliteousness

because of mine enemies; make thy way To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth, A Psalm of

straight before my face. David.

9 For there is no faithfulness in their Give ear to my words, O LORD, consider my mouth ; their inward part is "very wickedness; meditation.

'their throat is an open sepulchre; they flat2 Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my

ter with their tongue. King, and my God: for unto thee will í 10 "Destroy thou them, O God; let them pray.

fall "by their own counsels; cast them out in 3 'My voice shalt thou hear in the morn- the multitude of their transgressions ; for they ing, O LORD; in the morning will I direct my have rebelled against thee. prayer unto thee, and will look up.

11 But let all those that put their trust in Å For thou art not a God that hath plea- thee rejoice: let them ever shout for joy, besure in wickedness : neither shall evil dwell cause ?thou defendest them: let them also with thee.

that love thy name be joyful in thee. 5 The foolish shall not stand 'in thy sight: 12 For thou, LORD, wilt bless the righthou hatest all workers of iniquity.

teous; with favour wilt thou 'S compass him as 6 'Thou shalt destroy them that speak leas- with a shield. 2 lleb.be fore thine eyes. 3 Heb. the min of bloods and deceit. 4 lleb. the temple of thy huliness.

i leb. in his mouth, that is, in the mouth of any of thein.
10 Or, Vake them guilty. 11 Or, fruin their counsels. 12 Heb. thou coverest over, or, protectest them.

I Psal. 130. 6. 5 lleh, those which observe me. 9 Rom. 3. 13.

o Or, stedfastness.

8 Hel). wickednessce,

13 Ileb, crown hinta

6

Title, • Nehiloth! – The word is nisons, and its obvious derivation from sy khalal, 'to bore throngh,' whence Sosan khalil, ' a pipe,' would suggest that wind instruments are here meant. We do not feel it necessary to inquire, with some writers, whether fiutes or bagpipes be intended. We may suppose it a

term for all the softer sorts of wind instruments, if not for all sorts. The Septuagint, Vulgate, and other ancient versions, how

find the root in Sny nakhal, ' to inherit, possess,' and render, with some variation of phrase, “For that which (or she who) obtained (or obtains, or shall obtain) the inheritance The Arabic has simply, “Concerning the inheritance.' Hengstenberg thinks that the Psalm refers to the double destiny of the righteous and the wicked; and accepting this derivation from Spa, the feminine adjective of which, with a passive signification, can only mean the inherited, the possessed, in plural the possessions, the lots, he

that the title of the psalm has reference to its contents. The Targum renders the title, both of this

ever,

and the preceding psalm, “To sing upon the dances a song of David;' while Aben Ezra understands this word, as he does neginoth, to denote some old and well-known melody, to which this psalm was to be played. On this see further in the note to Ps. xvi.

Verse 5. Shall not stand in thy sight.'— They must 'not stand under his eyes. A mark of deep abhorrence, taken from earthly kings, near whom none are allowed to come but such as enjoy their favour.

7. Toward thy holy temple.:--The temple did not exist in the time of David : how then does this agree with the title which ascribes the psalm to him? The answer is, that the term here employed denotes properly the dwelling-place of the Lord, and was not confined to the temple, but belonged equally to the tabernacle before the temple was erected. See notable instances of this in

Sam. i. 9; iii. 3; in both which places our translators scruple not to render the same term by “temple,' although they knew the tabernacle was intended, and that nothing else could be intended. The phrase is hiere, literally, the abode of thy holiness;' there, the abode of Jehovah.'

PSALM VI.

am weak: O Lord, heal me: for my bones 1 David's complaint in his sickness. 8 By faith he

are vexed. triumpheth over his enemies.

3 My soul is also sore vexed : but thou, O

LORD, how long ? To the chief Musician on Neginoth 'upon Sheminith, 4 Return, O LORD, deliver my soul: oh A Psalm of David.

save me for thy mercies' sake. O 'LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, nei- 5 For in death there is no remembrance ther chasten me in thy hot displeasure. of thee: in the grave who shall give thee 2 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I thanks? ? I OT, upon the cighth.

3 Psal. 39. 9, and 88. 11, and 113, 17, and 118. 17. I-a. 34. 18.

Psal. 38. 1.

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