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may place in a vase of aquafortis, or consign it to the fire, tained the corpse. But some suppose the funeral bier to or to the earth.' COMMENT.—• The usage of the Fersen- be understood. dajians, regarding the dead, was this: after the soul had 26. • Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude,'-The alluleft the body, they washed the body in pure water, and sions which may be collected from this passage to the dressed it in clean and perfumed vestments; they then mode of sepulture among the people indicated, correspond put it into a vase of aquafortis, and when the body was remarkably to the conclusion that these people were sidissolved, carried the liquid far from the city, and poured tuated about, and northward from, the Euxine and Casit out; or else they burned it in fire, after attiring it as pian seas. The circumstances by which the present is has been said ; or they made a dome, and formed a deep distinguished from the other descriptions here given, are pit within it, which they built and whitened with stone, contained in verse 27, where they are described as buried brick, and morlar; and on its edges niches were constructed with their weapons of war—their swords under their and platforms erected, on which the dead were deposited : heads; and the remarkable expression, their iniquities or they buried a vase in the earth, and enclosed the corpse shall be upon their bones,' may be well understood as an in it; or buried it in a coffin in the ground : and in the allusion taken from the vast heaps of earth which it was estimation of the Fersendajians, the most eligible of all customary to pile over their bodies. This cannot so well these was the vase of aquafortis.' We regard this passage as be supposed to allude to anything else as to barrow-burial, of remarkable and curious interest, not only from the gene- which not only answers to these allusions, but is actually ral view it gives of the ancient modes of sepulture in this described by ancient authors, as practised among the very region, but as affording some explanation of allusions con- people of whom it is generally agreed that the prophet tained in Scripture. A sufficient elucidation of the present here speaks. Nothing therefore can be more to the purtext, for instance, seems to be conveyed in the passage which pose than to observe how their usages, in this matter, are we have distinguished by Italics. (APPENDIX, No. 73.] described by Herodotus, who wrote no very long time

24. · Elam. - That is, Persia. The passage on this sub- after Ezekiel. His account refers to the burial of the ject in the Desatir applies primarily to the modes of sepul- Scythian kings, whose sepulchres were in a remote disture among this people, although, considering it equally trict, named Gerrhus, where the Borysthenes became naapplicable to Assyria and Babylonia, we have given it in vigable. · When one of the kings died, his corpse, emthe preceding note. However, we also know that the an- balmed and covered with wax, was conveyed in a chariot, cient Persians deposited their mighty dead in such sepul. in solemn state, to this place. A large quadrangular pit chres hewn into the living rock as we have frequently had was dug, and in this they placed the royal corpse, on a occasion to notice- the practice being common among the mattress of straw. On each side of this they planted Jews themselves, and existing formerly in almost every spears, and covered it with wood, and roofed it over with country of Western Asia; the sepulchres of this class be- hurdles of willow. In the remaining part of the pit they ing distinguished chiefly, in the different nations, by pe- interred one of the late king's women, strangled for the culiarities of internal arrangement and external ornament, purpose, together with his cup-bearer, his cook, his groom, to which we need not particularly refer after the ample fais minister, his courier, his horses, as well as some arstatements we have already on different occasions fur- ticles of every kind he may be supposed to need, including nished. See in particular the note on Isa. xxii. 16, and the several goblets of gold. This done, the people eagerly cut there given.

contended with each other in the work of heaping over 25. Abed in the midst of the slain.'-Here the bed ap- the whole a mound of earth, as vast as possible. The propears to mean the cell in the sepulchral vault, which con- ceedings did not here terminate ; for, the year following,


fifty of the late king's confidential attendants and fifty of horses, etc., with their chiefs. But many mounds, and his horses, were slain and placed, the men on the horses, those of the largest size, are considered by the modern around his sepulchre.' (Melp. 71-2.) This account in- Tahtars and the Russians to be of very remote anticludes every explanation the text requires :--the weapons quity, as their contents exhibit articles and indicate some of war;' for beside the spears, particularly mentioned, usages not known to themselves even by tradition. Upon the other weapons were doubtless included among the articles whole, the tumuli which appear in this region seem to be which the deceased might be supposed to require; then of different ages, some very ancient, perhaps as ancient as there is the vast heaped up mound; and lastly, if this fur- the times before us: but, of whatever age, indicating the ther illustration should seem needful, there are the num- general accuracy of the account given by Herodotus, and bers—the multitudes gone down to the tomb with him, and supposed to be alluded to by the sacred writer, as to the whose graves are around him.

custom of this country. In the country in question, the present writer has seen The custom was not, however, peculiar to the Scythians, great numbers of such mounds as are here destribed, and but was one of the most extensive as well as most ancient of various sizes, but generally in the form of a broad cone, in the world. The heroes who perished in the war which more or less obtuse. They occur in the open steppe or Homer celebrates, were honoured with such sepulchres on desert, and we have sometimes seen them on approaching the plain of Troy; and mounds which are declared to be the Caucasian region, in the midst of the wide plains or their tombs remain to this day the subject of antiquarian hollows, enclosed by a surrounding border of natural hills; discussion; the downs of Wiltshire, no less than the and where the few vast but simple tumuli of the mighty plains of Troy, bear evidence of the same custom, in the dead, holding these magnificent spots in solitary occupa- sepulchral · barrows' which they exhibit, and in the contion, make an impression upon the mind which no exca- tents which these barrows offer. But this suggests a large vated rocks or sculptured tombs could possibly create. and interesting subject from which we are warned to abThese mounds are frequently overgrown with verdure; staiu by the recollection that the mounds of Meshech and and, in favourable situations, trees are found upon them; Tubal are those only that require our attention. We have but although they sometimes emulate natural hills in their only therefore further to observe, how the essential idendimensions, the situations in which they are found, and tity of the custom is established, wherever traced, by the often the regularity of form which they still retain, pre- existence of animal bones together with the human, and vent their being mistaken for such. Such of them as have "weapons of war,' and various utensils, in the larger pro. been opened, have been found to contain human bones, portion of the sepulchral hills which have hitherto been skeletons of horses, articles of gold and silver, weapons examined. and instruments of war, domestic utensils, and personal 27. Gone down to hell.'— It is perhaps unnecessary to ornaments : all confirming the account of Herodotus ; as remind the reader that the word rendered hell,' here does also the frequent occurrence of the bones of many means 'the grave,' the region of the dead. bodies in one sepulchre. It is true that many of these 29. . There is Edom,' etc.—We should have had much mounds appear to have been erected by the Tahtars of to say concerning the sepulchres of Edom, as exhibited at Genghiz Khan and their successors; and it appears that Petra, the city of tombs, had not such notice as we could the Kalmuks are still in the habit of burying arms, take of the subject been anticipated by the general state

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ment concerning that wonderful place which has been a spot in the Zidonian territory, on the road from Zidon given under Jer. xlix., with the incidental notices which to Beirut. In giving a brief explanation, we shall avail may be elsewhere found in this work. Many of these ourselves chiefly of the account which has been given by tombs are also represented in engravings formerly given, Dr. Shaw (Travels, p. 324, 5; folio, 1738): for although and which may be safely left to speak for themselves—the his description refers to the sepulchres at Latakieh, he rather, as all that is peculiar to them is shewn in these states that those in Phænicia are precisely similar to them, engravings: for these monuments, in general, however This is indeed clear from our engraving, as well as from rich externally, present nothing in the interior but coarsely the further allusions of this author, as compared with chiseled walls. There is, however, one exception, noticed Maundrell and other travellers. The sarcophagi are chests by Laborde, of a sepulchral chamber, with rows of sculp- of stone, of the form shewn in our engraving. Some that tured pillars, which forms the finest interior to be found Maundrell saw were two yards and a half long: some in the place. When the Bedouins descend into the val- have lost their covers, others retain them in the proper ley, this tomb, which is easily closed, serves as a stable position, but they are often thrown aside, having been profor their herds. Such are the uses to which the costly bably removed in the search for treasure, which the mouuments of human vanity have been converted.' (La- Orientals generally expect to find in such situations. borde.) And such too, we may add, are the fulfilments The chests are sometimes panelled, and often enriched with which the predictions of the prophets concerning the de- sculptures in shell-work and foliage, or with human or solation of Edom have received. An engraving of this animal figures. Ox-heads, with wreaths between them, tomb has been furnished under Job iii., and we give in the occur frequently. The covers are sometimes supported by next page a cut, shewing a portion of a long cliff or wall of pilasters : and Maundrell mentions traces of inscriptions rock at Petra, containing a prodigious number of those rock too much defaced to be legible. The rocky ground on sepulchres, for which the locality has become celebrated. which these sarcophagi are found is hoilowed below into

30. The Zidonians.'— There are several places on the a number of sepulchral chambers, some of which are ten, coasts of Phænicia and Syria where sepulchral remains of others twenty or thirty feet square; but the height is not a very interesting character occur. They consist of sub- in proportion to its extent. A range of narrow cells, wide terraneous sepulchral chambers, with sarcophagi above, enough to receive one of the sarcophagi, and long enough of the character shewn in our engraving, which exhibits for two or three, runs along the sides of most of these

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took not warning ; his blood shall be upon him.

But he that taketh warning shall deliver his 1 According to the duty of a watchman, in warning

soul. the people, 7 Ezekiel is admonished of his duty. 10 God sheweth the justice of his ways towards the

6 But if the watchman see the sword come, penitent, and towards revoliers. 17 He maintaineth and blow not the trumpet, and the people be his justice. 21 Upon the news of the taking of not warned ; if the sword come, and take any Jerusalem, Ezekiel prophesieth the desolation of the

person from among them, he is taken away in land. 30 God's judgment upon the mockers of the prophets.

his iniquity ; but his blood will I require at

the watchman's hand. Again the word of the LORD came unto me, 7 So thou, O son of man, I have set thee saying,

a watchman unto the house of Israel ; there2 Son of man, speak to the children of fore thou shalt hear the word at my mouth, thy people, and say unto them, 'When I bring and warn them from me.

. the sword upon a land, if the people of the 8 When I say unto the wicked, O wicked land take a man of their coasts, and set bim man, thou shalt surely die; if thou dost not for their watchman :

speak to warn the wicked from his way, that

, 3 If when he seeth the sword come upon wicked man shall die in his iniquity ; but his the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the blood will I require at thine hand. people;

9 Nevertheless, if thou warn the wicked of 4 Then 'whosoever heareth the sound of the his way to turn from it; if he do not turn from trumpet, and taketh not warning; if the sword bis way, he shall die in his iniquity; but thou come, and take him away, his blood shall be hast delivered thy soul. upon his own head.

10 | Therefore, O thou son of man, speak 5 He heard the sound of the trumpet, and unto the house of Israel ; Thus ye speak, say1 Heb. A land when I bring a sword upon her. ? Heb. he that hearing heareth. 3 Chap. 8. 17, đc.

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