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cleanse you.


24 For I will take you from among the 32 Not for your sakez do I this, saith the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, Lord God, be it known unto you: be ashamed and will bring you into your own land. and confounded for your own ways, O house

25 Then will I sprinkle clean water upon of Israel. you, and


shall be clean: from all your 33 Thus saith the Lord God; In the day filthiness, and from all your idols, will I that I shall have cleansed you from all your

iniquities I will also cause you to dwell in the 26 A &new heart also will I give you, and cities, and the wastes shall be builded. a new spirit will I put within you : and I will 34 And the desolate land shall be tilled, take away the stony heart out of your flesh, whereas it lay desolate in the sight of all that and I will give you an heart of flesh.

passed by. 27 And I will put my 'spirit within you, 35 And they shall say, This land that was and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye desolate is become like the garden of Eden ; shall keep my judgments, and do them. and the waste and desolate and ruined cities

28 And ye shall dwell in the land that I are become fenced, and are inhabited. gave to your fathers; and ye shall be my 36 Then the heathen that are left round people, and I will be your God.



shall know that I the LORD build 29 I will also save you from all your un- the ruined places, and plant that that was cleannesses : and I will call for the corn, and desolate : I ''the Lord have spoken it, and I will increase it, and lay no famine upon you.

will do it. 30 And I will multiply the fruit of the 37 Thus saith the Lord God; I will yet tree, and the increase of the field, that ye shall for this be enquired of by the house of Israel, receive no more reproach of famine among the to do it for them; I will increase them with heathen.

men like a flock. 31 Then shall ye remember your own evil 38 As the 'holy flock, as the flock of Jeruways, and your doings that were not good, and salem in her solemn feasts ; so shall the waste shall lothe yourselves in your own sight for

cities be filled with flocks of men: and they your iniquities and for your abominations. shall know that I am the Lord. 8 Jer. 32. 39. Chap. 11. 19.

9 Clap. 11. 19.
10 Chap. 28. 13.

11 Chap. 17. 24, and 22. 14, and 37. 14. 12 Heb. flock of holy things.


bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with 1 By the resurrection of dry bones, 11 the dead liope and ye shall know that I am the Lord.

skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; of Israel is revived. 15 By the uniting of two sticks, 18 is shewed the incorporation of Israel into Judah. 7 So I prophesied as I was commanded ; 21 The promises of Christ's kingdom.

and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and

behold a shaking, and the bones came togeThe hand of the LORD was upon me, and ther, bone to his bone. carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, and 8 And when I beheld, lo, the sinews and set me down in the midst of the valley which the flesh came up upon them, and the skin was full of bones,

covered them above : but there was no breath 2 And caused me to pass by them round in them. about: and, behold, there were very many in 9 Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the the open 'valley; and, lo, they were very dry. 'wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the

3 And he said unto me, Son of man, can wind, T'hus saith the Lord GOD; Come from these bones live? And I answered, O Lord the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon God, thou knowest.

these slain, that they may live. 4 Again he said unto me, Prophesy upon 10 So I prophesied as he commanded me, these bones, and say unto them, "O ye dry and the breath came into them, and they lived, bones, hear the word of the LORD.

and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding 5 Thus saith the Lord God unto these great army. bones; Behold, I will cause breath to enter 11 Then he said unto me, Son of man, into you, and ye shall live :

these bones are the whole house of Israel : 6 And I will lay sinews upon you, and will behold, they say, Our bones are dried, and i Or, champaiga.

2 Or, breath.

our hope is lost: we are cut off for our 21 | And say unto them, Thus saith the parts.

Lord God; Behold, I will take the children of 12 Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Israel from among the heathen, whither they Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, O my be gone, and will gather them on every side, people, I will open your graves, and cause you and bring them into their own land :

, to come up out of your graves, and bring you 22 And I will make them one nation in the into the land of Israel.

land upon the mountains of Israel ; and 'one 13 And ye shall know that I am the LORD, king shall be king to them all : and they shall when I have opened your graves, O my people, be no more two nations, neither shall they be and brought you up out of your graves, divided into two kingdoms any more at all :

14 And shall put my spirit in you, and ye 23 Neither shall they defile themselves any shall live, and I shall place you in your own more with their idols, nor with their detestable land: then shall ye know that I the LORD things, nor with any of their transgressions : have spoken it, and performed it, saith the but I will save them out of all their dwellingLORD.

places, wherein they have sinned, and will 15 | The word of the LORD came again cleanse them : so shall they be my people, and unto me, saying,

I will be their God. 16 Moreover, thou son of man, take thee 24 And 'David my servant shall be king one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and over them; and they all shall have one shepfor the children of Israel his companions : then herd: they shall also walk in my judgments, take another stick, and write upon it, For and observe my statutes, and do them. Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the 25 And they shall dwell in the land that I house of Israel his companions :

have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein 17 And join them one to another into one your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell stick; and they shall become one in thine therein, even they, and their children, and hand.

their children's children for ever: and my 18 And when the children of thy people servant David shall be their prince for ever. shall speak unto thee, saying, Wilt thou not 26 Moreover I will make a covenant of shew us what thou meanest by these ?

peace with them; it shall be an everlasting 19 Say unto them, Thus saith the Lord covenant with them : and I will place them, GOD; Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, and multiply them, and will set my 'sanctuary

, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the in the midst of them for evermore. tribes of Israel his fellows, and will put them 27 My tabernacle also shall be with them : with him, even with the stick of Judah, and yea, I will be 'their God, and they shall be

, make them one stick, and they shall be one in my people. mine hand.

28 And the heathen shall know that I the 20 And the sticks whereon thou writest LORD do sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary shall be in thine hand before their eyes. shall be in the midst of them for evermore. 4 Isa. 40.11, Jer. 23. 5, and 30. 9. Chap. 34. 23.

7 Chap. 11. 20, and 14. 11.

3 John 10. 16.

5 Psal. 89. 3. Chap. 34. 25,

6 2 Cor. 6. 16.

culiar kind of ancient metre called Triban, or triplet, and Englyn-Milwyr, or the warrior's verse. Several sticks

Verse 20. The sticks whereon thou writest.'— There are many curious traces of this kind of writing upon sticks or pieces of wood. This indeed is not the first instance of the practice in scripture; for so early as the time of Moses, we find a parallel example of writing upon rods. The custom existed among the early Greeks; as we are informed that the laws of Solon, preserved at Athens, were inscribed on billets of wood called axones. The custom has also existed in various applications in our own and other northern countries. The ancient Britons used to cut their alphabet with a knise upon a stick, which thus inscribed, was called Coelbren y Beirdd, the billet of signs of the bards,' or the Bardic Alphabet. And not only were the alphabets such, but compositions and memorials were registered in the same manner. These sticks were commonly squared, but sometimes were threesided, and, consequently, a single stick would contain either three or four lines. The squares were used for general subjects, and for stanzas of four lines in poetry; the trilateral ones being adapted to triads, and for a pe

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[B.C. 587. stick might be turned for the facility of reading, the end various purposes of this kind for which sticks have been of each running out alternately on both sides. A con- employed. We have seen alphabets, records, books, poems, tinuation, or different application of the same practice, is and calendars of stick; and the account sticks may be offered by the Runic clog (a corruption of log) almanacs, the employment of which was retained to a comparatively recent period, being described by Dr. Plot in his History of Staffordshire (1686), as still in common use in that county ; some, of large size, being usually hung up at one side of the mantle-tree of the chimney, while others were smaller and carried in the pocket. Our engraving is copied from a representation of one of the family .clogs,' given in his work. Properly, the almanac was a single four-sided stick, inscribed on each side; but, for the convenience of representation, it is skewn' in plano, each angle of the square stick, with the moiety of each of the flat sides, being expressed apart.' The edges have notches, answering to the days of the year; the Sundays being distinguished by a larger notch. Connected with these, on one of the flat sides, are crosses, the form and size of which are varied, for the sake of distinction or to mark the rank which the saint of that day was supposed to occupy: the dots are considered to denote the number of paternosters, aves, etc. appropriate to the day. The opposite side of the notched edge is occupied by arbitrary or significant signs to denote

the greater festivals, or other commemorative occasions—as a star for the Epiphany, a branch for May-day, a sword for St. John, keys for St. Peter, and so forth. They were, in short, calendars containing similar indications to those prefixed to the books of Common-prayer. Dr. Clarke met with several of such Runic stave-calendars in Sweden, rather as curious antiquities than as things in actual use; although the inhabitants were well acquainted with them, and were often able to explaiu the meaning of the characters upon them, and the purpose for which these instruments were used. They were all of wood, about three feet and a half long, shaped like the straight swords represented in churches upon the brazen sepulchral plates of our Saxon ancestors. The blades were on each side engraved with Runic characters, and signs like hieroglyphics extended their whole length... We saw one of more elaborate workmanship, where the Runic characters had been very elegantly engraved upon a stick, like a physician's cane ; but this last seemed to be of a more modern date. In every instance it was evident, from some of the marks upon them, that the first owners had been Christians : the dif. ferent lines and characters denoting the fasts and festivals, golden numbers, dominical letter, epact, etc. But the custom of thus preserving written records upon rods or sticks is of the highest antiquity. There is an allusion to the custom in Ezek. xxxvii. 16-20, where mention is made of something very similar to the Runic staff. The difference between these and the one represented in our cut, seems to be no more than in the variation of arbitrary

CLOG ALMAXAC. signs and characters to denote the same objects.

The use of sticks and pieces of wood in keeping accounts, briefly noticed to complete the series. The most perfect has been retained much longer than the other applications ; and interesting of those which have remained in modern and has indeed remained to our own day, in evidence the

use appears to be the Saxon Reive Pole, still, or down to S.S. d. s. d. d. d. s. d. d. d. d. d. d.


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a recent date, used in the island of Portland for collecting marks which have been set along the edges of the enthe yearly rent paid to the sovereign as lord of the manor. graving. The other side of the pole, as seen in the cut, The lands of this island are denominated ancient customary is appropriated to the parish of Wakem, the cross within deinesne and lands of inheritance, paying a yearly rent of a circle being considered the mark of that district. In 141. 14s. 3d., and collected by the reive or steward every this, as in other instances, we find ancient methods of Michaelmas, the sum which each person pays being scored proceeding retained by governments long after they have on a square pole, as shewn in our present engraving. The been abandoned by individuals. This is shewn in the black circle at the top denotes the parish of Southwell, present matter, by the Reive-Pole in the island of Port. and that side of the pole contains the account of the tax land, and still more by the 'tallies' or notched sticks, so paid by the parishioners; each person's account being long and so recently used in the accounts of the public divided from that of his neighbour by the circular in- Exchequer, and which still give name to the office of dentations between each. In the present instance the first certain public functionaries, the Tellers (Talliers) of the pays 2}d., the second 4s. 2d., the next one farthing, and Exchequer.

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11 And thou shalt say, I will go up to the

land of unwalled villages ; I will go to them 1 The army, 8 and malice of Gog. 14 God's judg- that are at rest, that dwell 'safely, all of them ment against him.

dwelling without walls, and having neither AND the word of the LORD came unto me,

bars nor gates, saying,

12 "To take a spoil, and to take a prey, to 2 Son of man, set thy face against 'Gog, turn thine hand upon the desolate places that the land of Magog, "the chief prince of are now inhabited, and upon the people that Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, are gathered out of the nations, which have

3 And say, Thus saith the Lord God; gotten cattle and goods, that dwell in the Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief Smidst of the land. prince of Meshech and Tubal:

13 Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants of 4 And 'I will turn thee back, and put hooks Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof, into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and shall say unto thee, Art thou come to take a all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of spoil ? hast thou gathered thy company to them clothed with all sorts of armour, even a take a prey? to carry away silver and gold, great company with bucklers and shields, all to take away cattle and goods, to take a great of them handling swords:

spoil ? 5 Persia, Ethiopia, and 'Libya with them; 14 Therefore, son of man, prophesy and all of them with shield and helmet :

say unto Gog, Thus saith the Lord God; In 6 Gomer, and all his bands; the house of that day when my people of Israel dwelleth Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his safely, shalt thou not know it ? bands : and many people with thee.

15 And thou shalt come from thy place 7 Be thou prepared, and prepare for thy- out of the north parts, thou, and many people self, thou, and all thy company that are assem

with thee, all of them riding upon horses, a bled unto thee, and be thou a guard unto them. great company, and a mighty army:

8 After many days thou shalt be visited: 16 And thou shalt come up against my in the latter years thou shalt come into people of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; the land that is brought back from the it shall be in the latter days, and I will bring sword, and is gathered out of many people, thee against my land, that the leathen may against the mountains of Israel, which have know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, been always waste : but it is brought forth O Gog, before their eyes. out of the nations, and they shall dwell safely 17 Thus saith the Lord God; Art thou all of them.

he of whom I have spoken in old tiine 'by my 9 Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm, servants the prophets of Israel, which prothou shalt be like a cloud to cover the land, phesied in those days many years that I would thou, and all thy bands, and many people with bring thee against them? thee.

18 And it shall come to pass at the saine 1 10 Thus saith the Lord God; It shall also time when Gog shall come against the land of ! come to pass, that at the same time shall Israel, saith the Lord God, that my fury shall things come into thy mind, and thou shalt think

face. an evil thought:

come up


19 For in my jealousy and in the fire of 1 Rerel. 20.8. 2 Or, prince of the chief.

5 Or, conceire a mischierous purpose. 6 Or, confidently. 7 Heb. to spoil the spoil, and to prey the prey.

9 Heb. by the hands.

8 Chap. 39. 2.

4 Or, Prut.

& Heb, navel.


wrath have I spoken, Surely in that day God: every man's sword shall be against his there shall be a great shaking in the land of brother. Israel ;

22 And I will plead against him with 20 So that the fishes of the sea, and the pestilence and with blood; and I will rain fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, upon him, and upon his bands, and upon and all creeping things that creep upon the the many people that are with him, an overearth, and all the men that are upon the face flowing rain, and great hailstones, fire, and of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and

brimstone. the mountains shall be thrown down, and the 23 Thus will I "magnify myself, and sancsosteep places shall fall, and every wall shall tify myself; and I will be known in the eyes "

I fall to the ground.

of many nations, and they shall know that I 21 And I will call for a sword against him am the LORD. throughout all my mountains, saith the Lord


10 Or, towers, or, stairs.

I Chap. 36. 23, anıl 37. 28.


Verse 2. Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of long retained, for this reason, the name of Scythopolis, or Meshech and Tubali'-Great diversity of opinion has been city of the Scythians.' After this people had for twentyentertained concerning the situation of Gog and Magog, eight years remained in possession of the two Armenias, and the various alternatives suggested have given occasion Cappadocia, Pontus, Colchis, Iberia, and the greater part to no common amount of discussion. This we cannot of Lydia, their chiefs were cut off by a treacherous stratafollow: but content ourselves with stating that the opinion gem of the same king of Media whom they had in the which seems to us the most probable, and which moreover first instance defeated. The expulsion of their dispirited has the support of Josephus, is that these are to be under- followers was then easily effected; and to this event, which stood as names applied to the Scythians of the ancients, happened in his own time, the prophet may well be supanswering to the Tahtars of the moderns—a people ex- posed to refer, while his view extends from thence far tending through the centre of Asia, and the south-east of forward into the future history of the same people, to an Europe, and who, at various times, have left their native extent which we cannot follow through its disputed appliplains to overrun the civilized countries of Asia and east- cations. ern Europe, overthrowing thrones and kingdoms before 9. Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm,'- This them. Gog and Magog are probably to be understood as verse docs very strikingly describe the character of a Scyapplied to this people in the most extensive sense; Me- thian or Tahtar invasion, the force of which is illustrated shech and Tubal being limited to the nearer and better by every account of such transactions which has been preknown portions of the whole. Considering that the present served. Their vast numbers covering the land like a Turks are descended from the Tahtars, many commentators cloud, their rapid and irresistible progress, compared to a seem disposed to consider that the prophecies concerning storm-are circumstances to which the prophets allude, Gog and Magog have an ultimate reference to that people. and which all historians describe with wonder. Gibbon's It is, however, allowed, on all hands, that this is one of notice of the invasions of China by the Tahtars contains a the most difficult prophecies of the Old Testament, and passage strikingly illustrative of this verse; and it is als interpreters are greatly divided about its application. ways a pleasant office to oblige infidels to bring evidence

4. I will turn thee buck.'— It therefore appears that the of the truth of the descriptions and prophecies of that people in question had at this time made an incursion Divine Book which they affect to contemn. •The cavalry from their native wilds into the countries with which the of the Taujou frequently consisted of two or three hunHebrews were acquainted. It corroborates the conclusion dred thousand men; formidable by the matchless dexterity stated in the preceding note, that this actually happened with which they managed their bows and their horses; by in the time of Ezekiel, with respect to the Scythians, and their hardy patience in supporting the inclemency of the not, so far as history certifies, with respect to any other weather; and by the incredible speed of their march, people. This prophecy has no date : and if we assign it which was seldom checked by torrents or precipices, by an early one, there is every historical and internal proba- the deepest rivers, or by the most lofty mountains. They bility that the first part of the chapter refers to the ex- spread themselves at once over the face of the country; pulsion of the Scythians, after they had for several years and their rapid impetuosity surprised, astonished, and dis(28) assumed a position in south-western Asia which concerted the grave and elaborate tactics of a Chinese made them and their peculiar habits well known in that army. The vast numbers of men which were brought part of the world, and which may well be taken to ex- into the field by the people in question are repeatedly noplain the allusions which Ezekiel seems to make to them. ticed in this and the following chapter : and indeed it About the time of the fall of Nineveh, they made their used to be a matter of wonder how such immense bodies appearance in Upper Asia, and were about to enter Media, of men as the aucient Scythians and modern Tahtars as. when they were opposed by the king of that country sembled could be brought together. But this is accounted (Cyaxares I.) who sustained a signal defeat. The Scy- for by the recollection, that among all the Tahtar tribes thians then proceeded, and extended their conquests over every adult serves, when required, as a soldier; so that Syria to the confines of Egypt, which they were only pre- their thinly-peopled wildernesses have often been able to vented from entering by entreaties and valuable presents send forth armies far exceeding those which the most pofrom the king. On their return they passed through the pulous civilized countries could ever raise. One of the land of the Philistines, in their progress through which laws of the Mongol Tahtars, in the time of Genghiz Khan, some stragglers of their main body plundered the temple was, 'Husbands are to be employed solely in hunting and of Venus (Astarte) at Askelon, which was believed to be war ; all other occupations belong to women. the most ancient in the world dedicated to that goddess. 15. All of them riding upon horses.'—The plains of It does not appear that they molested the kingdom of Tahtary are filled with a strong and serviceable breed of Judæa, and the already desolated country of the expa- horses, which are easily trained for the purposes of war triated ten tribes offered them little temptation. They and hunting. The Scythians of every age have been celedid however appropriate to themselves the town of Beth- brated as bold and skilful riders; and constant practice shan, in the territories of Manasseh west of Jordan, which has seated them so firmly on horseback, that they were

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