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11 Thou also shalt be drunken: thou 16 Thou hast multiplied thy merchants shalt be hid, thou also shalt seek strength above the stars of heaven: the cankerworm because of the enemy.
'spoileth, and fleeth away. 12 All thy strong holds shall be like fig. 17 Thy crowned areas the locusts, and trees with the firstripe figs : if they be shaken, thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which they shall even fall into the mouth of the eater. camp in the hedges in the cold day, but when
13 Behold, thy people in the midst of thee the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place are women : the gates of thy land shall be set is not known where they are. wide open unto thine enemies : the fire shall 18 Thy shepherds slumber, Oking of devour thy bars.
Assyria : thy ''nobles shall dwell in the dust : 14 Draw thee waters for the siege, fortify thy people is scattered upon the mountains, thy strong holds: go into clay, and tread the and no man gathereth them. morter, make strong the brickkiln.
19 There is no "healing of thy bruise ; 15 There shall the fire devour thee; the thy wound is grievous: all that hear the sword shall cut thee off, it shall eat thee up bruit of thee shall clap the hands over thee : like the cankerworm : make thyself many as for upon whom hath not thy wickedness passed the cankerworm, make thyself many as the continually? locusts. Or, spreadeth himself.
11 Heb. wrinkling.
B Jer. 25. 17.
10 Or, valiant ones.
Verse 8. Whose rampart was the sea, and her wall from that the locust, before it is in a condition for flight, is to the sea.'—The sea referred to in this passage is the river be understood ; particularly as the ravages of the locust, Nile, which at the present day is named el Bahr, the in this state of its existence, could not fail to have been a sea, as its most common appellation. Dr. Robinson's matter of sad experience to the Hebrews. It will also Egyptian servant, who spoke English, always called it appear from the following statement, that this part of the
the sea.' In Egypt, the word el Bahr, implying the natural history of the locust fully corresponds to all the Mediterranean Sea, is also used for north; a north-wind Scriptural intimations. is called the sea-wind,' as coming from the Mediterra- The female locust lays her eggs in autumn. She makes nean. This shews the fallacy of an argument sometimes choice of a light earth, under the shelter of a bush or hedge, used to prove that the Hebrew was the original language where she deposits, and carefully covers over, an oblong of Palestine, viz., that the word sea (D!), in Hebrew, is substance of the shape of her own body, containing a also the Hebrew term for west. If, for this reason, the great number of eggs. These are protected by their situHebrew language were original in Palestine, then also ation from the cold of winter, and are hatched early in the Arabic must have been so in Egypt. In like manner,
the spring by the heat of the sun. Consequently, in the in Syria, the word Kibleh, referring to Mecca, is now places which have been visited by the plague of locusts, universally employed for south. Robinson's Biblical Re- the hedges and ridges swarm with the young ones about searches, i. 542.
the middle of April. In this their larva state, they differ 12. 'If they be shaken, they shall even fall,' etc.- from the perfect insect only in their colour, size, and in This will appear from the fact that all figs, when ripe, the absence of the wings and wing.cases, and in the infall of their own accord; a little shaking of the tree will
capacities which hence arise. In other respects they entherefore bring down many figs, when the fruit is ripe, joy the same faculties, except of reproduction, as in their or approaching ripeness. The firstripe figs,' that is, the
uliimate condition. The same observation extends to early or spring figs, drop with more facility than those of their adolescent, or nympha, condition, when the wings summer or late autumn.
and wing-cases remain enclosed in covers.
Their formal and wholesale ravages begin before they are 14. · Tread the morter.'—We have explained, under
in a condition for flight; and are then indeed far more Ezek. xiii., that mortar is usually trodden by the feet in
ruinous than those of the winged invaders. When they leave the East. So is the clay for making bricks; and, from
their native hedges, they march along, as it were, in battathe context, we should rather suppose that this is to be understood in the present passage.
lions, devouring every leaf and bud as they pass, and not
sparing even the bark of trees. The husbandmen, who 17. • The great grasshoppers.'—We are strongly of
dread this visitation above all things, have various expedients opinion that the construction here employed (raja aia gob for preventing or lessening the calamity. They have much gobai) does not express the size of the species, but the tact in discovering the places where the eggs are deposited, vastness of the aggregate number. We have been fur- great quantities of which they sometimes extract and destroy: nished with some ingenious arguments to shew that the
and when the evil day has actually arrived, a common plan mole-cricket is to be understood. But the insect in ques- is to dig ditches across their path, into which they fall, and tion is described in Amos vii. 1, as very destructive to
are destroyed in vast numbers. Great quantities are also vegetable produce, while the food of the mole-cricket is devoured by birds and domestic fowls. At last, when the chiefly composed of insects: and the fact that it does sun has waxed warm, about the end of June, they acquire much damage to the roots of vegetables when burrowing
their perfect condition by the development of their wings, in the earth, like the mole (whence its name), does not
and 'flee away,' to inflict on other places the desolation to appear sufficiently to meet the required conditions. We which they have reduced the place of their birth. are therefore more disposed to acquiesce in the conclusion (Vv. 13, 17, 19. APPENDIX, No. 78.]
THERE have been singularly different opinions as to the time of this prophet. Soine of the old Jewish writers thought him to have been the son of the Shunammite woman, so noted in the history of Elisha; while the author of the apocryphal story of Bel and the Dragon introduces him into his narrative, which he lays in the time of Cyrus in the last years of Daniel. The former account makes him far the earliest of the collected prophets, and the latter the latest except Daniel. But both of the accounts are entitled to equal disbelief. We have no positive information ; but the probability is, that Habakkuk prophesied in the reign of Jehoiakim, which would make him a contemporary of Jeremiah. The Jews generally place him in the reign of Manasseh : and certainly lie may be allowed to have lived partly in that reign, although his present prophecies may not have been delivered till that of Jehoiakim. The traditions preserved by the pseudo-Epiphanius and Dorotheus state, that Habakkuk was of the tribe of Simeon, and was born and died at Bethzacar. The same account states that he withdrew into Arabia on the approach of the Chaldæan army against Jerusalem ; but returned and cultivated his paternal fields after the Babylonians had retired. Little faith is however to be placed in these accounts. Habakkuk's tomb is spoken of as existing at Bethzacar, Keila, Echela, or Gabbatha, by the early Christian writers. As they are all mentioned as in the neighbourhood of Eleutheropolis, perhaps the tomb was about equally near the places thus named, and its situation denoted by different authors with varied references to the neighbouring towns or villages.
The general subject of Habakkuk's prophecy is the same as that of Jeremiah. He foretels the approaching punishment of the Jewish nation for its iniquities by the hands of the Chaldæans; suggests ultimate objects of hope and consolation; and predicts the final ruin of the Babylonian empire. The style of Habakkuk gives to his prophecy a high place among the poetical parts of Scripture. The sublime song with which it concludes is considered by Bishop Lowth as one of the most perfect specimens of the Hebrew ode; and from the repetition of the word “Selah,' which occurs so frequently in the Psalms, it would appear to have been adapted to music, and was perhaps intended to be used in the public worship. Eichhorn, Rosenmüller, Jahn, De Wette, and other continental scholars, are also loud in their praise of Habakkuk's style. The first named of these gives an animated and copious analysis of the construction of his prophecies, which may be read with advantage in his Einleitung, but which is too long to be introduced here. Rosenmüller finds that the style of Habakkuk is grave, pure, chaste, concise, and perfectly adapted to the different subjects of which he treats, as well when he addresses his humble supplications to Jehovah, as when he launches his vehement rebukes against the crimes of men, and when he exalts the mercies of God towards the house of Israel. This writer concludes his strong eulogium by declaring that a person may find in the writings of this sacred poet, examples of all that the Hebrew eloquence possessed of strength, of grandeur, and of magnificence. De Wette also regards Habakkuk as equal in style to the finest of the prophetic writers—Joel, Amos, Nahum, Isaiah, and declares that in the ode in chap. iii., he surpasses all that the poetry of the Hebrews has produced of the kind. He adds, that in this noble song elegance and clearness are united to the utmost force, the most rich abundance, and to the most sublime poetic rapture. He further states that the rhythm of Habakkuk, while most free, is at the same time well measured ; and that his language, always pure, has an air of admirable freshness. Lehrbuch der Hist. crit. Einleitung, $ 248.
The canonicity of the book of Habakkuk is not open to question. It is not indeed mentioned by name in the ancient catalogues; but they must lave counted him among the twelve minor prophets, whose number would not otherwise be full. In the New Testament some expressions of this prophet are introduced, but his name nowhere occurs. Compare Hab. ii. 4 with Rev. i. 17; Gal. iii. 11; Heb. x. 38; and Hab. i. 5 with Acts xiii. 40, 41.
Of Abarbanel's Commentary on Habakkuk there is a Latin version by Sprecher, Helmstd., 1709; Luther, Der Prophet Habacuc ausgelegt, Vitemb., 1526; Fabricii Capitonis Enarrationes in P. Habacuc, Argentor., 1520; Grynæi Hypomnemata in Habacuc, Basil, 1582; Guevara, Comment. et ecphrasis in Habacuc, etc., Madrid, 1585; Chytræi Lectiones in prophetiam Habacuc, 1592; Agellii Comm. in prophetam Habacuc, Antverpiæ, 1597; Garthii Comm. in P. Habacuc, Vitemb., 1605;
Padilla in Habacuc prophetam Commentaria, Madrid, 1657; Haffenrefferi Comm. in Nahum et Habacuc, Stutgardiæ, 1663 ; Van Till, Phosphorus Propheticus, seu Mosis et Habacuci Vaticinia, novo, ad istius Canticum, et hujus librum propheticum, commentario illustrata, Lugd. Bat., 1700; Esch, Gründliche Erklärung des P. Habacucs, Wesel, 1714; Abichtii Adnotationes ad Vaticinia Habacuci prophetæ, Vitemb., 1732 ; Monrad, Die Weissagung des Propheten Habakuks, übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen, Götting., 1759 ; Perschke, Habakuk, Vates olim Hebræus, inprimis ipsius hymnus denuo illustratus, Francof., 1777; Ludwig, Habakuk der Prophet nach dem Ebraischen text, mit Zuziehung der älteren übersetzungen, übertragen und erläutert, Frankf., 1779; Wahl, Habakuk, neu übersetzt, nebst einer Einleitung, philologischen, kritischen, exegetischen, und ästhetischen Anmerkungen, etc., Hanov., 1790 ; Kofod, Chabacuci Vaticinium, Comm. critico atque exegetico illustratum, etc., Havniæ, 1792; Tingstadii Animadversiones philologicæ et criticæ ad Vaticinia Habacuci, Upsal, 1795; Haenlein, Symbole criticæ ad interpretationem vaticiniorum Habacuci, Erlang., 1795; Horst, Die Visionen Habakuks, neu übersetzt mit historischen und exegetischen kritischen Anmerkungen : nebst einer Abhandlung über den Prophetismus der alten Welt, und insbesondere der biblischen Propheten, Gotha, 1798; Ranitz, Introductio in Habacuci Vaticinia, Lips., 1818; Euchel, Chabakuk, aus dem Ebraischen übersetzt, etc., Copenhagen, 1815; Justi, Habakuk, neu übersetzt und erläutert, Leipz., 1821; Wolff, Der Prophet Habacuc, Darmstadt, 1822.
6 For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that
bitter and hasty nation, which shall march 1 Unto Habakkuk, complaining of the iniquity of the through the breadth of the land, to possess
land, 5 is shewed the fearful vengeance by the Chal-
the dwellingplaces that are not their's.
7 They are terrible and dreadful : "their
judgment and their dignity shall proceed of HE bur
themselves. den which
8 Their horses also are swifter than the Habak
leopards, and are more fierce than the kuk the
'evening wolves : and their horsemen shall prophet
spread themselves, and their horsemen shall
come from far; they shall fly as the eagle 2 0
that hasteth to eat. LORD, how
9 They shall come all for violence: 8 otheir long shall
faces shall sup up as the east wind, and they I cry, and
shall gather the captivity as the sand. thou wilt
10 And they shall scoff at the kings, and not hear!
the princes shall be a scorn unto them : they even
cry shall deride every strong hold; for they shall out unto heap dust, and take it. thee of
11 Then shall his mind change, and he violence,
shall pass over, and offend, imputing this his and thou wilt not save!
power unto his god. 3 Why dost thou shew me iniquity, and 12 Art thou not from everlasting, O cause me to behold grievance ? for spoiling LORD my God, mine Holy One ? we shall and violence are before me : and there are not die. O LORD, thou hast ordained them that raise up strife and contention.
for judgment; and, O°mighty God, thou 4 Therefore the law is slacked, and judg: hast established them for correction. ment doth never go forth : for the 'wicked 13 Thou art of purer eyes than to behold doth compass about the righteous ; therefore evil, and canst not look on "iniquity: where'wrong judgment proceedeth.
fore lookest thou upon them that deal trea5 1 Behold ye among the heathen, and cherously, and holdest thy tongue when the regard, and wonder marvellously: for I will wicked devoureth the man that is more righteous work a work in your days, which ye will not than he ? believe, though it be told you.
14 And makest men as the fishes of the 2 Or, wrested.
4 Heb. breadths. 3 Or, from them shall proceed the judgment of these, and the captivity of these.
6 Heb. sharp:
7 Zeph. 3. 3. 8 Or, the supping up of their faces, &c., or, their faces shall look toward the east. 9 Heb. the opposition of their faces toward the east.
I Job 21. 7. Jer. 12. 1.
3 Acts 13. 41.
11 Heb. founded.
10 Heb. rock.
sea, as the 'creeping things, that have no 16 Therefore they sacrifice unto their net, ruler over them?
and burn incense unto their drag; because 15 They take up all of them with the by them their portion is fat, and their meat angle, they catch them in their net, and gather them in their "drag : therefore they 17 Shall they therefore empty their net, rejoice and are glad.
and not spare continually to slay the nations? 13 Or, moving. 14 Or, flue-net. 15 Or, dainty.
16 Heb. fat.
Verse 8. Swifter than the leopards.'—The swiftness of three or four hundred yards, the cheetah seldom running the leopard is proverbial in all countries where it is found. a greater distance, and in that I have measured repeated
This, conjoined with its other strokes of seven or eight paces. On coming up with the
15. They take...them with the angle, they catch them and striking to the people, in their net, and gather them in their dray.'—This verse is from their having had oppor- remarkable for the various modes of fishing to which it tunities of witnessing the pro- alludes; and to complete the list, the • fish-spears,' men. digious feats of leopards used tioned by Job, might be added. There appears indeed to
in the royal hunts. "He would have been no mode of fishing now in use which was not have considered this the more probable if he had known that the leopard was certainly thus employed in ancient Egypt, as appears from existing paintings. Leopards are now rarely kept for hunting in Western Asia, unless by kings and governors ; but they are more common in the eastern parts of Asia. Osorius relates that one was sent by the king of Portugal to the Pope, which excited great astonishment by the velocity with which it overtook and the facility with which it killed deer and wild boars. Le Bruyn mentions a leopard kept by the pasha who governed Gaza and the other territories of the ancient Philistines, and which he frequently employed in hunting jackals. But it is in India that the cheetah, or hunting leopard, is most frequently employed, and is seen in the perfection of his power. There is an interesting account of a cheetah hunt in Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, i. 170-175, from which it appears that the cheetah, when the prey is in view, endeavours to steal undiscovered withiu the distance of seventy yards before it starts against the game, and seldom perse
ANGLING.-Ancient Egyptian. veres in the chase if it does not overtake it in a very short run, which, however, it seldom fails to do. When the known to and practised by the ancient nations. The subcheetah resolves to exert himself, his velocity is astonish- ject of ancient fishing is susceptible of extensive illustraing; for although the antelope is esteemed the swiftest tion (from which we must abstain); and it is one of pecuspecies of the deer, and the course generally begins at the liar interest to the Christian reader from the numerous distance of seventy or eighty yards, yet the game is usually circumstances connected with fishing which occur in the caught, or else makes his escape, within the distance of | Gospels, arising from the fact that several of those whom
Christ called to follow him, and who became his apostles, copied, with others of a similar character, evince that it were fishermen.
was an old custom to use the net in Egypt. We are of Angling seems to have been regarded among the Egyp- course aware that the Egyptians did use weirs and toils in tians and Romans much in the same light as it is at pre- their fisheries ; but we do not feel assured that Scripture sent; and was pursued in nearly the same manner. Figures contains any allusion to them. of persons angling occur frequently in the paintings of the Egyptian tombs, and on the walls of the Roman Herculaneum. From the former we have copied one specimen, shewing the mode of angling with the rod and line, and with the line alone. The difference between the two processes is well discriminated in the different attitudes of the apgiers, and in the decided manner with which the one with the rod draws out his fish, as contrasted with the caution of the one who fishes with the line only. The ancient rods seem to have been shorter than the modern; and we are not aware that they were ever jointed. The lines in our specimen look very clumsy, and we do not know with what they are made. Horse-hair was anciently much employed in the lines used by anglers, as it has been since. Fishing, particularly with a line, seems to have been a favourite amusement among the ancient Egyptians. Wilkinson states that in all cases they adopted a groundbait, without any float: and that it does not appear they ever put winged insects to the hook, and still less that they had devised any process similar to our artificial fly-fishing, which is still unknown to the Egyptians. The hooks appear to have been of bronze. We may observe that the mode of angling without a rod, as shewn in our cut, is exactly the same as is still practised by the fellahs of modern Egypt.
The second cut is copied from a painting in the same tomb—at Beni-Hassan—from which the other is taken. From a comparison with other examples it appears to exhibit the common mode of fishing by a net in the river Nile. In other representations there are some variations ; but none very essential. Fishing with nets seems to have been a very ancient practice in different nations. The angle was most generally employed by those who fished
MODERN ORIENTAL NET. for sport, as at present, and the net more exclusively by those who made fishing their business. Yet the Romans The use of fish-spears, however, to which there are disused the net as well as the angle for sport, and Suetonius tinct references in the sacred writings, appears very clearly states that Nero was accustomed to fish with a net of gold in the paintings of ancient Egypt. The spear consists of and purple. There were a variety of nets for varied uses, a long and stout pole terminating in two long and fine for different waters, and for taking different sized fishes. prongs single barbed, and one of them longer than the Plutarch mentions corks and leaden weights as an addition other. One of Rosellini's engravings (Monum. Civili, which nets had received. Harmer supposes that nets were pl. xxv. fig. 2) shews a man standing up in his boat who not used by the ancient Egyptians, and consequently that has struck two fish at once with this instrument, one on the word rendered - nets in the account of Egyptian each prong. These fish-spears appear to have been emfishery which we have given in Isa. xix. 8-10, must be ployed by the fishers as they gently floated down the stream understood of weirs or toils. He adds, 'the not using in their boats. them (the nets) in Egypt, I should think must be in con- Our present note will of course be understood as an ilsequence of its being an old custom not to use them in lustration not only of the text before us, but of that in that country.' The painting from which our engraving is | Isaiah, and others in which fishing is mentioned.
3 For the vision is yet for an appointed 1 Unto Habakkuk, waiting for an answer, is shewed time, but at the end it shall speak, and not that he must wait by faith. 5 The judgment upon
lie : though it tarry, wait for it; because it the Chaldeans for unsatiableness, 9 for covetousness,
will 'surely come, it will not tarry. 12 for cruelty, 15 for drunkenness, 18 and for 4 Behold, his soul which is lifted up is not idolatry.
upright in him : but the 'just shall live by his I will stand upon my watch, and set me faith. upon the 'tower, and will watch to see what 5 Yea also, because he transgresseth by he will say 'unto me, and what I shall answer wine, he is a proud man, neither keepeth at * *when I am reproved.
home, who enlargeth his desire as hell, and is 2 | And the Lord answered me, and said, as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth Write the vision, and make it plain upon unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him tables, that he may run that readeth it. all people : i Isa. 21. 8. 2 Heb. fenced place. 3 Or, in me. 4 Or, when I am argued with. 5 Heb, upon my reproof, or, arguing. 7 John 3. 36. Rom. 1. 17. Gal. 3. 11. Heb. 10. 38.
8 Or, How much more.
6 Heb. 10. 37.