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6 Shall not all these take up a parable 14 For the earth shall be filled with the against him, and a taunting proverb against 2*knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the him, and say, 'Woe to him that increaseth waters cover the sea. that which is not his ! how long ? and to him 15 | Woe unto him that giveth his neighthat ladeth himself with thick clay!

bour drink, that puttest thy bottle to him, 7 Shall they not rise up suddenly that and makest him drunken also, that thou shall bite thee, and awake that shall vex thee, mayest look on their nakedness ! and thou shalt be for booties unto them? 16 Thou art filled 'with shame for glory:

8 Because thou hast spoiled many nations, drink thou also, and let thy foreskin be unall the remnant of the people shall spoil thee; covered : the cup of the Lord's right hand because of men's ''blood, and for the violence shall be turned unto thee, and shameful spewof the land, of the city, and of all that dwelling shall be on thy glory. therein.

17 For the violence of Lebanon shall cover 9 | Woe to him that " 'coveteth an evil | thee, and the spoil of beasts, which made covetousness to his house, that he may set his them afraid, because of men's blood, and for nest on high, that he may be delivered from the violence of the land, of the city, and of all the power of evil !

that dwell therein. 10 Thou hast consulted shame to thy 18 | What profiteth the graven image house by cutting off many people, and hast that the maker thereof hath graven it; the sinned against thy soul.

molten image, and a 23 teacher of lies, that 11 For the stone shall cry out of the **the maker of his work trusteth therein, to wall, and the 'beam out of the timber shall make dumb idols ? "answer it.

19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood, 12 T Woe to him that buildeth a town Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall with "blood, and stablisheth a city by teach! Behold, it is laid over with gold and iniquity!

silver, and there is no breath at all in the 13 Behold, is it not of the Lord of hosts midst of it. that the people shall labour in the very fire, 20 But 25the Lord is in his holy temple: and the people shall weary themselves ''for 'let all the earth keep silence before him. very vanity ? 9 Or, Ho, he.

12 Or, gaineth an evil gain. 13 Heb. palm of the hand. 14 Or, piece, or, fastening. 15 Or, witness against it.

18 Or, in rain. 19 Or, by knowing the glory of the LORD.

21 Or, mure with shame than with glury. 24 Heb. the fashioner of his fashion.

20 Heb. be silent all the earth be fore kis.



16 1

10 Heb. Bloods.

Il Jer. 22. 13.

16 Ezek, 24, 9. Nahum 3. 1. 20° Isa. 11. 9.

25 Psal. 11. 4.

17 Heb. blouds.

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23 Jer. 10.8, 14. Zech. 10. 2.

Verse 2. • Wrile the vision, and make it plain upon the bond of wood bound together in the foundation of a tables.'-Ewald is of opinion that the prophet here refers house." We should add, that the word in question to the tables which were in ancient times openly exhibited (D!p) occurs only in this text; and the explanation sugin the market-places, on which public announcements were

gested by the above statement is corroborated by the graven in large and clear characters, in common use among

author of the apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus :-*Timber the people.

girt and bound together in a building cannot be loosened ii. The stone shall cry out of the wall,' etc.— The sure

with shaking'(xxii. 16). And conformably to the same revelation of those deeds of shame and darkness which the

view, Jerome renders the present text. Lignum quod ad perpetrators would fain conceal, is in almost every country continendos parietes in medio structuræ pouitur.' expressed by a similar form of speech, declaring that the 17. The violence of Lebanon. -The lofty summits of ! very walls have a voice to make known the things which

Lebanon were formerly, as now, the chosen haunts of they have witnessed. Does the beam out of the timber,'

various beasts of prey ; the print of whose feet Maundrell answering to the stone out of the wall,' imply that beams

and his party observed in the snow : but they are not of timber were used by the Hebrews to unite and strengthen confined to these situations. A recent traveller continued the mass of masonry? Walpole, in his Memoirs of Turkey, descending several hours, through varied scenery, preis of this opinion; and his statement renders it probable. senting at every turn some new feature, distinguished •The ancient architects of Egypt, Syria, and Italy used wood to unite and bind the stones together. The French, arriving at one of the lower swells, which form the base

either by its picturesque beauty or awful sublimity. On during their expedition to Egypt, observed, at Ombos and

of the mountain, he and his party broke rather abruptly Philæ, that pieces of the sycamore had been formed for

into a deep and thick forest. As they traversed the bocage that purpose into a dovetail shape ; at Ombos they appear

the howlings of wild animals were distinctly heard from to have been covered with bitumen. Fastenings made of the recesses.

To these savage tenants of the desert the wood, of similar forms, were used in the ancient buildings prophet Habakkuk seems to allude. «The violence of Leof Italy, and were seen and described by F. Vacca. The banon' is a beautiful and energetic expression, devoting Greeks, as we learn from Jerome, expressed this mode of the ferocious animals that roam on its mountains and binding stones together by the word ijávTwois. In the

lodge in its thickets ; and that, occasionally descending prophet Habakkuk ii. 11, the Hebrew term bearing a into the plain in quest of prey, ravage the field or seize similar meaning is caphis. In the first Bible printed in

upon the unwary villager. English, by Coverdale, the passage is rendered “like as




by: the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up

his hands on high. 1 Habakkuk in his prayer trembleth at God's ma- 11 The sun and moon ''stood still in their jesty. 17 The confidence of his fuith,

habitations; "at the light of thine Sarrows A PRAYER of Habakkuk the prophet 'upon they went, and at the shining of thy glittering Shigionoth.

spear. 2 0 LORD, I have heard thy speech, 12 Thou didst march through the land in and was afraid: 0 LORD, revive thy work indignation, thou didst thresh the heathen in in the midst of the years, in the midst of anger. the years make known; in wrath remember 13 Thou wentest forth for the salvation of mercy.

thy people, even for salvation with thine 31 God came from 'Teman, and the Holy anointed; thou woundedst the head out of the One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory house of the wicked, by "discovering the covered the heavens, and the earth was full | foundation unto the neck. Selah. of liis praise.

14 Thou didst strike through with his 4 And his brightness was as the light; he staves the head of his villages : they came

' had 'horns coming out of his hand : and there out as a whirlwind to scatter me : their rewas the hiding of his power.

joicing was as to devour the poor secretly. 5 Before him went the pestilence, and 15 Thou didst walk through the sea with 'burning coals went forth at his feet.

thine horses, through the ''heap of great waters. 6 He stood, and measured the earth : he 16 When I heard, my belly trembled ; my beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and lips quivered at the voice; rottenness entered the everlasting mountains were scattered, the into my bones, and I trembled in myself, perpetual hills did bow: his ways are ever- that I might rest in the day of trouble: when lasting

he cometh up unto the people, he will 'invade 7 I saw the tents of "Cushan Rin affliction : them with his troops. and the curtains of the land of Midian did 17 | Although the fig tree shall not blostremble.

som, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the 8 Was the Lord displeased against the labour of the olive shall '®fail, and the fields

, rivers ? was thine anger against the rivers ? shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off was thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst from the fold, and there shall be no herd in ride upon thine horses and 'thy chariots of the stalls : salvation ?

18 Yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will 9 Thy bow was made quite naked, accord- joy in the God of my salvation. ing to the oaths of the tribes, even thy word. 19 The LORD God is my strength, and he Selah. 1 Thou didst cleave the earth with will make my feet like ''hinds' feet, and he rivers.

will make me to walk upon mine high places. 10 The mountains saw thee, and they To the chief singer on my kostringed instrutrembled: the overflowing of the water passed | ments.

i Or, according to variable songs. or, tunes, called in Hebrew, Shigionoth. 2 Heb. thy report, or, thy hearing. 3 Or, preserve alive. * Or, The south. 5 Or, bright beams out of his side. 6 Ur, burning diseases. 701, Ethiopia. 8 Of, under affliction, or, vanity.

9 Or, thy chariots were salvation. 10 Or, Thou didsi cleare the rivers of the earth. 12 Or, chine arrows walked in the light, &c.

14 Heb, making naked. 17 Or, cut them in pieces.

20 Heb. neginoth.



13 Josh. 10. 11.

18 Heb, lie.

ni Josh. 10. 12.

15 Heb. were tempestuous. Psal. 18. 33.

16 Or, mud.

19 2 Sam. 22. 34.

Verse 4. He had horns coming out of his hand.'— The word “horns' here rather denotes pencils of rays, such as flow from the sun, and which are visible at its rising or setting. Henderson elegantly translates • Rays streamed from his hand.'

5. Burning coals went forth at his feet.'---The word rendered . burning coals’ (9?) has two leading senses, that of lightning, or flame, and that of a hot or burning fever. It may therefore either mean that flashes of fire went forth after him (which is the meaning of at his feet'); or that a burning pestilence followed him, and marked his path. The latter sense rather than the other is that which the counection seems to require ; yet in some respects the other is preferable, and is equally significant if regarded as a metaphor. This combination of the ideas of fire and pestilence occurs in Eastern poetry, as the verses of a Persian poet, quoted by D'Herbelot :

• The pestilence, like an evening fire, runs through the

beautiful city. Of all its inhabitants there remained neither a young man nor an old. This was a lightning which, falling upon a forest, consumed there the green wood with the dry.'

9. Thy bow was made quite naked.'— The sculptures at Persepolis, as well as those of Egypt, shew that when not in use the bow was kept in a kind of case, from which, when required for action, or to be held in readiness for action, it was withdrawn. This is what is here meant by the bow being made . quite naked,' or rather bare.'

11. • At the light of thine arrows they went,' ctc.—The idea is, that the sun and moon sustained eclipse from the greater refulgence of the arrows that filled the air-a most magnificent hyperbole, and in the true spirit of Oriental poetry.

19. * Like hinds' feet:- The hind, or gazelle, is remarkable not only for its fleetness and beauty, but also for the firmness of its tread.


Z E P H A N I A H.


The time and parentage of Zephaniah are expressed in the first verse of his prophecy, which affords the only authentic information concerning him which we possess. The pseudo-Epiphanius, with whom Isidore agrees, says that he was of the tribe of Simeon, a native of mount Sarabatha, a place not mentioned in Scripture, and where he died and was buried. In this last particular they are however at variance with the author of the · Cippi Hebraici,' who states that he was buried at Geba in Lebanon, in a cave shut up-a place where flowing fountains abounded, and whence the clouds never departed : language which appears to mean no more than that it was in an elevated region of Lebanon. With respect to the characteristic of Zephaniah’s writings, the critics agree very generally in the opinion that the style of Zephaniah, without being low, is less sublime than that of many of the other prophets ; and it has been observed that his elocution bears considerable resemblance to that of Jeremiah, who was his contemporary, and that his book exhibits several formulæ, which are common to him and to Ezekiel. Lowth observes that the writings of Zephaniah offer nothing uncommon either in the arrangement of the matter or the complexion of the style. De Wette finds that the style of this prophet is often feeble and trailing (“matt und schleppend'), and that his rhythm often descends to simple prose, although the language is pure. Even Eichhorn affords but a faint eulogy upon the poetic spirit and elocution of Zephaniah. "The manner in which this prophet treats his subject,' he says, offers nothing remarkable, and demands no warm eulogy.' He attributes this comparative want of vigour in great measure to the late age in which he lived, and to the state of disorder in which society existed. The elder prophets had been accustomed to represent an idea in all its relations and under all its aspects, to the end that the required degree of high poetic colouring might be produced. And in this Zephaniah imitates them ; but his descriptions are not always in proportion to the object he purposes to represent. After producing some examples of this, Eichhorn points to some expressions of Zephaniah which do not occur in any other sacred writer, such as 'to leap upon the threshold,' i. 9; 'to search Jerusalem with candles,' i. 12, etc.

The authenticity of the book of Zephaniah has never been doubted or contested. The rationalists themselves acknowledge that this prophet flourished under Josiah, and that the subject of his prophecy as well as his style is admirably suited to the apparent character of the prophet, and to the age in which he lived.

On Zephaniah there are commentaries by Luther and Martin Bucer, 1528; then follow Lareni Tuba Zephanie, Medioburgi, 1653: Gebhardi Zephanias a pseudhermenia Abarbenelis aliorumque vindicatus, etc., Gryphiswald., 1701 ; Noltenii Dissertatio Exegetica preliminaris in P. Zephania, Traject., 1719; Crameri Scythische Denkmäler in Palästina, Hamb., 1777 ; Larsen, Commentarii Critico-Exegetici in quorundam prophetarum raticinia Specimen primum, vaticinia Zephania complectens, Hauniæ, 1805; Coelln, Spicilegium Observationum exegetico-criticarum ad Zephaniæ vaticinia, Vratislav., 1818; Ewald, Der Prophet Zephanja übersetz und mit Anmerkungen, Erlang., 1827.


son of




the Lord's sacrifice, that I will punish the

princes, and the king's children, and all such God's severe judgment against Judah for divers sins.

as are clothed with strange apparel. HE word 9 In the same day also will I punish all of the LORD those that leap on the threshold, which fill which came

their masters' houses with violence and deceit. unto Ze- 10 And it shall come to pass in that day, phaniah the saith the LORD, that there shall be the noise

of a cry from the fish gate, and an howling Cushi, the from the second, and a great crashing from son of Ge- the hills. daliah, the 11 Howl, ye inhabitants of Maktesh, for

of all the merchant people are cut down; Amariah, they that bear silver are cut off. the son of 12 And it shall come to pass at that time, Hizkiah, that I will search Jerusalem with candles, and in the days

punish the men that are 'settled on their lees : of Josiah that say in their heart, The LORD will not do the son of good, neither will he do evil.

Amon, 13 Therefore their goods shall become a king of Judah.

booty, and their houses a desolation : they 2 1 'I will utterly consume all things from shall also build houses, but not inhabit them; off the land, saith the LORD.

and they shall plant vineyards, but not drink 3 I will consume man and beast, I will the wine thereof. consume the fowls of the heaven, and the 14 The great day of the Lord is near, it fishes of the sea, and the 'stumblingblocks is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of with the wicked ; and I will cut off man from the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall off the land, saith the LORD.

cry there bitterly. 4 I will also stretch out mine hand upon 15 That day is a day of 'wrath, a day of Judah, and upon all the inhabitants of Jeru- trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and salem ; and I will cut off the remnant of Baal desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, from this place, and the name of the Chema- a day of clouds and thick darkness, rims with the priests;

16 A day of the trumpet and alarm against 5 And them that worship the host of hea- the fenced cities, and against the high towers. ven upon the housetops ; and them that wor- 17 And I will bring distress upon men, ship and that swear by the LORD, and that that they shall walk like blind men, because swear by Malcham;

they have sinned against the LORD: and their 6 And them that are turned back from the blood shall be poured out as dust, and their LORD; and those that have not sought the flesh as the dung. LORD, nor enquired for him.

18 ''Neither their silver nor their gold 7 Hold thy peace at the presence of the shall be able to deliver them in the day of the Lord God: for the day of the Lord is at LORD's wrath ; but the whole land shall be hand : for the Lord hath prepared a sacri- "devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he fice, he hath 'bid his guests.

shall make even a speedy riddance of all them 8 And it shall come to pass in the day of that dwell in the land.

1 Heb. By taking away I will make an end. 2 Heb. the face of the land. 3 Or, idols. 4 Or, to the LORD. 5 Heb. sanctified, or, prepared.

7 Heb. curded, or, thickened.

11 Chap. 3. 8.


6 Heb. visit upon.
9 Jer. 30. 7. Joel 2. 11. Amos 5. 18.

8 Deut. 28. 30, 39. Amos 5. 11.

10 Prov. 11. 4. Ezek, 7. 19.

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Verse 4. · The name of the Chemarims.'-- In 2 Kings xxiii. 5, the word 'Chemarim' (Dir??) is rendered

idolatrous priests,' as applied to those that were put down by Josiah, in whose reign Zephaniah prophesied; and probably the very same persons, or certainly the same kind of persons, are here to be understood. This signification is perhaps derived from the Syriac, in which language the analogous word means a priest generally, and of course the Syrian priests were idolaters, and hence its use to express idolatrous priests. Might not the name be

particularly employed to denote the priests of the idols borrowed from the Syrians ?

5. Malcham'—or, as elsewhere, Milcom, Molech, the god of the Ammonites. The Septuagint translates it, ‘By their king ;' but it is better to retain the proper name as denoting the idol.

9. That leap on the threshold.' – Instead of on, we might read over the threshold;' when, as the Targum suggests, it may allude to the custom of the priests of Dagon, who, after their idol was broken on the threshold


(1 Sam. v. 4, 5), never trod on it, but stepped or leaped 11. Inhabitants of Maktesh.'—That Maktesh has the over it, when entering or leaving the temple. Some how- article in the original shews that it is not a proper dame, ever rather, and perhaps better, explain it of persons who, but an appellative. It comes from a verb signifying 'tu seeing houses rich and full of good things, entered them bray’ or pound,' and hence a mortar. So the Vulgate, violently and insolently, taking what they pleased. If 'habitatore pilæ ;' and Calmet's French-vous qui habitez this be admitted, there may be no objection to allow the au mortier; and Henderson's English-· Ye inhabitants conclusion of Harmer, that the leaping over the threshold, of the mortar.' This must be regarded as the name of a to fill houses with violence and deceit, may refer to the quarter of Jerusalem. Jerome seems to say that this custom for insolent spoilers and oppressors, in the East, name belonged to that part of the city near the pool of to ride into the houses-that is, into the interior courts- Siloam, at the end of the Tyropæon valley, on account of of their victims; for which reason, as well as to prevent its peculiar shape and depth. Sometimes the name is the interior wealth from being suspected, the gates to- applied generally, in a metaphorical sense, to Jerusalem wards the street are in general purposely made too low to itself, as a place doomed to be bruised and broken as in a permit a man on horseback to pass through. If the allu- mortar by the Chaldæans. This would be not unlike the sion does not exclusively refer to this practice, we may cer- texts in which Jeremiah (i. 13) and Ezekiel (xxiv, 3, 4) tainly understand it to be included in the general sense of compare the city to a pot set upon the fire and full of a violent and dishonest entrance into other people's houses. meats. Micah in like manner (iii. 3) reproves the nobles

10. ` An howling from the second.'— What 'second ?' of Israel for having, as for the pot, broken the bones and The word city' is probably to be understood, and then chopped the flesh of the people. Besides, the idea of we have the second city' of Neh. xi. 9, that is, the pounding a person in a mortar, as suggested by a capital second part or division of the city. This was probably punishment

of that kind, seems to have been familiar to what was afterwards called Akra, or lower city, which the mind of the Hebrews, and has received some illustralay to the north of the ancient city on Mount Zion, from tion in the note on Prov. xxvii. 11. which it was separated by the Tyropæon, a valley which They that bear silver.'— If "silver' stands for 'moran down between them to the present pool of Siloam. ney,' then money-changers are probably meant; or else, Ewald renders the word by Neusiadt, or New-town. The perhaps, silversmiths, or traders in general, residing in same word is rendered college' in the Auth. Vers. of that part of the city. 2 Kings xxii. 3, and 2 Chron. xxxiv. 22.


God shall visit them, and turn away their cap

tivity 1 An exhortation to repentance. 4 The judgment of 8 I have heard the reproach of Moab,

the Philistines, 8 of Moab and Ammon, 12 of and the revilings of the children of Ammon, Ethiopia and Assyria.

whereby they have reproached my people, and Gather yourselves together, yea, gather to- magnified themselves against their border. gether, Onation 'not desired ;

9 Therefore as I live, saith the Lord of 2 Before the decree bring forth, before hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall the day pass as the chaff, before the fierce be as Sodom, and the children of Ammon as anger of the LORD come upon you, before Gomorrah, even the breeding of nettles, and the day of the Lord's anger come upon saltpits, and a perpetual desolation : the reyou.

sidue of my people shall spoil them, and the 3 Seek ye the LORD, all ye meek of the remnant of

remnant of my people shall possess them. earth, which have wrought his judgment; 10 This shall they have for their pride, seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may because they have reproached and magnified be ye

shall be hid in the day of the Lord's themselves against the people of the LORD of anger.

hosts. 4 | For Gaza shall be forsaken, and Ash- 11 The LORD will be terrible unto them : kelon a desolation : they shall drive out Ash- for he will ®famish all the gods of the earth; dod at the noon day, and Ekron shall be

and men shall worship him, every one from his

place, even all the isles of the heathen. 5 Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea 12 1 Ye Ethiopians also, ye shall te slain coasts, the nation of the Cherethites ! the word by my sword. of the Lord is against you ; O Canaan, the 13 And he will stretch out his hand against land of the Philistines, I will even destroy the north, and destroy Assyria ; and will make thee, that there shall be no inhabitant.

Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilder6. And the sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for shepherds, and folds for flocks. 14 And flocks shall lie down in the midst

7 And the coast shall be for the remnant of her, all the beasts of the nations : both the of the house of Judah ; they shall feed there- *cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upon : in the houses of Ashkelon shall they 'upper lintels of it ; their voice shall sing in lie down in the evening : *for the LORD their the windows; desolation shall be in the 1 Or, not desirous.


rooted up



* Or, pelican.

6 Or, krops, or, chapiters.

2 Or, when, &c.

3 Heb, make lcan.

5 Isa. 34. 11.

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