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saw,

10 And the man that stood among the 16 Therefore thus saith the Lord; I am myrtle trees answered and said, These are returned to Jerusalem with mercies: my they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and house shall be built in it, saith the Lord of fro through the earth.

hosts, and a line shall be stretched forth upon 11 And they answered the angel of the

Jerusalem. LORD that stood among the myrtle trees, and 17 Cry yet, saying, Thus saith the LORD said, We have walked to and fro through the of hosts ; My cities through oprosperity shall earth, and, behold, all the earth sitteth still, yet be spread abroad; and the LORD shall and is at rest.

yet comfort Zion, and shall yet choose Jeru12 | Then the angel of the LORD an- salem. swered and said, O LORD of hosts, how long 18 T Then lifted I

up
mine
eyes,

and wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem and and behold four horns. on the cities of Judah, against which thou 19 And I said unto the angel that talked hast had indignation these threescore and ten with me, What be these? And he answered years?

me, These are the horns which have scattered 13 And the LORD answered the angel that Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. talked with me with good words and com

20 And the LORD shewed me four carfortable words.

penters. 14 So the angel that communed with me 21 Then said I, What come these to do? said unto me, Cry thou, saying, Thus saith And he spake, saying, These are the horns the Lord of hosts; I am "jealous for Jeru- which have scattered Judah, so that no man salem and for Zion with a great jealousy: did lift

up

his head : but these are come to 15 And I am very sore displeased with the fray them, to cast out the horns of the Genheathen that are at ease : for I was but a tiles, which lifted up their horn over the land little displeased, and they helped forward the of Judah to scatter it.

. affliction.

7 Chap. 8. 9.

8 Heb. good.

Verse 8. • Myrtie-trees.'-(0'077? hadassim). It seems to be universally agreed that a species of myrtle, or rather, perhaps, all the species known to the Jews, are denoted by the Hebrew word. The myrtle family abounds in trees of a most charming aspect. The foliage is generally of a polished green; and the leaves are punctured with a multitude of translucent spots, which are seen when they are interposed between the eye and the light. The flowers are of a snowy whiteness in some, as the Myrtus communis, or myrtle, for example; in others they grow in clusters, and glow with the richest tints of crimson, as in the Jambosa Malaccensis, or Malay apple. The stamens are numerous, and form circular rows of palisades about the pistil or central column, bestowing an elegant appearance upon the blossom. Many of them yield an edible fruit, as the Psidium and the Eugenia, the Guava and the Cayenne Cherry. But the transparent dots upon the leaves afford an easy and beautiful characteristic of the Myrtacea, while the whole of the numerous genera and species are connected together by the most intelligible features of neatness and grace. As they often grow in the shaded valleys, between two neighbouring mountains, where all is calm and tranquil, they naturally become associated in the mind with everything that is lovely and peaceful. The myrtle-trees offered a choice emblem of peace and quietude, and gave a living freshness to the annunciation of the angel, We have walked to and fro through the earth, and, behold, all the earth sitteth still, and is at rest.' We add the following interesting passage

from Emerson's Leliers from the Eyaan :-- One who has formed his ideas of the Oriental myrtle from the weak and unhealthy plants which spring in the gardens and hothouses of the North, must have a faint conception of their real beauty. Even in Italy they are much superior to ours, and I remember to have seen one at Florence whose stem was at least nine inches in diameter. But in Greece, and in the Levant, they are really magnificent. In the Morea I have travelled for hours through an uncultivated tract, whilst the groves of myrtle formed an almost continuous arbour above our heads, covered here and there with the delicate white flowers, and exhaling at every motion the most delicious perfume, whilst its dark polished leaves combined coolness with beauty. It is such a scene as this that explains the phrase of Zechariah : and there are trees of the dimensions such as I refer to that preserve the consistency of the phrase of Isaiah: I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the myrtle, and the oil tree.'

20. • Carpenters.'-- This is perhaps too definite. The word means generally any artificer in metal, stone, or wood, and it is better to take it in the general sense of * workmen,' as Newcome does here, unless when the context sufficiently indicates a more definite application. Some suppose that the present context so far does this as to warrant the conclusion that the workmen were smiths, represented as coming to destroy the horns, understanding these to have been of iron.

6

699

CHAPTER II.

7 Deliver thyself, O Zion, that dwellest

with the daughter of Babylon. I God, in the care of Jerusalem, sendeth to measure it. 6 The redemption of Zion.

10 The promise of

8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After God's presence.

the glory hath he sent me unto the nations

which spoiled you: for he that 'toucheth you I LIFTED up mine eyes again, and looked, and toucheth the apple of his eye. behold a man with a measuring line in his hand. 9 For, behold, I will shake mine hand

2 Then said I, Whither goest thou ? And upon them, and they shall be a spoil to he said unto me, To measure Jerusalem, to their servants : and ye shall know that the see what is the breadth thereof, and what is Lord of hosts hath sent me. the length thereof.

10 | Sing and rejoice, Odaughter of 3 And, behold, the angel that talked with | Zion : for, lo, I come, and I 'will dwell in me went forth, and another angel went out to the midst of thee, saith the LORD. meet him,

11 And many nations shall be joined to 4 And said unto him, Run, speak to this the Lord in that day, and shall be my people : young man, saying, Jerusalem shall be in- and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and habited as towns without walls for the mul- thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath titude of men and cattle therein :

sent me unto thee. 5 For I, saith the Lord, will be unto her 12 And the Lord shall inherit Judah his a wall of fire round about, and will be the portion in the holy land, and shall choose glory in the midst of her.

Jerusalem again. 6 | Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the 13 Be silent, О all flesh, before the LORD: land of the north, saith the Lord: for I have for he is raised up out of ‘his holy habitaspread you abroad as the four winds of the tion. heaven, saith the Lord.

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CHAPTER III.

his head, and clothed him with garments, 1 Under the type of Joshua, the restoration of the

And the angel of the LORD stood by. church, 8 and Christ the Branch, are promised.

6 | And the angel of the Lord protested

unto Joshua, saying, And he shewed me Joshua the high priest 7 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; If thou standing before the angel of the Lord, and wilt walk in my ways, and if thou wilt keep 'Satan standing at his right hand 'to resist my ‘charge, then thou shalt also judge my him.

house, and shalt also keep my courts, and I 2 And the LORD said unto Satan, "The will give thee 'places to walk among these

thee; that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: is 1.8 T Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, not this a brand plucked out of the fire ? thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee :

3 Now Joshua was clothed with filthy gar- for they are 'men wondered at : for, behold, ments, and stood before the angel.

I will bring forth my servant the 'BRANCH. 4 And he answered and spake unto those 9 For behold the stone that I have laid that stood before him, saying, Take away the before Joshua; upon one stone shall be seven filthy garments from him. And unto him he eyes : behold, I will engrave the graving said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to thereof, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will pass from thee, and I will clothe thiee with

remove the iniquity of that land in one day. change of raiment.

10 In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, 5 And I said, Let them set a fair mitre shall ye call every man his neighbour under upon his head. So they set a fair mitre upon the vine and under the fig tree. i That is, an adversary.

2 Heb. to be his adversary.

3 Jude 9.

• Or, ordinance. 5 Heb, tralks. 6 Hebi men of wonder. 7 Isa. 11. 1. Jer. 23. 5, and 33. 15. Chap. 6. 12. Luke 1. 78.

Verse 3. * Joshun wus clothea with filthy garments.'-- sordid and mean attire as soon as they understood that the There are sufficient intimations in Scripture that it was a Rhodian people had not been thought to have acted the custom among the Hebrews for persons in a condition of part of friends and allies, or to have deserved well of the mourning, humiliation, or degradation, to clothe themselves Roman people. Liv. Hist. xlv. 20. in mean and neglected attire; but, on the contrary, to ex- 9. · Upon one stone shall be seven eyes.'-- The prophets press a state of rejoicing, happiness, and relief, by rich were accustomed to convey instruction by symbolical and gay apparel. The ideas connected with this custom notion or representation. In this case, probably, a stone appear to be involved in the present passage. The prac- was placed, on which seven eyes were represented. It is tice still prevails in the East, and in ancient times was not thought that a well known Oriental custom will illustrate by any means confined to the Orientals. It was common this practice. In the Oriental style the counsellors of among the Romans, whose usages in this matter are ap- kings were and are denominated eyes—the eyes of kings plied by Gill with good effect to the illustration of the (Oplanuo. Baoilewv). In the monarchy of Persia, whence present passage. When a man was charged with capital this prophet had come, there were always seven of them. crimes, it was usual for him to neglect his hair and beard, . Thou art sent of the king and his seven counsellors' and to wear filthy, ragged garments, presenting altogether (Ezra vii. 14), and the names of these seven counsellors a very sordid and dirty appearance. Hence such persons are mentioned in Esther i. 14. The prophet in this verse were called sordidati. In such attire he appeared before says, all these eyes shall be in the foundation stone his judges to take his trial; and not only himself, but itself;' that is to say, such shall be the perfection of wishis friends and relations appeared with him, with hair dom and knowledge in the great antitype of this stone, dishevelled, and in garments old and foul, weeping and Christ, the only foundation of the Church, that he should deprecating punishment, hoping thus to move the com- in no case need the advice or counsel of others. This passion of the people. Hence history does not omit to interpretation was suggested by Dr. Owen ; and among record the fact of certain eminent men (as Scipio Afri- the passages (on which it is founded) where royal councanus) who, in the pride of conscious innocence of the sellors are called 'eyes,' the following may be indicated. crimes laid to their charge, refused to assume the mean Suidas (ou the word) says that the Persian satraps were attire and appearance of arraigned persons, but continued thus designated, because by them the king sees all things. to wear their customary dress, and shaved their beards as In Julius Pollux, lib. ii., p. 89, line 7, ed. Geberi, they usual, or even put on attire richer than their customary are called the Eyes of Kings, who inform him of that wear. A somewhat remarkable illustration, with a re- which themselves have seen. See Scapula in verb. verse application, might perhaps be taken from the in- Opdaluos; Xenoph. Cyrop. lib. viii. (p. 642, ed. Hutch., stance of the Rhodian ambassadors, who put on the white 4to. ed.); Herod. Clio, 31. Arist. Polit., lib. iii. Plutarch robes of congratulation when they heard of a victory in Artaz,; Aristophanes, Acharnes, line 22-24. gained by the Romans; but instantly changed them for

CHAPTER IV.

7 Who art thou, O great mountain ? before i By the golden candlestick is foreshewed the good shall bring forth the headstone thereof with

Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain : and he success of Zerubbabel's foundation. 11 By the two olive trees, the two anointed ones.

shoutings, crying, Grace, grace unto it.

8 Moreover the word of the LORD came And the angel that talked with me came unto me, saying, again, and waked me, as a man that is 9 The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the wakened out of his sleep,

foundation of this house ; his hands shall alsc 2 And said unto me, What seest thou ? finish it; and thou shalt know that the LORD And I said, I have looked, and behold a of hosts hath sent me unto you. candlestick all of gold, 'with a bowl upon 10 For who hath despised the day of small the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon, things? 'for they shall rejoice, and shall see and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel with are upon the top thereof:

those seven ; they are the eyes of the LORD, · And two olive trees by it, one upon the which run to and fro through the whole earth. right side of the bowl, and the other upon the 11 9 Then answered I, and said unto him, left side thereof.

What are these two olive trees upon the 4 So I answered and spake to the angel | right side of the candlestick and upon the left that talked with me, saying, What are these, side thereof?

12 And I answered again, and said unto 5 Then the angel that talked withine him, What be these two olive branches which answered and said unto me, Knowest thou 'through the two golden pipes #empty othe not what these be ? And I said, No, my lord. golden oil out of themselves?

6 Then he answered and spake unto me, 13 And he answered me and said, Kuowest saying, This is the word of the LORD unto thou not what these be? And I said, No, my lord. Zerubbabel, saying, Not by "might, nor by 14 Then said he, These are the two power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of 'anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of hosts.

my lord ?

10

the whole earth. 1 Heb. with her bourl. ? Or, seren sereral pipes to the lamps, &c.

4 Or, sith the seren eyes of the LORD shall rejoice. 5 Heb. slone of tin, 6 Chap. 3. 9. 7 licb. by the hand. 8 Or, empty out of themselves oil into the gold.

! Heb. the gold.
10 Heb. sons of oil.

3 Or, army.

swearers.

CHAPTER V.

thine eyes, and see what is this that goeth

forth. 1 By the flying roll is shewed the curse of thieves and 6 And I said, What is it? And he said, 5 By a woman pressed in an ephah, the

This is an ephah that goeth forth. He said final damnation of Babylon.

moreover, This is their resemblance through Then I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and all the earth. looked, and behold a flying roll.

7 And, behold, there was lifted up a “talent 2 And he said unto me, What seest thou ? of lead : and this is a woman that sitteth in And I answered, I see a flying roll; the the midst of the ephah. length thereof is twenty cubits, and the 8 And he said, This is wickedness. And breadth thereof ten cubits.

he cast it into the midst of the ephah ; and 3 Then said he unto me, This is the curse he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth that goeth forth over the face of the whole thereof. earth: for 'every one that stealeth shall be 9 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and looked, cut off as on this side according to it; and and, behold, there came out two women, and every one that sweareth shall be cut off as on the wind was in their wings; for they had that side according to it.

wings like the wings of a stork : and they 4 I will bring it forth, saith the Lord of lifted up the ephah between the earth and the hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the heaven. thief, and into the house of him that sweareth 10 Then said I to the angel that talked falsely by my name: and it shall remain in with me, Whither do these bear the ephah ? the midst of his house, and shall consume it 11 And he said unto me, To build it an with the timber thereof and the stones thereof. | house in the land of Shinar: and it shall be

5 ? Then the angel that talked with me established, and set there upon her own base. went forth, and said unto me, Lift up now

| Or, every one of this people that stealeth, holdeth himself guiltless, as it doth. 2 Or, weighty piece.

:

Verse 4.' It shall enter into the house of the thief, and ...of him that sweareth falsely...and shall consume it.'Calmet observes that, under the two names of thief and false swearer, the Hebrews and Chaldæans comprehended all other crimes ; theft denoting every kind of injustice and violence executed against men; and perjury, all crimes against God. Grotius and others have observed a considerable resemblance between this text and a passage in Herodotus (Erato, 86), in which Leotychides relates to the Athenians an anecdote of a man called Glaucus, who, being desirous of appropriating to his own use a sum of money which had been intrusted to him, consulted

the Pythian oracle whether he might do so by taking a
false oath-the money having been claimed by the sons
of the owner. The oracle answered :-
"Son of Epicydes ! your oath retains,
Just for the moment, all the plunder'd gains.
Swear then; for death alike the just--the knave
Lays undistinguished in the silent grave.
But the False Oath a direful monster sends,
Which, footless, hastens--which, though handless, rends
His house and offspring whom the gods detest,
While his, who fears an oath, are ever blest.'

TAYLOR'S Translation.

my lord ?

CHAPTER VI.

angel that talked with me, What arc these, 1 The vision of the four chari 9 By the crowns of Joshua are shewed the temple and kingdom of

5 And the angel answered and said unto Christ the Branch.

me, These are the four spirits of the heavens,

which go forth from standing before the Lord And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and of all the earth. looked, and, behold, there came four chariots 6 The black horses which are therein go out from between two mountains; and the forth into the north country; and the white mountains were mountains of brass.

go forth after them; and the grisled go forth 2 In the first chariot were red horses ; and toward the south country. in the second chariot black horses ;

7 And the bay went forth, and sought to 3 And in the third chariot white horses ; go that they might walk to and fro through and in the fourth chariot grisled and 'bay the earth : and he said, Get you hence, walk horses.

to and fro through the earth. So they walked 4 Then I answered and said unto the to and fro through the earth.

1 Or, strong.

2 Or, icinds.

8 Then cried he upon me, and spake unto he shall 'grow up out of his place, and he me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the shall build the temple of the Lord: north country have quieted my spirit in the 13 Even he shall build the temple of the north country.

LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and 9 9 And the word of the LORD came unto shall sit and rule upon his throne ; and he me, saying,

shall be a priest upon his throne : and the 10 Take of them of the captivity, even of counsel of peace shall be between them both. Heldai, of Tobijah, and of Šedaiah, which 14 And the crowns shall be to Helem, and are come from Babylon, and come thou the to Tobijah, and to Jedaiah, and to Hen the same day, and go into the house of Josiah son of Zephaniah, for a memorial in the temple the son of Zephaniah ;

of the LORD. 11 Then take silver and gold, and make 15 And they that are far off shall come crowns, and set them upon the head of Joshua

the head of Joshua and build in the temple of the LORD, and ye the son of Josedech, the high priest;

shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent 12 And speak unto him, saying, Thus me unto you. And this shall come to pass, speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold if ye will diligently obey the voice of the the man whose name is The 'BRANCH; and Lord

LORD your God. 3 Chap. 3. 8.

4 Or, branch up from under him.

Verse 1. Four chariots.'-- It is generally understood, both by Jewish and Christian interpreters, that these chariots denote the four great empires—the Babylonian, Persian, Greek, and Roman--which successively arose in the world. The larger commentaries sometimes seek reasons for the distinguishing colours in the horses of the several chariots; but we do not see that any reliance can be placed on the explanatory conjectures which have been offered.

12. "The BRANCH.'--Some of the Jewish writers

understand that this title is applied to Zerubbabel himself. But he was already grown up in his place; and the application to him is so greatly and obviously improper, that it has not been much followed. Most of the Jewish, and all the Christian, interpreters, apply it to the Messiah; and of the correctness of this application no reasonable doubt can be entertained. (See the marginal references.) • The Branch' is a name frequently applied to the Messiah in the Talmud and other Jewish writings.

CHAPTER VII.

6 And when ye did eat, and when ye did

drink, odid not ye eat for yourselves, and drink 1 The captives enquire of fasting. 4 Zechariah reproveth their fasting. 8 Sin the cause of their cap

for yourselves ? tivůy.

7 Should ye not hear the words which the

LORD hath cried by the former prophets, And it came to pass in the fourth year of king when Jerusalem was inhabited and in

proDarius, that the word of the Lord came unto sperity, and the cities thereof round about her, Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth when mien inhabited the south and the plain? month, even in Chisleu;

8 9 And the word of the Lord came unto 2 When they had sent unto the house of Zechariah, saying, God Sherezer and Regem-melech, and their 9 Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying, men,

'to
pray
before the LORD,

*Execute true judgment, and shew mercy and 3 And to speak unto the priests which were compassions every man to his brother : in the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the 10 And 'oppress not the widow, nor the prophets, saying, Should I weep in the fifth fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor ; and let month, separating myself, as I have done none of you imagine evil against his brother these so many years ?

in your heart. 4 1 Then came the word of the Lord of i1 But they refused to hearken, and pulled hosts unto me, saying,

away the shoulder, and 'stopped their ears, 5 Speak unto all the people of the land, that they should not hear. and to the priests, saying, When ye 'fasted 12 Yea, they made their hearts as an adaand mourned in the fifth and seventh month, mant stone, lest they should hear the law, and even those seventy years, did ye at all fast the words which the Lord of hosts hath sent unto me, even to me?

in his spirit ''by the former prophets : there2 Isa. 58. 5. 3 Or, be not ye they that, &c.

4 Or, Are not these the words. 1 Heb. to intreat the face of the LORD.

5 Heb. by the hand of, &c. 6 Heb. Judge judgment of truth. 7 Exod. 22. 21, 22. Isa. 1. 23. Jer. 5.28.
8 Heb. they gave a backsliding shoulder.

Heh, made heavy.

10 Heb. by the hand of.

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