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8 This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you. 9 A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

10 I have confidence in you, through the Lord, that you will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you, shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.

11 And I, brethren, if I yet preached circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.


put a stop to you, and hindered you, that you keep no longer 8 to the truth of the Christian doctrine? This persuasion, that it is necessary for you to be circumcised, cometh not from himf, by whose preaching you were called to the profession of 9 the Gospel. Remember that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump; the influence of one mans entertained among you may mislead you all. I have confidence in you, that by the help of the Lord, you will be all of this same mind with me; and consequently he, that troubles you, shall fall under the 11 censure he deserves for it, whoever he be. But as for me, brethren, if I, at last, am become a preacher of circumcision, why am I yet persecuted? If it be so, that the Gentile con



8 This expression of "him that calleth, or calleth you," he used before, chap. i. 6, and, in both places, means himself, and here declares, that this wopov (whether taken for persuasion, or for subjection, as it may be in St. Paul's style, considering was, in the end of the foregoing verse) came not from him, for he called them to liberty from the law, and not subjection to it; see ver. 13. "You were going on well, in the liberty of the Gospel; who stopped you? I, you may be sure, had no hand in it; I, you know, called you to liberty, and not to subjection to the law, and therefore you can, by no means, suppose that I should preach up circumcision." Thus St. Paul argues here.

9 By this and the next verse, it looks as if all this disorder arose from one man. 10 h" Will not be otherwise minded," will beware of this leaven, so as not to be put into a ferment, nor shaken in your liberty, which you ought to stand fast in; and to secure it, I doubt not, (such confidence I have in you) will with one accord cast out him that troubles you. For, as for me, you may be sure I am not for circumcision, in that the Jews continue to persecute me. This is evidently his meaning, though not spoken out, but managed warily, with a very skilful and moving insinuation. For, as he says of himself, chap. iv. 20, he knew not, at that distance, what temper they were in.

iKpiμa, Judgment, seems here to mean expulsion by a church censure; see ver. 12, We shall be the more inclined to this, if we consider, that the apostle uses the same argument of "a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump," 1 Cor. v. 6, where he would persuade the Corinthians to purge out the fornicator. 11 Persecution. The persecution St. Paul was still under was a convincing argument, that he was not for circumcision, and subjection to the law; for it was from the Jews, upon that account, that, at this time, rose all the persecution which the Christians suffered; as may be seen through all the history of the Acts. Nor are there wanting clear footsteps of it, in several places of this epistle, besides this here, as chap. iii. 4, and vi. 12.


12 I would they were even cut off which trouble you. 13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty.


verts are to be circumcised, and so subjected to the law, the great offence of the Gospel', in relying solely on a crucified 12 Saviour for salvation, is removed. But I am of another mind, and wish that they may be cut off who trouble you about this 13 matter, and they shall be cut off. For, brethren, ye have been called by me unto liberty.


1 Offence of the cross; see chap. vi. 12-14.


CHAPTER V. 13-26.


FROM the mention of liberty, which he tells them they are called to, under the Gospel, he takes a rise to caution them in the use of it, and so exhorts them to a spiritual, or true Christian life, showing the difference and contrariety between that and a carnal life, or a life after the flesh.


Only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.


Though the Gospel, to which you are called, be a state of liberty from the bondage of the law, yet pray take great care you do not mistake that liberty, nor think it affords you an opportunity, in the abuse of it, to satisfy the lust of the flesh, 14 but serve one another in love. For the whole law, concern


13 Aoʊλeútle, serve, has a greater force in the Greek than our English word, serve, does in the common acceptation of it express. For it signifies the opposite


14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love

thy neighbour as thyself.

15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

16 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.



14 ing our duty to others, is fulfilled in observing this one pre15 cept"; "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."

But, if you bite and tear one another, take heed that you be not de16 stroyed and consumed by one another. This I This I say to you,

conduct yourselves by the light that is in your minds, and do not give yourselves up to the lusts of the flesh, to obey them, 17 in what they put upon you. For the inclinations and desires of the flesh are contrary to those of the Spirit: and the dictates and inclinations of the Spirit are contrary to those of the flesh; so that, under these contrary impulses, you do not do the 18 things that you purpose to yourselves. But if you give


to svepla, freedom. And so the apostle elegantly informs them, that though, by the Gospel, they are called to a state of liberty from the law; yet they were still as much bound and subjected to their brethren, in all the offices and duties of love and good-will, as if, in that respect, they were their vassals and bondmen. 14 Lev. xix. 18.


16 That which he here, and in the next verse, calls Spirit, he calls, Rom. vii. 22, the inward man; ver. 23, the law of the mind; ver. 25, the mind.

17 d Do not; so it is in the Greek, and ours is the only translation that I know, which renders it cannot.

16, 17 There can be nothing plainer, than that the state St. Paul describes here, in these two verses, he points out more at large, Rom. vii. 17, &c. speaking there in the person of a Jew. This is evident, that St. Paul supposes two principles in every man, which draw him different ways; the one he calls Flesh, the other Spirit. These, though there be other appellations given them, are the most common and usual names given them in the New Testament: by flesh, is meant all those vicious and irregular appetites, inclinations, and habitudes, whereby a man is turned from his obedience to that eternal law of right, the observance whereof God always requires, and is pleased with. This is very properly called flesh, this bodily state being the source, from which all our deviations from the straight rule of rectitude do for the most part take their rise, or else do ultimately terminate in: on the other side, spirit is the part of a man, which is endowed with light from God, to know and see what is righteous, just, and good, and which, being consulted and hearkened to, is always ready to direct and prompt us to that which is good. The flesh then, in the Gospel language, is that principle, which inclines and carries men to ill; the spirit, that principle which dictates what is right, and inclines to good. But because, by prevailing



18 But if ye be led by the Spirit, ye are not under the law. 19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

20 Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

21 Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such-like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they


yourselves up to the conduct of the Gospel, by faith in Christ, 19 ye are not under the law. Now the works of the flesh, as is

manifest, are these; adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasci20 viousness, Idolatry, witchcraft, enmities, quarrels, emula21 tions, animosities, strife, seditions, sects, Envyings, murders,

drunkenness, revellings, and such like: concerning which I forewarn you now, as heretofore I have done, that they who


custom, and contrary habits, this principle was very much weakened, and almost extinct in the Gentiles, see Eph. iv. 17-21, he exhorts them to "be renewed in the spirit of their minds," ver. 23, and to " put off the old man," i. e. fleshly corrupt habits, and to put on the new man," which he tells them, ver. 24, "is created in righteousness and true holiness." This is called "renewing of the mind," Rom. xii. 2. "Renewing of the inward man," 2 Cor. iv. 16. Which is done by the assistance of the Spirit of God, Eph. iii. 16.


18 The reason of this assertion we may find, Rom. viii. 14, viz. Because, "they who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God," and so heirs, and free without the law, as he argues here, chap. iii. and iv.

This is plainly the sense of the apostle, who teaches all along in the former part of this epistle, and also that to the Romans, that those, who put themselves under the Gospel, are not under the law: the question, then, that remains is only about the phrase, "led by the Spirit." And as to that, it is easy to observe how natural it is for St. Paul, having in the foregoing verses more than once mentioned the Spirit, to continue the same word, though somewhat varied in the sense. In St. Paul's phraseology, as the irregularities of appetite, and the dictates of right reason, are opposed under the titles of Flesh and Spirit, as we have seen: so the covenant of works, and the covenant of grace, law, and Gospel, are opposed under the titles of Flesh and Spirit. 2 Cor. iii. 6, 8, he calls the Gospel Spirit; and Rom. vii. 5, in the flesh, signifies in the legal state. But we need go no further than chap. iii. 3, of this very epistle, to see the law and the Gospel opposed by St. Paul, under the titles of Flesh and Spirit. The reason of thus using the word Spirit is very apparent in the doctrine of the New Testament, which teaches, that those who receive Christ by faith, with him receive his Spirit, and its assistance against the flesh; see Rom. viii. 9-11. Accordingly, for the attaining salvation, St. Paul joins together belief of the truth, and sanctification of the Spirit, 2 Thess. ii. 13. And so Spirit, here, may be taken for "the Spirit of their minds," but renewed and strengthened by the Spirit of God; see Eph. iii. 16, and iv. 23.

20 papμancía signifies witchcraft, or poisoning.

21 ↳ Kμo, Revellings, were, amongst the Greeks, disorderly spending of the night in feasting, with a licentious indulging to wine, good cheer, music, dancing, &c.


which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,

23 Meekness, temperance: again such there is no law.

24 And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts.

25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.

26 Let us not be desirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying one another.


22 do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. But, on the other side, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, sweetness of disposition, beneficence, faithful23 ness, Meekness, temperance: against these and the like there 24 is no law. Now they who belong to Christ, and are his

members, have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts 25 thereof. If our life then (our flesh having been crucified) be, as we profess, by the Spirit, whereby we are alive from that state of sin we were dead in before, let us regulate our lives 26 and actions by the light and dictates of the Spirit. Let us not be led, by an itch of vain-glory, to provoke one another, or to envy one another!.



24 i Oi Toũ Xplotou, "Those who are of Christ," are the same " with those, who are led by the Spirit,” ver. 18, and are opposed to “those, who live after the flesh," Rom. viii. 13, where it is said, conformably to what we find here," they, through the Spirit, mortify the deeds of the body."

"Crucified the flesh." That principle in us, from whence spring vicious inclinations and actions, is, as we have observed above, called sometimes the Flesh, sometimes the Old Man. The subduing and mortifying of this evil principle, so that the force and power, wherewith it used to rule in us, is extinguished, the apostle, by a very engaging accommodation to the death of our Saviour, calls "Crucifying the old man, Rom. vi. 6, Crucifying the flesh, here. "Putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, Col. ii. 11. Putting off the old man, Eph. iv. 22. Col. iii. 8, 9. It is also called, Mortifying the members which are on earth, Col. iii. 5. Mortifying the deeds of the body," Rom. viii. 13.

26 'Whether the vain-glory and envying, here, were about their spiritual gifts, a fault which the Corinthians were guilty of, as we may see at large, 1 Cor. xii. 13, 14, or upon any other occasion, and so contained in ver. 26 of this chapter, I shall not curiously examine: either way, the sense of the words will be much the same, and accordingly this verse must end the 5th, or begin the 6th chapter.

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