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such an illustrious series of miracles, or that keeps the divine agency so con stantly before the mind's eye. Nor are the moral lessons which it teaches less prominent and striking. We find the Apostle Paul, 1 Cor. 10. 11, after having adverted to the course of Israel's experience as a nation, immediately adding, Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples; and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come. No sooner had he adverted to their privileges than he describes their chastisements, as inflicted to the intent that we should not so imitate their sin, as to provoke a visitation of the same vengeance. Indeed their whole history forms one grand prediction and outline of human redemption, and of the lot of the church. In the servitude of Israel we behold a lively image of the bondage to sin and Satan in which the unregenerate are held captive. In the deliverance from Egypt is foreshown thcir redemption from this horrid thraldom; and the journey through the wilderness is a graphic program of a Christian's journey through life to his final inheritance in the heavenly Canaan. So also, without minute specification, the manna of which the Israelites ate, and the rock of which they drank, as well as the brazen serpent by which they were healed, were severally typical of corresponding particulars under the Christian economy. Add to this, that under ine sacrifices, and ceremonial service of the Mosaic institute, were described the distinguishing features of the more spiritual worship of the Gospel.
It is necessary to bear in mind, if we would adequately understand the drist of the peculiar institutions which we find prescribed in the pages of this book, that the grand design of Heaven was to form the Israelites into a distinct and independent people, and to unite them in one great political and ecclesiastical body of whom Jehovah himself was to be the ackowledged head, constituting what is familiarly known as the Jewish Theocracy. But upon this unique kind of polity, which never had a parallel in the case of any other nation on earth, we have reserved a more extended train of remark in the Introduction to the Second Volume of thịs work, where the reader will find the whole subject amply dis. cussed.
§ 2. Time occupied by the History, Divisions, &c. The period embraced by the history will be seen from the following com. putation :
81 From departure from Egypt to Tabernacle erected,
142 Somc make the period from the death of Joseph to the birth of Moses to be 63 years, which will increase the sum total 10 145 years, but the difference is too slight to make it necessary to state the grounds of either calculation. It is to be observed, however, that nearly the whole book is occupied in the detail of the events which occurred in the last year of the period above mentioned.
According to the Jewish arrangement this book is divided into eleven 67070 parashoth, or larger divisions, and twenty 770 siderim, or smaller divisions en nur Bibles it is divided into forty chapters, which, according to the different ribjects treated, may be classified as follows:
I. The oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, ch. 1.
ch. 4. 29–10. 21.
Sinai, ch. 12. 37–40 to cli. 19. 1, 2.
for the renewing of the Covenant, ch. 19.
newal of the Covenant, ch. 32—34.
Presence, ch. 40.
§ 3. Commentators.
Throughout the great mass of biblical criticism and exposition embodied in our own and foreign languages, there are comparatively few works devoted :o the book of Exodus alone; nor is it always from these that the student or commentator can expect to derive the most valuable aid. For the most part, the com. mentaries which embrace either the whole Scriptures, or extended portions of them, are the store-bouses from whence the materials of exegetical illustration are to be sought. Of these the Critici Sacri, the Synopsis of Pool, the Scholia of Rosenmuller, the Annotations of Leclerc, Ainsworth, and Patrick, will always Sold she chief rank in the estimation of the scholar, next to the Ancient Versions and Targums contained in Walton's Polyglot. These accordingly bave been al. ways at hand, as a constant tribunal of reference, through every stage of the progress of the .present work. But it is obvious at a glance, that so vast is the variety of subjects necessarily brought under review in the course of this book, that no one class of authorities will by any means suffice for its adequate elucidil. tion. Philology, Geography, Antiquities, History, Architecture, the arts of Sculpture, Engraving, Dyeing, Weaving, Embroidering, tú say nothing of the peculiar system of Law, Jurisprudence, and Worship, enjoined upon the Israelites, all prefer their claims for more or less of illustration at the hands of him who assumes the task of expounding in order the chapters of Exodus. It would scarcely be possible, therefore, to enumerate all the works which have gone to constitute the ap. paratus for the present undertaking, without citing the entire list of biblical helps appended to the Introduction to the Notes on Genesis, besides a great multitude of others which are there omitted. In fact, we know of no book in the Bible that demands so great a diversity of material for its exposition as the second book of the Pentateuch. How far the various and voluminous sources of in formation, to which the author has had access, have been made available to his grand purpose in the execution of the present work, is a question that awaits the decision of his readers. A very minute specification might invite a more critical comparison, and present a more palpable contrast, beiween his advan. tages and his achievement, than would redound to the credit of his work. Al the same time, he cannot candor confess to any conscious lack of effort to do the utmost justice to every part of his self-imposed labor—if that may be called a la. bor, which has proved, from beginning to end, an unfailing source of pleasure.
The following catalogue is not given as complete, but merely as indicating, in addition to those already specified, the most important collateral aids to a full critical and ethical developement of the sense of this remarkable book.
I. Jewish and Christiano Rabbinical Commentators.
R. SALOMONIS JARCHI, dicti Raschi, Commentarius Hebraicus, in quinque Cibros Mosis, Latine versus atque Notis Critics ae philologicis illustratus a ToH. FREDERICO BREITHAUPTO. Gothæ, 1713. 410.
Jarchi, or Raschi, as he is usually called from combining, according to Hebrew usage, the three initial letters of his name (-27), is generally placed by the Jews at the head of their commentators. They call him the great light and 'the holy mouth, from the value attached 10 his learned comments on the Law and the Prophets. These I have found occasionally to contain some happy verbal criticisms, and in the account of the construction of the tabernacle, in jur. ticular, his remarks are plain, common-sense, and valuable; but in the main he indulges in the characteristic silly conceits of the Rabbins, and his style, with all the aid it derives from Breithaupt's excellent notes and paraphrases, is so obe scure as to render him of little service to one who cares not for words without meaning. He was a native of Troyes in Champagne, and died, A. D. 1180.
R. ISAACI A BARBANELIS Commentarius in Pentateuchum Mosis, curâ Henrici J. Van Banshuisen. Hanoviæ, 1710. Folio.
Rabbi Abarbanel, or Abravanel, as the name is sometimes written, was a Portuguese Jew, who flourished in the fifteenth century, and wrote commentaries on the Pentateuch, the whole of the Prophets, and some other books of Scripture. He also is highly esteemed by his countrymen, and though an exceedingly bitter enemy of Christianity, yet Father Simon says of hin, “We may, in my opinion, reap more advantage in Scripture-translation from R. Isaac Abravanel, ihan froin any other Jew. . He has written in an elegant and perspicuous style, although He is too copious and sometimes affects rhetoric more than stritt fidelity to the sacred text. As the volume abovementioned came into my hands only at a very advanced stage of my own work, I have been unable to make any direct use of it. Through the medium of Rosenmuller and Cartwright, however, his remarks have occasionally found their way into my Notes.
CHRISTOPHORI CARTWRIGHT Electa Targumico-Rabbinica; sive Annotationes .n Exodum ex triplici Targum. Lond. 1653. 8vo.
This is a valuable work, purely critical, made up almost entirely of materials drawn from the Rabbinical commentaries and the Chaldee and other ancient versions. It is used much oftener than quoted by Rosenmuller.
AINSWORTH's (H.) Annotations upon the Second Book of Moses, called Exa dus. Lond. 1639. Fol.
This is the second part of the author's invaluable work on the Pentateuch. So s rich in pertinent citations from Jewish sources, and in that kind of verbal criticism which consists in laying open the usus loquendi of the original is en tirely without a parallel.
LIGHTFOOT's Handful of Gleanings out of the Book of Exodus. Works (Pit. man's Ed. in 13 vols.), Vol. II. p. 351-409.
This is a collection of remarks critical, chronological, historical, and tal mudical upon detached portions of Exodus. As in all Lightfoot's works, somi of his observations are of considerable value, others of very little.
II. Christian Commentators. Willett's Hexapla in Exodum; that is, a sixfold commentary upon the Book of Exodus, according to the Method propounded in the Hexapla upon Genesis. Lond. 1603. Folio.
A voluininous and tedious Commentary, but not without its value, especially as embodying and usually confuting the interpretations of the Romanists. He compares also the various versions and deduces doctrinal and moral inferences.
RIVETI'S (ANDR.) Opera Theologica. Rotterdam, 1651.. 2 Tom. Folio.
The first of these huge volumes contains the author's Exercitations on Genesis and Exodus. They are very elaborate and generally judicious, but marked with the prolixity of the seventeenth century. At the present day they are inerely cominentaries for commentators.
HOPKINS' (WM.) Corrected Translation of Exodus, with Notes critical and explanatory. Lond. 1784. 410.
Said to be a work of little value.
III. Miscellaneous and Illustrative Works. PICTORIAL BIBLE with Wood-cuts and Original Notes. Lond. 1836-8. 3 vols. Roy. 8vo.
For a character of this very valuable work see the Preface to my Notes on Genesis. The ' Pictorial History of Palestine,' now in course of publication by the same author, is a work of similar character, and abounding with rich ma terials for illustrating the Old Testament history.
BUDDICOM's Christian Exodus, or the Deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, practically considered in a series of Discourses. Lond. 1839. 2 vols. 12mo.
Bähr's Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus (Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship). Heidelb. 1837–9. 8vo.
An exceedingly curious and valuable work, entering into the most profound re. searches respecting the symbolical character of the Tabernacle and Temple ritual
GRAVES' (Rich.) Lectures on the Four Last Books of the Pentateuch. Lond. 1815, 2 vols. 8vo.
FABER'S (G. S.) Horæ Mosaicæ ; or a Dissertation on the Credibility and Theology of the Pentateuch. Lond. 1818. 2 vols. 8vo.
The leading object of this work is to establish the authenticity of the Penta. teuch, by pointing out the coincidence of its facts and statemenis with the remains of profane antiquity, and their connexion with Christianity. It is a pro luction of great value to the biblical student.
Treatise on the Patriarchal, Levitical, and Christian Dispensations Lond. 1823. 2 vols. 8vo.
This Treatise exhibits all the strong masculine sense, and extensive classica erudition that distinguish the author, but from its greater license of hypothesis in particular parts is perhaps generally less esteemed than the "Horæ Mosaicæ mentioned above. The aitentive reader, however, cannot but derive from it many very important ideas on the subject of sacred antiquity. His refutation of soine of Warburton's bold positions is eminently successful.
OUTRAN'S (Wm.) Two Dissertations on Sacrifices; translated by Allen. Lond. 1817. 8vo.
A standard work on the subject of which it treats.
MICHAELIS' (J. D.) Commentaries on the Laws of Moses; translated by Smith. Lond. 1814. 4 vols. 8vo.
The value of this, the main work of its author, depends upon the degree to which it is imbued with the genius of Orientalisin, and the sagacity discovered in tracing the connexion between the institutions of Moses and the various iuflu. ences of climate, manners, hereditary usages, and other national characteristics which may be supposed to have governed their adoption. Its great fault is its treating the Mosaic jurisprudence and ritual as if it originated with Moses rather than with God. It is also occasionally disfigured with a levity and grossness very unsuited to its subject. Yet it throws too much light on ihe wisdom and design of the Levitical code not to be on the whole a very valuable, as well as very interesting work.
ROBINSON'S (Prof. E.) Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai, and Arabia Petræa. A Journal of Travels in the year 1838, by E. Robinson, and E. Smith; undertaken in reference to Biblical Geography; with new Maps and Plans. New York, 1841. 3 vols. 8vo.
From no source have I experienced greater regret in looking back upon the execution of my task, than in not baving been able, from the late date of its publication, to avail myself of the rich iopographical ireasures contained in this work. In all that relates to the geography of the land of Goshen, the region of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt; to ihe route from thence to the Red Sen; to the passage of that sea; to the wilderness of Sin; and to the interesting local. ities of the Sinai tract, the researches of the American travellers have settled a multitude of disputed points, and in fact opened a new era in the progress of Biblical geography. The very maps themselves are sufficient to have produced this result, even had the maiter of the journal been wanting. Both'iogether form a noble contribution to the cause of sacred science, of which the age and the country that have given birth to it may well be proud. The portion of the work which treats of Palestine I have not yet seen, though I am assured by the author that it contains more of discovery than any other.