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Perfudere manus fraterno sanguine fratres,
Catul. Epith. Pel. et Thet.
But when the earth became stained with nameless wickedness, and divers lusts banished integrity from the mind; then, a brother's hand shed fraternal blood—the son ceased to deplore his deceased parents— the father desired the funeral of his first born—the son to enjoy his unmarried step-mother—the impious mother yielding to her thoughtless offspring, feared not to pollute the temple of the Gods: all things, just and unjust, were thus blended together by furious passion; and the propitious mind of the Gods turned away from us, Can there be a more striking confirmation of the apostle's assertion, respecting the heathen world, that “they were given over to a reprobate mind?” or a better comment upon the declaration of Moses, that “the earth. * was filled with violence ".
This extract refers to page 107, of the preceding Lecture.
"ragozero. Euseb. lib. IX. Praparat. cap. 12. This extract is translated in page 110, of the preceding Lecture,
- Nore 6.—Extract, from Dr. Geddes, respecting the quantity of water required for an universal deluge; and the sources wheuce it might be supposed to be derived. “ Fifteen cubits upward, did the waters prevail; and the moun“tains were covered. This has been always accounted one of the most unaccountable phenomena of the deluge; and has, more than “any other circumstance attending it, perplexed and puzzled com“mentators. The most ingenious solution of the difficulty which I “ have ever met with, is one sent to me, some years ago, by Sir “Henry Englefield, which I shall here give in his own words: • The diameter of the earth being taken at 8000 miles; and the highest mountain being supposed four miles high above the level of the sea”, the quantity of water requisite to cover them, will be an hollow sphere of 8008 miles diameter, and four miles thick; the content of which, in round numbers, is 800,000,000 cubic miles.—
Let us now suppose the globe of the earth to consist of a crust of
solid matter, 1000 miles thick, enclosing a sea, or body of water, 2000 miles deep; within which is a central nucleus of 2000 miles in diameter: the content of that body of water will be 109,200,000,000 cubic miles; or about 137 times the quantity of water required to • cover the surface of the earth as above stated. Now water, by experiment, expands about one 25th of it's whole magnitude, from freezing to boiling; or one hundredth of it's magnitude for 45 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. Suppose, then, that the heat of the globe, previously to the deluge, was about 50 degrees of Fahrenheit's, a temperature very near that of this climate; and that a sudden change took place in the interior of the globe, which raised it's height to 83 degrees; an heat no greater than the marine animals live in, in the shallow seas between the tropics; those 23 degrees of augmented heat would so expand the internal sea,
& * as to cause it to more than cover the surface of the globe, accord*ing to the conditions above-mentioned; and if the cause of heat * ceased, the waters would of course, in cooling, retire into their ‘proper places.—If the central nucleus be supposed 3000 miles, and
• the internal sea only 1500 miles deep, it's content will then be
- so This is more than the height of the Andes.”
* 99,200,000,000 cubic miles; or, 125 times the water required; and “in that case, an aditional heat of 36 degrees to the previous tem‘perature of the carth, will be sufficient to produce the above-de“scribed effect.—It is scarce necessary to say, that the perfect re‘gularity here supposed to exist in the form of the interior parts of ‘the globe, is of no consequence to the proposed hypothesis; which “will be equally just, if the above-given quantity of waters be any ‘llow disposed within the earth.-Neither is it here proposed to dis‘cuss the reality of a central fire, which many philosophers main“tain, and many deny.—It may not be unworthy to remark, that ‘the above hypothesis, which does not in any way contradict any ‘law of nature, does singularly accord with the Mosaic narrative of ‘the deluge: for the sudden expansion of the internal waters would, * of course force them up through the chasms of the exterior crust, “in dreadful jets and torrents; while their heat would cause such * vapours to ascend into the atmosphere, as, when condensed, * would produce torrents of rain beyond our conception.’ “The possibility of an universal deluge, then; of a deluge rising “fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, can hardly be denied. It “is not at all necessary to suppose with Sir Henry, that the ante“ diluvian mountains were as high as those of the present earth. “They may have been of a very different form and size, and com* posed of other materials.” - Dr. Geddes, vol. 1. Crit. Rem. on Gen. vii. 20, &c. . After all, this great critic, as usual, labours to lower the Mosaic account; and thinks, “that a great deal of the fabulous is mixed “with the history of Noah's flood.” The humble opinion of the writer of these Lectures, differs widely from him, in this respect; and he is satisfied with taking this ingenious hypothesis, which even Dr. Geddes admits, proves such a deluge possible, without accepting his concluding observations. - * ** This extract refers to page 123, of the preceding Lecture. Nore 7–Experiment by the Bishop of Landaff, on the quantity of water exhaled from the earth on a summer's day: - as “Who would have conjectured, that an acre of ground, even “after having been parched by the heat of the sun in summer, dis“persed into the air, above 1600 gallons of water, in the space of
twelve of the hottest hours of the day? No vapour is seen to ascend; and we little suppose, that in the hottest part of the day, it more usually does ascend than in any other. The experiment from which I draw this conclusion, is so easy to be made, that every one may satisfy himself of the truth of it. On the 2d day of June, 1779, when the sun shone bright and hot, I put a large drinking glass with it's mouth downwards, upon a grass-plat which was mown close; there had been no rain for above a month, and the grass was become brown: in less then two minutes, the inside of the glass was clouded with a vapour, and, in half an hour, drops of water began to trickle down it's inside, in various places. This experiment was repeated several times with the same success. “That I might accurately estimate the quantity, thus raised, in any certain portion of time, I measured the area of the mouth of the glass, and found it to be twenty square inches: there are 1296 square inches in a square yard, and 4840 square yards in a statute acre; hence, if we can find the means of measuring the quantity of vapour raised from twenty square inches of earth, suppose in one quarter of an hour, it will be an easy matter to calculate the quantity which would be raised, with the same degree of heat, from an acre in twelve hours. The method I took to measure the quantity of vapour, was not, perhaps, the most accurate which might be thought of, but it was simple and easy to be practised:
when the glass had stood on the grass-plat one quarter of an hour,
and had collected a quantity of vapour, I wiped it's inside with a piece of muslin, the weight of which had been previously taken; as soon as the glass was wiped dry, the muslin was weighed again, it's increase of weight shewed the quantity of vapour which had been collected. The medium increase of weight, from several experiments made on the same day, between twelve and three o'clock, was six grains, collected in one quarter of an hour, from twenty square inches of earth. If the reader takes the trouble to make the calculation, he will find, that above 1600 gallons, reckoning eight pints to a gallon, and estimating the weight of a pint of water at one pound avoirdupois, or 7000 grains Troy-weight, would be raised, at the rate here mentioned, from an acre of ground, in twenty-four hours.
“It may easily be conceived, that the quantity thus elevated, wik be greater when the ground has been well soaked with rain, pro