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the shin-pieces, which, however, end actors. In a scene where Cleon appcars much below the knee, and join the cover- surrounded with bis flatterers, each one ing of the feet. With his left hand he addresses him in a different measure : seizes Medusa by the hair of the crown, one in choraic; another, remarkable for and with the right lic holds a short presumption, in dactylic, &c. The gaysword, with which he cuts off her head. est scene is where Xantippe arrives in a She kneels with the right leg, and rests rage, which she vents upon Cleon as well the left in a bent position on the ground. as the rest in a truly comie manner. The The upper part of the body, here too, is conclusion of the piece witnesses Aristoquite turned to the front, and the lower phanes carried in triumph, and Cleon expart in profile.-Extract of Letter. posed to the laugh of the Athenian people. PRUSSIA.

The University of Moscow has proThe population of the Prussian States, posed the following question for a prize which amounted to 10,799,954 in 1819, competition: - The Florentine copy of had increased to 11,494,173 in 1822. Justinian's Pandects is considered as the

The Academy of Fine Arts at Berlin most correct and ancient of all at present increases in prosperity. Lectures are known in Europe, the others, being for given on Design, Engraving, and Sculp- the most part transcripts of it; it beture. M. Grüsen has lectured on Trigo- comes, then, a matter of consequence to nometry; M. Zielke on Optics; M. Mei- trace the means and course of its arrival necke on Design; M. Rabe on the Con- at Florence. The prevailing opinion is, struction of Edifices: there is also attached that this original copy was sent among to it a School des Arts et Metiers, as the others to certain provinces; that it was French style it.

found at the taking of Amalfi; giren

afterwards, by the Emperor Lotharius II. At the last sitting of the Russian Aca to the inhabitants of Pisa; and, at the demy, Prince Alexander Chakhovskoy conquest of this city, was removed to read some scenes of a comedy which he Florence, where it is still preserved with is composing. It is entitled Aristophanes. great care. But, during the last fifty It is entirely of a new character, and is most years, many doubts having been started like the Amphitryon of Plautus, which on these points by the learned, a critical Moliere las adapted to the European exposition of all that bas been advanced boards. The reception of these scenes on either side is required; as also to fix was gratifying, and the audience, which in a positive manner on the most crediwas numerous, testified by applauses the table opinion. Prize 250 roubles; the satisfaction which it felt. Prince Chak- Memoirs to be in Russian, Latin, French, hovskoy is justly deemed the first comic or German; and the term April 1825. poet of Russia. He has written upwards Chinese Literature. — Ever since the of fifty pieces for the stage, partly tra- year 1728, when the treaty of peace and gedies, comedies, operas, and vaude- commerce was concluded between Russia villes. The subject of Aristophanes is and China, onr government bas maintaken from bistory: it is on the day on tained at Pekin an Archimandrite and which Aristophanes proposes to give to four Ecclesiastics, to whom as many the public his piece composed in ridicule young men were added, to learn the of Cleon, who was then all-powerful at Chinese language, and to serve, in the Athens. Aristophanes finds that the cre- sequel, as interpreters, as well on the dit of Cleon prevents the representations; frontiers as in the department of Foreign and on the refusal of the comedians to Affairs at St. Petersburgh. Hitherto no appear in the character in which Cleon is persons have yet returned to Russia from represented in the most ridiculous way, this establishment who have done any he determines to play it himself. The important service to Literature, sculptors, however, refuse to make a the Archimandrite Hyacinthus, who bas mask of Cleon for the author, who still lately returned from China, differs from determines to play the character without all his predecessors. Astonishment is the mask, if he cannot with : but to make excited hy the zeal with which he the character clearly known to the public, has applied to the Chinese and other he disrobes Cleon of his chlamys by languages, and by the important works means of a courtesan named Alcinoë, bis which he has composed during his resimistress, of whom Cleon is also fond. dence at Pekin: viz. I, A General HisThe jeur de mots and the wit of the piece tory of China, from the year 2357 before the writer has borrowed from Aristo- the birth of Christ, to the year 1633 of phanes, and they give it a very peculiar the Christian era; nine vols. folio-2. character. This comedy is in three acts, A Geographical and Statistical Descripand in easy verse, the different rhymes of tion of the Chinese Empire, with a large which are appropriated to the different map, in the five principal languages spo


ken by the people ;' in two vols. folio— 'in the higher Egypt are considered the 3. The works of Confucius, translated most venomous; and as that which we into Russian, with a Commentary–4. A have distinguished by the name of Scorpio Russian and Chinese Dictionary-5. Four Cabirismus is the largest and the most works on the Geography and History of common, it is probable that all the others Thibet and of Little Bucharia-6. The are derived from it. A Frenchman, M. History of the Land of the Mongols-7. Rufeau, or Rousseau, who employs himThe Code of Laws given by the Chinese self in looking for Egyptian antiquities, Government to the Mongol tribes —8. and in copying objects of natural history, An accurate Description of the City of at Lúxos, near Thébes, told us that one of Pekin—9. Description of the Dykes and his young female blacks had just died in Works erected to confine the Waters of the most severe pain, in consequence of the Yellow River ; followed by an accurate the sting of a scorpion; and that he had Description of the great Canal of China. known several other occurrences of a Besides these' Chinese works, trans- similar nature within a very short period lated into Russian, the Archimandrite of time. I myself, who had with great Hyacinthus has written several treatises caution taken above a hundred of these on the manners, customs, festivals, and animals in my hands, was lately stung in domestic employments of the Chinese; the finger by one of them. At the moon their military art, and on the manu ment of the puncture I experienced a factures and branches of industry in penetrating pain, which staggered me which they excel. The interest which like an electric shock. Although I did the Emperor Alexander takes in every not neglect to suck the wound with force thing that can contribute to the glory of until the appearance of blood, the feeling the Empire and of his government, and of pain became still more intense in the to all that can extend the sphere of useful course of a few minutes. I bound the knowledge, gives reason to hope that the finger tightly up. The pain, which still : Russian government will afford the learned continued, extended itself by degrees to Archimandrite the necessary means to the hand, and afterwards to the elbow, print the literary treasures which he and to the interior part of the arm, and has brought with him from China. resembled a kind of cramp. At the end EGYPT.

of an hour I experienced this severe pain Letter of Dr. Ehrenberg, dated near El only in the neighbourlood of the wound, Srian.-l suppress the circumstances the lips of which began to swell. At the which have hitherto made our residence end of three bours, all that remained was in Egypt very disagreeable. Our greatest a sensation of numbness in the finger, enemies have been, to me a very violent which went off on the following day. I nervous fever, and to both me and my do not know whether an inclination to companion, ophtbalmic attacks, which sleep that I experienced in the evening was liave lasted for several months. Never- attributable to the wound, or to a catarrlı theless, although two of our companions which had shown itself. We were witare dead, and three others who supplied nesses of another occurrence of the same their places have lost courage and quitted nature at the village of Saulim, in the us, we preserve our firmness, and ad- province of Tajum. One evening the vance' with prudence. As above all Kaimakahn entered our apartment, cry: things you recommended to us to examine ing out avd entreating help. He had been into the poisons known in Egypt, we bave stung, by a venomous animal, and was already dried the leaves of the venomous suffering great pain, Dr. Hemprich made, plants most known in this country. We at the wounded place of the finger, an inhave carefully collected in flasks the juice cision, which bled copiously, and then of such of those plants as are milky. We bound the finger up. The next day the have also obtained some yellowish green injured man found himself completely juice extracted from the teeth of the Ce healed. Our search for the scorpion by rastes, (horned snake,) and have begin which he was stung was fruitless. It apo to preserve some scorpions' fangs, as well pears that in general the sting of the as the vessels which serve as a receptacle scorpion is more dangerous to children for the poison. Of scorpions we have hi- than to grown persons.

When the Arabs therto met with only eight kinds: five in meet snakes or scorpions, they hold them the desert of Libya, and near Alexandria, down with a stick or some other instruthe largest on the frontiers of Barbary, ment, and break their fangs with stones near Gasi Choltrebie; and three between or a knife. We never saw a venomous Cairo and Essüan. All these scorpions are animal in the hands of an Arab which yellow, tending to a black ish brown; and was not mutilated; and therefore when we have had abundant opportunities of the snake-swallowers, or other Arals, examining them. Those which are found have brought us these animals, we laré

seldom preserved them in spirits of wine. the number of inhabitants in each stateWe are at present busy in collecting de- divided into whites and blacks, freemen tails with respect to these various sub- and slaves, males and females, and their jects."

different occupations in agriculture, comMr. J. Burton, who is employed by the merce, and manufactures. The United Pasha of Egypt in a geological examina- States contain, it appears, 9,654,415 in-' tion of his territories, has made several habitants, of which 1,543,688 are slaves. important discoveries in the desert, to Agriculture employs 2,175,065 persons, the eastward of the Nile, and along the and commerce only 72,558; manufactures shores of the Red Sea. In the Easterii. 349,663. There are, however, some staDesert, and under the parallel of Syout, tistical deficiencies in these tables, which is a mountain called Gebel Dokham (the may easily be remedied in a subsequent hill of smoke). The summit of Gebel edition. The part relating to emigration Dhiksham ris traversed aby roads and faths which terminate in large quarries of an 1822 there arrived in different ships 20,201 tique red porphyry. Immense blocks, passengers, of whom 3969 were citizens coarsely chiselled, lie about. Others, of the United States. Of the other 16,232 already squared, are upon props, marked emigrant foreigners, 8284 were English, and numbered. There are also an in- 685 French, 466 Germans, 400 Spaniards, finite number of sarcophagi, vases, and 112 Hollanders. It is a question of great columns of a large size. At the side importance to settle the advantages which are soine ruins of huts, and the re the United States do or might derive from mains of forges. At Belet Kebye, these emigrations. The compiler of the a village in ruins, in the valley on the Calendar mentions some facts which aid south side of the mountain, Mr. Burton the solution of this question. He divides found a circular well, twenty feet in the emigrants into four classes—the first diameter, and sixty feet deep. In the is the usefully productive, and comprises same village still stands a pretty little 4946 individuals, all engaged in some sort temple of the lonic order, on the pedi- of trade or profession. The other classes ment of which is the following inscrip are, unproductive but useful, 5069; untion For the safety and eternal tri- productive, 459, and all other sorts of unumph of our lord Cæsar, the august and productive, (as old men, women, children, absolute, and for those of all bis house, &c.).9721.-The Calendar contains a listof this temple and its dependencies were all the patents granted for 1822: they a. dedicated to the Sun, to the great Serapis, mount to 194. It has also a list of all the and to the other Divinities, by Epaphro- new works or new editions deposited in ditus + ++ of Cæsar, Governor of the Secretary of State's Office in the same Egypt. Marcus Ulpius Chresinius, su year: they amount to 95, 20 of wbich are perintendant of the mines under Pro- dictionaries, grammars, or elementary coluanus." Mr. Burton has collected, at books; 9 theological and moral ; 14 of Fstiery, several inscriptions; among physical and mathematical science; 8 law; others this fragment :

11 statistics and geography, &c. &c. AlAnn. xii. imp. Nerva Traiano together the work presents a curious and Cæsari Aug. Germanico

instructive picture of this rising country. Dacico P. I. R. Solpicium simium

Steam Navigation --The Diana steam

boat, built in Mr.Kyd's yard at Kidderpore, .. The quarries of vert antique between near Calcutta, was launched on the 12th Ghene and Cosseir, have also supplied of July last, and on the same day made, him with a great number of inscriptions; on the majestic Ganges, the first trip ever which a mixture of Greek and Hiero- performed in India by the aid of steam, glyphics must render very interesting to between Calcutta and Chinsurah; which those learned persons who employ-them- she successfully and most pleasantly perselves in interpreting the hieroglyphic formed in six hours and a half. Colonel language of the Egyptians.

Krefting, the governor of Serampore, and

suite, were amongst the highly respectable The National Calendar published at company on board. Washington contains many valuable do A late Calcutta journal contains the folcuments with respect to the United States; lowing corrected heights of the Himalaya notices of the expenditure and revenue mountains :on the administration, salaries of public

By the Barometer. Feet. functionaries, &c. &c. The whole financial Sbatool Pass

15,554 concerns of the Government are therein Boorendo Pass

15,095 exposed to the criticism of the country. Keoobruog Pass

18,448 The tables of the population are drawn Pass between Soongnum & Manes 18.743 up in a clear and perspicuous way--giving Bed of the Sutlej under Bekhur.. 10,792

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Præf. æg.



Feet. Highest birch-forest or Soongnum 10,400' Highest sandstone

16,700 Highest cultivation at Bekhur.... 13,000 Rampoor

3,398 Top of Choor Mountain 12,143 Soobathoo

4,205 Station on Purgeool Monntain 19,411 Dehra

2,349 Highest night-camp. 18,129 Subarunpoor

1,093 Bekbur Village


By Trigonometry. Nako.

12,005 Purgeool, or Tuzheegung Mountain 22,488 Shipki 20,597 Ruldung Mountain

21,103 Shealkur Fort ........ 10,403 Budraj Mountain .

7,502 Huttoo, or Whartoo 10,656 Bhyrat Fort .

7,592 Ammonites found at

16,000 Limestone at least



11,'' (rilo On the Cultivation of the Horse-radish yond the usual work of keeping clean, By Mr. D. Judd.—'The first thing to be till the taking up of the crop; and this provided is a proper spot for the bed : it may be done at any time during the wintoo often bappens that horse-radish, as ter months. The distance at which I.. well as many other herbs, is injudiciously have always planted my horse-radish, has placed in some corner of the garden, out been eighteen inches every way; but I of sight, without any attention being paid think, on very good land, that the rows : to the natural habit, or proper treatment should be two feet, and tbe plants eighof the plant. Although I do not mean teen inches in the rows apart: in some to adrance that it is necessary to give soils the plants grow more to leaf tban the first place in the garden to such in others; and consequently, they should things, yet it is very desirable that they in such situations have more room alshould have proper situations. The horse lowed for their growth. My time of radish in particular should have an open planting is between the middii of Fespot of ground, and it requires some little bruary and the middle of March trouble to bring to perfection. After always find that the stouter the cutting, having fixed on a spot of the garden suf- the botter will be the produce; no make. ficient for the crop I intend to plant, it shift roots will do well, neither can is trenched two good spades (I ought ra- careless planting be allowed ; if due atther to say two feet) deep, either with tention to these essential points is not or without manure, according to the state given, I cannot promise a good crop. of the soil, which, it in itself good, re- The instrument used for making the holes quires no enricbing; but if it is poor, is like a potatoe-dibber, about an inch some good. light manure ought to be add- and a half in diameter near the point, and ed to it, and this must be carefully laid two inches and a half at the upper part ; into the bottom of each trench, for, if not so that the top of the hole it makes is so done, the horse-radish, which always larger than the bottom. Trans. Horti. Soc. puts out some side-roots, would send out Carrots.—The following mode is regach large shoots froin the main-root in commended of rendering the cultivation search of the dung contiguous to its sides, of this valuable root less expensive and as to materially deteriorate the crop. troublesome, viz.-to sow the seed upon After the bed is thus prepared, plants some very rich mould under a hovel, are procured by taking about three inches about a fortnight before the field is in length of the top part of each stick, ready, and then drill mould and seed and then cutting clean off about a quarter altogether, having had it well stirred of an inch of this piece under the crown, every second day, and kept sufficiently so as to leave no appearance of a green wet to cause it to vegetate. This operabud. Holes are then made in the bed, tion enables the grower to clean bis land, eighteen inches apart every way, and six. and to pulverize it, so as to make most teen or eighteen inches deep; the root- of the troublesome annual weeds to recuttings, prepared as directed, are let

down getate, and gives the carrot a considerato the bottom of the holes, which are ble start, which it requires more than afterwards filled up with fine sifted cin- most other seeds, as it is so very tardy der-dust, and the surface of the bed is in its growth at first. The above crop ris raked over as is usual with other crops. much preferable to either mangel wurzel It will be soine time before the plants or Swedish turnips, both for feeding oxen, appear, and the operation of weeding and as a winter food for milch cows; must be done with the band, and not with for the latter purpose, its superiority is tbe hoe, till the crop can be fairly seen; very evident in improving both the quanafterwards nothing more is requisite, be- tity and quality of the milk and batter.

Encouragement to Planters. Among the of time, where particular care has been numerous instances, recorded of the ra- taken to preservo it froin the weather, the pid growth of timber; even in climates effects of which it cannot encounter; much more congenial to accelerate matu- hence onr forefathers were more than rity and to promote adrancement than ordinarily assiduous in its cultivation, and our own, we do not recollect to have met many of the more wagnificent specimens with an instance more remarkable, and of their architectural taste afford proof where the superior excellence of soil of the reliance they placed upon its sea should seem to be more clearly establish: curity... The great tower of Lincoln Cao cd, than in that of a tree recently felled thedral is mainly supported by beams of within the grounds of the Chantry House, the Black Italian Poplar; and there are in Newark, the residence of Mr. Sikes, circumstances wbich' warrant the con It is of the Poplar tribe, usually denomi- jecture of their baving been 'grown at nated the black Italian, although certainly no great distance from that city. It was by no means so remarkable for quick not an unusual thing with those whose growth as that of many other of its nu- religious enthusiasm, aided by a super. merous but less picturesque family. The stitious influence, prompted such extratree was planted by the Reverend owner ordinary acts, as were the builders of scarcely eighteen years since, of a size those amazing structures, to exorcise, which may be supposed proportionate to dedicate, and even anoint many of the one about tlıree feet in height. During more material detailed parts of them, the period, however, named, it had raised particularly the bells they contained." itself near forty feet higier: at its trunk, Wbether these supporters of that veneraoutside the ground, girthed twenty-tivo ble and far-famed cdifice underwent any inches, at its centre scventeen, and at of those singular ceremonies, we have no the top from which its branches were means of ascertaining; but they still severed, eight inches, containing a total very legibly retain the following distich, of upwards of thirty-sir cubic feet of so much in the style of those times ; timber. There are many well-authenti “ The heart of Oak we do dets, cated facts of the extraordinary power If you will but keep us dry. of resistance in this wood to the ravages


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USEFUL ARTS. Mr Yetts' Apparatus for securing Ships' paratus ; cach part of which has its sepaWindlassesThis invention is likely to rate action, and by their united powers prove of considerable advantage to sea. effectually tend to preserve the bits and faring men, and must give pleasure to all palls from pressure, and to render_the who are interested in the promotion of body of the windlass firmly fixed. It nautical science. The inventor, Mr. Wil must be said in justice to the skill dis-, linun Yetts, of Great Yarmouth, las lately played in the formation of this apparatus, taken out a patent for it, and has received that it is constructed on a neat and comfrom indisputable authorities the most pact plan, and is most admirably caleu. satisfactory testimonials of its merit. lated to effect the security intended ; nor The apparatus may be easily applied to can the meed of praise be withheld from all classes of vessels, the anchors of which the inventor, since that discovery must be are beaved by windlasses. Ship-owners ranked with those of the noblest class, as well as ship-masters and others who wbich tends to avert any of the dangers have had the charge of merchantmen and to which maritime property is exposed, coasters, whose voyages require a frequent and in which is involved the safety of use of the anchor, have long had cause to British seamen. regret the insecure state of windlasses on New Dressing Apparatus.—Mr. John their present construction, being often •Burn, of Manchester (a native of Cum. incapable of supporting the heavy pressure berland), has obtained a patent for å opposed to them, when vessels are riding dressing apparatus, which destroys all the against a head-sea, or wbilst the anchor extraneous particles of cotton or of wool, is heaving. From the palls and other which prevent goods made of those inateparts, suddenly giving way, or from the rials from assuming the wiry and polished total upsetting of windlasses, too nume appearance of silk; and even coloured rous and fatal are the instances of the goods of both kinds come from the proloss of lives and property, to need a recital cess with a strong and manifest improvehere. The great object of the inventor ment in hue as well as fibre. This mode has been to prevent disasters by in parting of dressing creates so little soil, that stability to wirdlasses by means of his ap- many of the articles submitted to it re

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