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AMERICA.

tigues, found at length a peaceful retrent at thát tinde io a depreciated state. He in our country, where he received nume- then passed the Falls of the Ohio, the rous marks of the munificence of His Ma- force of which was much inferior to the jesty the Emperor. We are not informed expectations he had formed The steamwhether Father Chrysanthus has left any boats of New Orleans, which come up manuscripts of his travels.

the Ohio, as far as Sbippingsport, below

the Falls, are from 300 to 500 tons; their American Traveller.-Mr. T. Nuttall, passage back is effected in eighteen days. honorary member of the American Phi- This traveller at length reached the mouth losophical Society, and of the Academy of the Ohio, and entered the Mississippi. of Natural Sciences, has lately published The lands adjacent to these two rivers a Journal of his Travels into the Arkansa are not inhabited, on account of the Territory. His prime object was to fur- inundations; but they abound in game. nish a sketch of the natural history of Here the navigation becomes difficult, the countries watered by the river Ar- and often dangerous, from the trees kansa, previous to its joining the Missis- dragged along by the current, which, sippi. This last forms an extraordinary meeting with obstruction, adhere to the basin, comprehending a vast bed of wa bottom of the river, forming a sort of ters, in a channel strikingly grand, and dyke or rampart in the channel. Tbe through a rich variety of scenery. It banks both of the Mississippi and Ohio receives a number of tributary currents, are interspersed witb plains, woods, hamsome as large as the Danube, before its lets, rising towns, and Indian camps. efflux into the Gulf of Mexico. It ex- After a navigation of twenty-four days on tends from the Allegany and Apalachian the Mississippi, Mr. N. entered the Armountains, which border on the ancient kansa, The first habitations that he disterritory of the United States, to the covered formed a part of a little French rocky incuntains that separate it from settlement, where the land was under culNew Mexico, and from the other regions ture, producing wheat and cottoa. Adalong that side of the Continent. The vancing further, the vegetation seemed whole of this tract, formerly occupied to be monotonous, and mostly covered by numerous tribes of natives, is now re with immense forests, where no patbway plenished with European establishments, could be discerned. The author afterwhich cannot be surveyed without emo wards traces an outline of the ancient tions of tranquil pleasure. Mr. Nuttall population on the banks of the Missis. set out from Pbiladelphia in 1818; and, sippi. This is borrowed from a Narrative after crossing the chain of the Allegany, of the Expedition of Ferdinand de Soto, arrived at Pittsburgh, built on the banks who sailed from Cuba, in 1539, with

of the Ohio, at the confluence of the 1000 men, and, landing in Florida, pe| Monongahela and the Allegany. Excel- netrated to the Mississippi, and explored lent roads lead to it from all the eastern many parts of the adjoining regions : of countries, and it is considered as an en those that attended him, only 113 retorntrepôt for those situated on each side of ed. The author bas arranged and shaded, the mountains. More than a hundred with distinctness and precision, two most vessels of all descriptions were on the interesting topics,-the gradations of a Ohio. Steam-boats and coal-barges were civilization, rapid in its progress; and inpatiently waiting for the rising of the the primitire aspect of countries and inwaters, then very low. Pit coal is in habitants, as yet unexplored. ✓ great abundance about Pittsburgh, and American Patents.-!n 1822, 194 pais a considerable source of gain. Here tents were granted in the United States, Mr. N. took his passage in a vessel, pro- of wbich 33 related to agriculture. In ceeding down the Ohio, till in fire days 1823, 164 were granted; of these about he arrived at Wheeling, a commercial 28 were for agricultural implements, or depot for those parts of Virginia. He systems, and 7 for improvements in visited the Swiss colonies of Vevay and steam-engines. The other arts to which

Gand, where attempts have been made to the new patents were applicable, were • cultivate the vine, but without success. principally those of distillation, the pre

He came next to Louisville, in Kentucky, paration of cotton, brick-making, nari. a large and Nourishing town, with a num- gation, &c. There was one for a machine ber of banking houses ; their credit was for the removal of sick persons.

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RURAL ECONOMY. Description of a Method of protecting frames are laid over them. My method Cauliflower and other tender Plants during of giving air is by placing in the ground, Winter. By Mr. JAMES DRUMMOND.—My Dear the centre of each pit, & forked success for several years past in protect- stick about four feet or more in length, ing cauliflower plants, in earthen pits, strong enough to support the frames, from frost and snow, during winter, by when raised like the lid of a box, to a means of wooden frames covered perma- sufficient height, and they remain in that nently with straw, induces me to send an position night and day, unless when acaccount of the plan to the Horticultural So- tual freezirg takes place, or when frost is ciety. My pits are mostly made in a south expected in the night. I am far from and east border, in an inclosure or yard thinking that these straw frames will bear which I have for hot-beds, composts, &c. a comparison with glass, for neatness of the fences of which afford good shelter appearance; but they have other advanfrom the cold quarters. To form the pits, tages besides their cheapness: when they I first make the ground as level as I can, are raised, the plants in the pits have the and as firm as possible, by trampling in full advantage of air and sun, and are but wet weather; I then cut them out ten little exposed to wet, the rain being most. feet in length four in breadth, making ly thrown off on the back of the frames, the sides and ends as firm as possible, by and when they are shut down frost cannot beating the soil when wet with a spade. easily penetrate through them to the The depth of the pit is according to the plants. It is well known that it is necesdescription of plants to be kept in them. sary to have mats and other sorts of coNine inches is sufficient for cauliflower verings over glass in severe weather, the plants, and for these care must be taken removing of which to give air in the midthat a sufficient quantity of proper soil is dle of the day, and replacing at night, is left, or placed in the bottom of the pit in attended with much trouble; whereas the which they are to be pricked out. Each opening and shutting of the straw frames pit of the above dimensions holds about is but the work of a moment. I have four hundred cauliflower plants. For principally used these pits and frames for plants in pots the depth of the pits must the protection of alpine and other plants be proportioned to the height of the usually kept under glass without fire-heat: plants, the tops of which must, when but in cases of necessity, tender greenplaced in the pits, be below the level of house plants may be preserved through the surface of the ground. The frames the winter in them, as I experienced last proper to cover these pits are twelve feet season. I had many geraniums and other in length by six in breadth ; I prefer them tender plants which I could not find room of that, to a larger size, for such can be for in the glass-houses. By way of expeconveniently carried where wanted be- riment I placed them in these pits ; and tween two men, and can be easily opened although, from the unusual severity of and slut, to give light and air to the pits, the winter, I was obliged to keep down by a single person. The timbers to form the frames night and day for a fortnight the sides and ends of the frames are re- together, and cover them with additional quired to be about three inches square, straw to exclude the severe frost, the only and quite straight. These, when joined plants that suffered were a few of the together, are placed on a level floor, and downy-leaved geraniums, and even those, slips of timber, two inches in breadth and on being planted afterwards in the ground, one in thickness, are nailed lengthways shot out vigorously in the spring at every on them at intervals of oine inches. When joint. I have often tried to keep gerathe timber-work is finished, the straw is niums in hot-bed frames through the winfastened on in layers in the manner of ter, but could never succeed if the weathatch, and tied to the bars by rope-yarn. ther was severe.—Trans. Hort. Society. The straw used, is what is called in this Heaths.—The diminutive size of these country, reed; it is prepared by taking plants, says Mr. Phillips, their extreme the wheat in bandfuls out of the sheaf, beauty, and great variety, fit them better and beating it against a door firmly fixed for the green-house than most other on edge; by this method of threshing, the plants. Our collectors have now about straw is very little bruised except at the four hundred species of heath, of such vapoints, and is consequently preferred for rious colours and forms, as to defy the thatching. The frames are always kept pen in description ; for some species preunder shelter in summer, being perfectly sent us with little wax-like flowers, others dried before they are put up, and with with pendent pearls ; some are garnished proper care will last for several years. with coralline beads, whilst others seem When the plants are put into the piis the to mimic the golden trumpet, or tempting

berries, or porcelain of bell or boitle duced a crop of 27 tons. On the zech shape; some remind us of Lilliputian September they weighied 36 tons; and on trees, bedecked with Turkish turbans in the seventh of October the green globe miniature ; some have their slender spray weighed upwards of 40 tons. The great hung with globes like alabaster, or flowers advantage derived frow this system is, of the cowslip form : nor are their colours that those who soil are not inder tbe Deless varied than their shape ; whilst the cessity of cutting their clover crops a sefoliage is equally beautiful in its apparent cond time, which not only very much de imitation of all the mountainous trees teriorates the soil, but in some instances, from the Scottish fir to Lebanon's boasted as was the case frequently this season, it cedar, through all the tribe of pine, hardly repays the expense of cutting. It spruce, and larch, tamarisk, juniper, ar. is very possible, in good seasons, to have bor vitæ, mournful cypress, and funoreal the turnips ready for drawing in the end yew. Heath often forms the bed of the of July, since, during this most unfavourhardy Highlander. In most of the West- able of all seasons, they have been ready ern Ísles they dye their yarn of a yellow in August. If Mr. Curwen had not adoptcolour, by boiling it in water with the ed this plan during the season, he could green tops and flowers of this plant; and not possibly have continued to soil his 100 woollen cloth, boiled in alum-water, and head of very valuable short-horned cattle afterwards in a strong decoction of the at the most critical period of the year. In tops, coines out a fine orange colour. In arerage years, one acre of clover, at the some of these islands theç tan their

lea- second cutting, may be estimated at fire ther in a strong decoction of it. They tons, so that one acre of turnips is equal also use it in brewing their ale, in the to five of clover. Twelve acres of the seproportion of one part malt to two of the cond cutting of clover this year wonld young tops of heath. Boethius relates scarcely have produced 30 tons of grass. ibat this liquor was much used by the The expenses of cutting and securing the Picts. The cottagers of heathy commons clover vrould vary in different situations; cut the turf' with the heath on it, and after but the great advantage derived from turdrying it, stuck it for the fuel of their nips, and their comparative cheapness, hearth and their oren, Bees collect large- must be manifest to all; for, if clorer be ly both honey and wax from the flowers given in a succulent state to milch cows, of the heath, but it is generally of a dark the quantity consumed of turnips and clocolour. Grouse feed principally on the ver is nearly the same. If clorer be given seeds of the wild heath, for the seed in a state not sufficiently succulent, a vessels are formed so as to protect the great loss of milk inust always be es. seeds for a whole year. Cattle are not pected. Besides all these advantages, less fond of heath, although goats and sheep injury is invariably sustained by the will sometimes eat the tender shoots. ground in case of pasturage, than when

Early Turnips for Soiling.-The great cut for soiling a second time. In favourdifficulties : bich Mr. Curwen had expe- able years, Mr. Curwen's stock of cattle rienced in the soiling of his cattle during will be supplied with turnips during earthe latter part of the season, determined ly 46 weeks, and thus he will find it only him to sow bis turnips earlier, for the necessary to supply the deficiency of six porpose of supplying the deficiency of weeks with clover, vetebes, &c. It ought green food during the latter part of An- also to be reniembered, that the period gust, September, &c. With this view, he fir cutting the second crop of clover is one year sowed the yellow, white, and very important, being in general the time green turnips, during the first two weeks in of burvest. May, and his crop was without exception, Preservation of Fisk, &C.-For ensuring not only the best in his own neiglıbour- the sweetness of fish cooveyed by landhood, but was not surpassed in any part carriage, the belly of the fish sbould be either of the north of England or of Scot- opened, and the internal parts sprinkled land. On the 18th of August his turnips with powdered charcoal. The same maweighed 224 tons, and on the 30th of Au- terial will restore impure or even putregust they were 30 tons on superior soil, scent water to a state of perfect freshness. and raised with manure; and on the 2nd The iubabitants of Cadiz, who are necesSeptember they weighed 22 tons. On the sitated to keep in tanks the water for cu10th September, his turnips raised with linary uses, were first indebted to our inbones, sown a week later than the former, formant, during the late Peninsular war, weighed 224 tons, and those raised with a for the foregoing simple yet efficacious kind of manure from London, 20 tons 16 remedy of an evil which they had long stone, while the common town ashes pro- endured.

USEFUL ARTS. Descriptive Outline of the Vacuum-En- oil will be snficient for a long voyage, gine, for raising Water, impelling Ma- vessels of the largest tounage may be prochinery, &c. &c. invented by Mr. Samuel pelled to the most distant parts of the Brown, of Printing-house-square, London, world. 2dly, The engine is light and with an enumeration of some of the advan- portable in its construction, the average tages to be derived from its application.- weight being less than one-fifth the weight “This invention (as described in the spe- of a steam-engine (and boiler) of the same cification of the patent) consists of a com power ; it also occupies a much smaller bination, which is thus formed :-In- space, and does not require the erection flamınable gas is introduced along a pipe of so strong a building, nor is a lofty into an open cylinder or vessel, whilst a chimney requisite. In vessels, the saving flame, placed on the outside of and near of tonnage will be highly advantageous, the cylinder, is constantly kept burning, both in the smaller comparative weight and at the proper times comes in contact and size of the engine, and in the very with, and ignites, the gas therein ; the reduced space required for fuel. 3dly, cylinder is then closed air-tight, and the This engine is entirely free from danger. flame prevented from entering it. The No boiler being used, explosion cannot gas continues to flow into the cylinder for take place, and, as the quantity of gas a short space of time, and then is stopped consumed is so small (being only about a off ; during that time, it acts, by its com- hundredth part of the cubical contents of bustion, upon the air within the cylinder, the cylinder;) and the only pressure that and at the same time a part of the rari- of the atmosphere, it is impossible that fied air escapes throngh one or more the cylinder can burst, or the accidents valves, and thus a vacuom is effected; the incidental to steam-boats occur. The vessel or cylinder being kept cool by power of the engine (being derived from water. On the same principle, the va- the atmospheric pressure of nine pounds cuum may be effected in one, two, or and upwards to the square inch) may be more cylinders or vessels. A vacuum increased, with the dimensions of the being effected by the above combination, cylinders, to any extent, and always ascer: it will, by its application to machinery, tained by the application of a mercurial produce powers in several ways; and, in gauge. It is scarcely necessary to allude: the specification, the Inventor describes to the well known fact, that, after de. some of the different kinds of machinery ducting the friction arising from the use by which water may be raised from a of the air and cold water pumps, &c. &c., pond, river, &c.; an overshot water- the general available power of the con, wheel turned; and pistons worked which densing steam-engine is from seven to give a rotatory motion to a fly.wbeel. The eight pounds per square inch. The cost ways being therefore explained, in which, of the machine will be inoderate, particuby the pressure of the air, the vacuum larly as constructed for raising water; it produced (and continued) is applied to is therefore peculiarly adapted for drainuseful purposes, Mr. Brown claims to be ing fens, &c., or supplying reservoirs ; the Inventor of the combination above the expense of wear and tear will also be described for effecting a vaeuum, however considerably less than that of the steammuch it may be varied by the mechanical engine, and, when occasionally out of means with which it may be used, and order, it may be repaired at a trilling cost, also the inventor of applying a vacuum and with but little delay. The simplicity produced by the combustion of inflamma- of the construction of this vacuum-engine ble gas, to raising water, and to the pro- (which has been approved by several duction of motion in machinery by the eminent scientific men), and the certainty pressure of the atmosphere. The advan- of its principle, combined with the advantages to be derived from this engine are, tages above enumerated, will, it is preIstly, The quantity of gas consumed being sumed; render it eminently valuable to very small, the expense of working the the public,” engine is moderate.--In its application on On a Method of Taking Casts of Leaves laad the saving will be extremely great, anul Foliage.-3y Mr.W. Deelle.-The obthe cost of coal gas deducting the value ject I proposed in making casts similar to of the coke, being inconsiderable. The the one submitted to the Society of Arts, expense of working a marine engine will was to supply myself with fac-similes of certainly be greater, as the gas used for the form and texture of those plants, that purpose must be extracted from oil, which, as an engraver, I might have to pitch, tar, or some other substance equally introduce in the fare-ground of landportable ; yet even in this case, it will not scapes. It is well known, that those who equal the cost of the fuel required to pro- have attained eminence in landscape enpel a steam-boat; and, as a few butts of graving, lave devoted a large portion of

time to actual study in the fields. I need and patronage of the Society, supposing this practice to a man engaged in a person the probability of it even to be as great : fession demanding his own almost unas- have advised this communication. For sisted exertions, especially in a metropo- myself,' I 'have merely to say, I shall lis; nor mention how the inaptness of happy to exhibit the means to the Society, season or situation will prevent the ob- and more so, if they can discover in thes taining of such plants as may be iinme any prospect of permanent good. The diately wanted. These i circonstances following are the particulars of Mr. suggested to me the advantage, and a Deeble's process :-The leaf, as secas trial proved the practicability, of procure convenient after beiðg gathered, is to be ing, at an easy expense either of labour or laid on fine-grained moist sand in & permoney, accurate casts of the most com- fectly natural position, having that surmon and conspicuous plants; after a few face uppermost which is to form the cast, experiments, i perfected a process, which and being banked up by sand, in order tha: I will describe, that succeeded to an ex- it may be perfectly supported. It is ties, tent of which the Society may form their by means of a broad cainel-bair brush, to

own opinion from the speciinen produced. be covered over with a thin coating aí Es half the purpose I have named were the and Burgundy pitchy rendered finid-by otonly one to which casts of tbis nature , beat. The leaf being inox femored from were applicable, or if I thought that my the sand and dipped in cola vater, the 1, success was the limit of their

perfection, wax becomes bard, and at the same time I would not have troubled the Society sufficiently tough to allow the leaf to be with their consideration; but it has been ripped off without altering its form. This

imagined that practice in the operation of being done, the wax mould is placed on 1. making the moulds would lead to a de- moist sand, and bauked up as the leaf itgree of improvement of wbich my attempt self was; it is then covered with plaster gives a very inadequate idea ; and wbich of Paris made thin, care being taken that would render the casts useful for com- the plaster is accurately foreed imo all the

plesiog botanical collections, or illustrat- interstices of the mould by means of a ing botanical distinctions, and farther, camel-bair brush. As soon as the plaster that the exhibition of the varied forms bas set, the warmth thus produced softens and convolutions of flowers and leaves, in the wax, which in consequence of the such a material as plaster of Paris, would moisture of the plaster is prevented from suggest adaptations and combinations adhering thereto, and with a little deste· which might be made available to the de- rity it may be rolled up, parting comcorative purposes of architecture; and pletely from the cast, without injoring it

prevent that perpetual recurrence to ex- in the smallest degree. Casts thus obamples of antique ornament, that stigma- tained are very perfect, have a bigb relief, tises the architectural talent of modern and are excellent models eitlier for the Europe. I am not aware if these are objects dranghtsman or for the moulder of archithat would be worthy of the promotion tectural ornaments.—Trans. Soc. of Aris.

PATENTS LATELY GRANTED. Charles Random, Baron de Berenger, Kentish. E. Cartwright, of Brewer-street, Golden-square; town; for improvements as to a new method or for improvements on or additions to roller pribling» methods of applying percussion, to the purpose of presses. July 97. 1821.

igniting charges in fire-arm's generally, and in a C. Jefferis, os llevanalı Mills, and E. Drakeford, novel and peculiar manner, whereby a reduction of of Congleton; for a method of making a swift and the present high price of fire-arms can be effecied,

other apparatus thereto belonging, for the partone vi and the priming is also effectually protected against of winding silk and other fibrous naterials. Joly the influence of rain or other moisture ; such inveption and contrivances rendering the percussion W. Wheatstone, of Jermyn-street, for a mettad principle more generally applicable even to common of improving ud augmenting the tones of plano pistols, blunderbusses, and muskets, as well as to fortes, organs, and ruphonoas: July , 1821.

all sorts of sporting and other guns, by greatly re J. Price, of Stroed; for improvements in the ece. 1. ducing not only the charges of their manufaciure, struction of spinning machines, August 5, 1864 but also those impeding circumstances which per G. Graydoo, of Bath ; for a new compass for as. sogs have to encounter whilst loading or discharge vigation and other purposes. August 5, 1821. ing fire.rnis, when in darkness, or whilst exposed W. Johuson, of Great Tothan; for means of nto wet, or during rapid progress, serious impedi- evaporating traids for the purpose of copvt yung trat ments which soldiers and sailors, and consequently into buildings, for mangfacturing, horuculur, and the service, more particularly and most injuriously domestic uses, and for heating liquors in distiline experience. July 17, 1824.

brewing, and dyeing, and in baking sugar and kalt BENTA. Nesbitt, of Upper Thumele streeo; for a proress with redue & expenditure of Fuel. A ugus! 5/4824.

J. Perkins, of Fleet-street for imprarements in Into paper or fedtor any obstance auga dy pescarlating properties order improved meifod of applicable to marious useful purposes, Communi heating wuolten cloth, for the porpose of giving it cated to him by a foreigner residing abroad. July 27, a lustre in dressing. August 11, 1824. 17 T. w. Stansfield, of Leeds, for improvements in

H. Schroder, of Hackney for 4. Aker.

-- August 11. 1&24. power.looms, and the preparation of wargs for the Saime. Jaly 27, 1884.

182.

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1824.

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