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ness of fin. Of course, idolatrous and the heart will become nearly nations soon sprang from his as hard and unimpreflible as the loins. This event is recorded on flinty rock, though all duties are the pages of the inspired volume, neglected. Those truths, which as a monument of the unteacha. deeply affected the minds of the bleness of men. We may learn wicked, when they were young, from it what blindness sin infuses are often heard, in their more adinto the mind.

vanced years, with few or no feel. Blinded by fin, men are now ings of anxiety. They, who have putting darkness for light, and grown old in sin, will sit and hear light for darkness. While they the most powerful preaching, profess to receive the bible, as be- without any apparent perturbaing a revelation from God, they tion; while children and youth, explode many of its diftinguishing under the same instruction, will doctrines, and labour to modify tremble and burst into tears. others, until they make it contain This is an evidence of the increallittle or nothing, which condemns ing hardness of men's hearts. Sinthe natural pride and selfishness ners, who have passed through the of their hearts. The thought periods of childhood and youth, of departing from the truth may, and whose heads, by reason of at first, be alarming to them, and age, begin to incline toward the may subject them to many pain- grave, have long been accustomed ful upbraidings of conscience; to hear the strictness of God's law, but, through the deceitfulness of and the greatness of its penalty ; sin, they soon become hardened they have long been accustomed to in opposition to all the soul hum- hear the plain and positive duties bling do&rines of the gospel. It of the gospel stated, and, through is surprising to think with what the deceitfulness of sin, they now greediness depraved men drink hear them stated, without any in errours, and how artfully and special emotions. These duties, perseveringly they labour to ex- which were inculcated upon them tinguish the light of divine truth. in the houses of their education, When they venture to take one and which they, at first, neglected step in the path of errour, they with pain, are dispensed with, as are insensibly led to take others; they grow old in fin, without until it becomes manifelt, that the much remorse. Corresponding essential doctrines of christianity with this idea, affecting as it is, no longer have a place in their are the words of the divine Savcreed.

iour to the unbelieving and hard2. Men are liable, through the ened Jews. “ For judgment am deceitfulness of fin, to be harden- I come into this world : that they, ed in the neglect of plain and pof which see not might see ; and that itive duties.

they, which see, might be made The influence of a religious ed- blind.” ucation, on the conscience, is not 3. Through the deceitfulness commonly deítroyed at once. of lin, there is danger of being But, though it may, at first, give hardened under the folemn warnthe wicked some pain to neglect a ings of Providence. plain and positive duty; yet, On all minds affictions have through the deceitfulness of sin, one of two effects, they either all this pain will soon be removed, harden or soften. Under the rod

of correction, perforis of humbled restraints, he had to struggle hearts are made more humble, against many distrelling feelings, while the wicked increase in ftu- occasioned by his folly, and he pidity. Children and youth are was tender and affected, when seoften much more sensibly im- riously addressed on the subject ; prelled on funeral occasions, and but, by the repetition of the crime, at the houses of the dying, than he has become so hardened, that those, who are old in sin. The nothing appears to touch his former, after attending the so- heart. The same observations lemnities of a funeral, or wit- might be made in regard to all nelling the dying agonies of a vicious practices; the longer they fellow mortal, are often fo affects are indulged, the more blindness ed, as to have many serious appears to be on the minds of hours and sleepless nights. As those, who suffer themselves to they advance in years, and be- fall under their influence. come more conversant with such 5. Through the deceitfulness scenes, impressions of this kind, of fin, there is danger of becoming through the deceitfulness of fin, hardened in view of the awful are more faintly made. Hence realities of a future day of judg. there is great danger of living in ment. the world, of seeing much, and of Few persons in this land of having much done for us, only to gospel instruction, pass through be hardened in sin. ,

the season of youth, without hav. 4. Through the deceitfulness ing their moments and hours of of fin, men are prone to be hard- sober reflection. Their consciencened in the practice of vice. es are tender, and often great

Sin, unless fubdued by the fpec- ly awakened. To think seriousial power and grace of God, is ly of death, judgment, and econtinually gaining strength, as ternity makes them feel folemn; we advance in life. No sooner but, as they grow into years, do persons begin to indulge in though they may possibly have vice, than they begin to see it lose more frequent seasons of meditatits frightful appearance. In the ing on these things, yet, if they refirst instances of yielding to temp. main under the dominion of fin, tation, they experience the severe they generally meditate on them upbraidings of conscience, and with less feeling. It is the nature" feel the foree of many restraints ; of fin to make the heart more but, by persisting in vicious prac- callous, and more unimpressible. tices, they gradually stifle their Therefore, unnatural as it may consciences, and become more and appear, as finners draw nearer to more blind to their characters, and the judgment seat of Christ, their to the danger, to which they are hearts, through the deceitfulness exposed. They become so hard- of fin, are gathering hardness. ened, that they can deliberately The attentive and candid readdo things, the thought of which er of this paper will, it is presumwould once have made them ed, call to mind, and feel the Thudder. How hardened, for in- force of, the following words of stance, the intemperate man ap- the apostle Paul in his epistle to pears, after he has, for some time, the Hebrews. “But exhort one practised the sin of excessive drink- another daily, while it is called to. ing. When he first broke over day; left any of you be hardened

through the deceitfulness of fin." In Num. xvii. 19. we read of If a life of fin is attended with so "a covenant of salt.” In Lev. much danger, we ought to be vig- ii. 13. we read, “with all thine ilant in guarding against its influ- offerings thou shalt offer falt.” ence in ourselves and others. It This implied, that the covenant is the advice, yea more, it is a fol. was fure and perpetual, as Lot's emn and positive command of our wife was turned into a pillar of Saviour, Warch and pray, left ye salt to be a perpetual monument of enter into lemptation.H. divine wrath.* All salt does not

melt; the Arabs build walls and For the Panoplist. houses with blocks of salt.t There ON COVENANTING WITH GOD. is a species of salt used for mo

The word covenant has origin- ney. I In the kingdom of Tunis, ally a general meaning. Berith, is a mountain of purple falt, hard " Diatheke, and Fedus, the Hebrew, as stone. The custom of offering Greek, and Latin words, which falt with their sacrifices prevailed are translated covenant, often signi- among the Greeks and Romans, fy, teftamentum, or a will; but in as well as Israelites. general, any regulation, appoint. Homer calls salt divine, and rement, or declaration of the mind.* peatedly mentions the rite of salt,

The word sometimes Ignifies a “ The sacred offerings of the salted by law; hence the Pythagoreans de cake,” and “ facred falt from lift-iba nominated the rules given their ed urns.” Plato says* that, “ ac. 15) pupils, Diathekai.t But cove. cording to human laws, salt was 3 nant in general signifies, engage. molt agreeable to the gods;" ment or agreement.

and Pliny says that, “ the influ. The Hebrews say, “to strike a ence of salt is thought to be covenant," ferire fædus. This greatest in sacrifices, since none are doubtless took its rise from the an- performed without salted meal." cient ceremony of Ariking or slay. According to Virgil, falt was of. ing an animal to ratify the cov- fered with the sacrifice at the eniant. Probably God taught this treaty between Latinus and Ænet rite to the first inhabitants of the as, “ They Itrow the salted cora di world; hence we find it early in or meal.” different nations. “ The Cyne. Among the ancients, salt was thenses over the slaughtered 'vic- an emblem of fidelity and friend. tims took a solemn oath, and ship, and on this account used in plighted faith to each other.”Í all their covenants and sacrifices. Scripture speaks of such a ceremo. Even barbarians, after eating with ny; “ Those that have made a their enemies, keep peace invio. covenant with me by facrifice.” lace, “ remeinbering the alt." The cutting of the animal asun- Baron De Toit mentions a robder denoted that, in the fame ber, who, having broken into a manner, he who broke the cove. house, stumbled on a piece of falt; nant, should be cut asunder by this fymbol of hospitality so affect the divine vengeance.

* Rivet, Augustine, WitGus. • Leigh, Witsus, Budeus, Isocrates, + Pliny. Eschines, anu Demosthenes.

Bruce. + Grotius

• Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon * Polybius,

+ Theodoret.

ed him, that he instantly retired, was the custom even with the hea.. leaving his booty.

then ; who had never heard of the Doctor Doddridge says, that gospel, or the Saviour, or Holy people entering into covenant with Ghost. More was done. The God engage, that they will make victim was not only slain, but cut, it their care and endeavour to and torn asunder. The language tender sincere and universal obedi. was, as has been observed, “If I ence to all the intimations and am not sincere, may I, like this discoveries of his will, not mak bleeding lamb, or mangled dove, ing a reserve in favour of any sin be separated and torn asunder by whatever.

the judgments of God.” This was Thus Abram forsook his coun- not all. “ Every sacrifice was try, his kindred, his father's house, salted with falt.” A token, a his all. Thus when God after- pledge of inviolable love, of eterward renewed covenant with him, nal friendship, was employed. A he said, “I am the Almighty covenant was an oath of fidelity. God, walk before me and be thou Every thing was done to express perfe&t."

cordiality, to give weight and imFrom these brief remarks we fee portance to the transaction. The what is professed in entering into customs of men, and the rites of covenant with God. There is an God were united ; heaven and engagement to be the Lord's. It earth lent their aid to render a is devoting one's self, unreservedly covenant valid, binding, and folto God. A direct appeal is made emn. Blood and salt, types of to God. Omniscience is called the atonement of Christ, and the to witness the sincerity of the soul. saving faith of the gospel, were usTo affe& the perfon, to rouse his ed. When we enter into coveattention, to impress and pene- nant we do, therefore, declare by trate his heart, there was in the the Saviour's blood, that we are Jewilh mode of covenanting, cere. the Lord's. In sealing this covemony, pomp, and folemnity. nant we virtually eat the body and Signs and symbols were used. A drink the blood of the Son of harmless beast was killed ; blood God; if unworthy, we eat and and death were invoked as uit- drink judgment to ourselves. nesses of the august scene. This



THE MISCHIEVOUS DOCTRINE OF the welfare of society; and the

EXPEDIENCY EXPOSED. world is all in all.” From the Rev. R. Hall's Fast Serinon of Oet The following passage, with 1893. p. 42, 51.]

which the discussion on the subMr. Hall enters into a full con- ject of expediency closes, and in sideration of that fashionable sys- which Mr. Hall expresses with tem of expediency, by which“ re- uncommon strength and precision, ligion is degraded from its pre- views, which we ourselves have eminence into the mere handmaid long entertained, would do honour of social morality; social moralito the pen, even of a Burke. ty into an instrument of advancing “As this fashion of reducing

every moral question to a calcula- to the same thing at the foot of the tion of expedience is a most im- account. Hence that intrepidity portant innovation, it would be in guilt, which has cased the strange if it had not produced a hearts of the greatest adepts in change in the manners of society. this system as with triple brass. In fact, it has produced an entire. Its seeds were sown by some of ly new cast of character, equally these, with an unsparing hand, in remote from the licentious gaiety France, a congenial soil, where of high life, and the low profliga- they produced a quick vegetation. cy which falls under the lash of The consequences were soon felt. the law: a race of men distin- The fabrick of society tottered to guished by a calm and terrible fe- its base ; the earth shook under rocity, resembling Cæsar in this their feet; the heavens were inonly, that as it was said of him, volved in darkness, and a voice, they have come with sobriety to more audible than thunder, called the ruin of their country. The upon them to desist. But ungreatest crimes no longer issue moved amidst the uproar of elefrom the strongest passions, but ments, undismayed by that voice, from the coolest head. Vice and which astonishes nature and apimpiety have made a new con: pals the guilty, these men continquest, and have added the regions ved absorbed in their calculations. of speculation to their dominion. Instead of revering the judgThe patrons of impurity and li- ments, or confessing the finger centiousness have put on the cloak of God, they only made more of the philosopher ;' maxims the haste; (still on the principle of ex. most licentious have found their pediency) to desolate his works, way into books of pretended mo- and destroy his image, as if they rality, and have been inculcaled were apprehensive the shades of with the airs of a moral sage.* a' premature night might fall and “ A callous indifference to all mo- cover their victims! ral distinctions is an almost insep- « But it is time to conclude this arable effect of the familiar appli

discussion, which has perhaps, alcation of this theory.”. “Crimes

ready fatigued by its length. I and virtues are equally candidates for approbation, nor must the

cannot help expressing my ap

prehension, that this desecration heart betray the least preference,

of virtue, this incessant dominawhich would be to prejudge the

tion of physical over moral ideas, cause ; but must-maintain a sa

of ideas of expedience over those cred neutrality, till expedience, of ri

of right, having already dethronwhose hand never trembles in the

ed religion, and displaced virtue midst of the greatest horrours, has.

from her ancient basis, will, if it weighed in her impartial balance their consequences and effects.

be suffered to proceed, ere long

shake the foundation of states, and In the mean time they are equally candidates, we repeat it, for our

endanger the existence of the cir

ilized world. Should it ever be approbation, and equally entitled to it, provided the passions can be

come popular, should it ever de

scend from speculation into comdeceived into an opinion, and this

mon life, and become the practiis not difficult, that they will come

cal morality of the age, we may • The unholy speculations of Mr. apply to such a period the awful Godwin are founded entirely on this words of Balaam ; IT'ho shall me

when God doth this? No imagina


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