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Confidering the end of their converfation, FOLLOW THEIR FAITH. ZUINGLIUS.
To the Editors of the Panoplist. FROM the first appearance of your proposals, I confidered your object feasonable, and your plan good; and the execution of it thus far has exceeded my expectations. Among the excellent productions, which have appeared in the various departments of your work, Z, in your last number, "On the neglect of the old Divines," has my particular approbation. No fubject could have been more happily chofen, none more applicable to the prefent times. It is treated with a degree of feriousness, perfpicuity and judgment, which pleafes me. I with the writer, who certainly has happy talents for the purpose, would purfue his fubject, and in future numbers of the Panoplift, bring up to view, in his engaging manner, the characters and writings of the venerable fathers of New England, and eminent divines in other parts of our country. Thefe luminaries, could they be exalted into view, according to their respective merits, would fhed a benign influence on the principles and morals of your readers, and be especially falutary to our youth in the forming feafon of their lives.
In the mean time, feeling a deep intereft in the fubject, and finding it comports with your plan to felect from "valuable productions," already extant, I have extracted from the private (M. S.) Lectures of Dr. DoDDRIDGE, to his theological pupils, the character he gives of the old
These Lectures have never been printed, not having been written for the press.
divines; of the writings of thofe men, from whom our fathers descended, whose evangelical principles they embraced, and whofe pious fpirit they breathed. The opinion of Dr. Doddridge will defervedly weigh much in favour of thefe pious, and many of them learned, authors. His lectures appear to have been defigned only as heads, which in the delivery he probably clothed in different language, and on which he doubtlefs enlarged. I have made a few verbal alterations from the M. S. merely to complete elliptical fentences, without, in any inftance, changing the fenfe.
Of Practical Writers, in Great Britain.
I WOULD in general recommend fome acquaintance with them, too often defpifed. Yet there was good fenfe and learning in our fathers' days as well, as in ours. Our grandmothers had beauty in their odd dresses.
'BOLTON had been a notorious finner reclaimed by a great work of terrour; therefore is excellent both for conviction and confolation. His ftyle is rather inclined to the bombaftick; yet he has many expreffions truly great and magnificent. The beauties of imagination efpecially appear in his "Four laft things;" but his moft ufeful treatifes are his "Directions for comfortably walking with God," and his comforting diftreffed confciences; there we have the trace of a foul most intimately acquainted with God.
HALL was the most elegant and polite writer of his age. He abounds rather too much with antithefes and witty turns. In fome
imitated Auftin and Seneca. His fermons are the worse for his compliance with the taste of the age in which he lived. His Contemplations are incomparably valuable for criticism, language and devotion; next to them are his "Meditations," "Letters," and "Balm of Gilead."
of his writings he feems to have weakens the caufe. His "Golden Remains" and additional tracts, are all to be read. None fhew the man more than his "Chrif tian Omnipotence." NONCONFORMISTS
REYNOLDS, is celebrated for moft elaborate, furprising fimilitudes. His ftyle is remarkably laconick; a world of fubftance gently touched upon, which fhews an extenfive acquaintance with human nature, and much labour. He has a judicious collection of fcriptures.
SIBBS. His language is decent and nervous, his dedications furprisingly handfome; he is pathetick and tender, efpecially in "The bruifed Reed," and "Soul's Conflict."
WARD. To be read through. His language is generally proper, elegant, and nervous; his thoughts well digefted and happily illuftrated. Abundance of the bolder figures of fpeech are to be found in him, more than in any other English author; efpecially - apoftrophies, dialogifms, and allegories. A mixture of fancy is to be pardoned, especially confidering his youth, and that many of his fermons were not prepared for the prefs, but copied from his mouth while preaching.
HALES, of Eaton, is remarkably pithy; has many uncommon thoughts; vaft learning, and many curious paffages, fit for a common place book, but in many places he difcovers little judgment, no good order, little true connection. He is the great fcholar; but an affectation of divine things to the utmost is too apparent; which by overdoing
OF THE LAST
"OWFN and GOODWIN, are highly evangelical, but both very obfcure, especially the latter. Owen's ftyle refembles St. Paul's zeal; he difplays much knowledge of human life, efpecially in his book of apoftacy. That on the Hebrews is his great work; the means of understanding the mind of God in the fcripture is one of his beft; but communion of God and perfon of Chrift, most celebrated. His treatifes on in dwelling fin, fpiritual mindedness, and mortification, fhew great improvements in practical religion. On the 130th pfalm he is excellent. GOODWIN's pieces publifh. ed in his life are most valuable; he has many accurate and valua His ble remarks on fcripture. "Child of Light" is ufeful for afflicted confciences; and he has many uncommon thoughts.
'BAXTER. His ftyle is inaccurate, becaufe he had no regular education, and because he wrote continually in the views of eternity; but he is judicious, nervous, fpiritual, and remarkably evangelical, though often charg ed to the contrary. He discovers a manly eloquence, and the most evident proofs of an amazing genius; with respect to which, he may not improperly be called the English Demofthenes. He is exceedingly proper for conviction; fee his "Saints' Reft;" all his treatifes on converfion, and efpecially his "Call to the Unconverted," "Divine Life," and "Counfels to Young Men." Few converted more fouls.
. MANTON. Plain, eafy, and un- He has fome fine words, but no cadence. He has too many heads; his thoughts are often in diforder; has no clear and diftinct ideas in many of the differences he makes. Yet he has fome valuable things, efpecially on the attributes, where he is very deep and fublime. His work on regeneration has been much applauded, yet there are many things on that fubject more valuable.
affected. His thoughts generally well digested, but feldom extraordinary; his remarks on fcripture are judicious; his chief work is that on the 119th Pfalm. His many pofthumous works are little value.
BATES. His eloquence is charming, yet his ftyle is not perfectly formed, and his fentences too thort; admirable fimilies, unlefs rather too thick; proper to be quoted by thofe whofe genius does not lead them this way. Read his "Harmony of Attribates," "Spiritual Perfections," and "Four laft things."
HOW, feems to have underflood the gospel as well as any uninfpired writer, and to have imbibed as much of its fpirit. The
For the Panoplist.
trueft fublime is to be found in PROOFS OF THE UNIVERSAL DELUGE. No. 3.
his writings, and fome of the ftrongest pathos; yet he is often obfcure, and generally harfh; he imitated the worst part of Boyle's ftyle; but has a vaft variety of uncommon thoughts; and on the whole, is one of the most valuable writers in our language and I believe, in the world. His beft pieces are, "The blefjedness of the Righteous." "Enmity and Reconciliation," "Redeemer's Tears," and "Redeemer's Dominion;"
with fome funeral fermons.
'FLAVEL. Not deep, nor remarkably judicious; but plain, popular, tender, and proper to address to afflicted cafes, and to melt the foul in love. His "Token for Mourners," inimitable. "Fountain of Life" useful; most of the fubjects there are proper to be preached on facrament days. His allufions to pagan ftories are useful.
'CHARNOCK, is celebrated for a polite writer, but chiefly by thofe who are not judges of politeness.
Vol. I. No. 3.
" TAYLOR NATHANIEL, the dif fenting SOUTH. He has vaft wit, and great ftrength of expreffion, yet is apt to aggravate matters. His language is remarkably proper and beautiful. He wrote but little; all deferves to be read.' (To be continued.)
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Noah's flood increases. As we proceed, evidence of It was not merely mentioned by many writers of antiquity; but was a favourite object of their attention. There were not only references to this event in the rites and traditions of the first ages; but it furnithed the principal obiects of their facred traditions and religious worthip. The deluge was ftantly celebrated not only in the annals of their hiftorians; but in the prayers of their devotees, the facrifices of their priests, and the fongs of their bards. Moft of the tions of the earth, rifing from the pagan goddeffes were perfonificabillows of the flood, of the ark, of the dove, or of the divine Wisdom preferving the ark.*
Nimrod introduced the worship of the heavenly bodies. This attached to the arkite idolatry, or produced oppofition from those,
See Faber ou the Cabiri.
the worshippers of the ark. By the day on which Noah embark
degrees, however, the two great fuperftitions were blended. Noah and the fun were worshipped to gether, and often confidered as the fame; fo were the moon and the ark. Early the Chaldeans were famous for their aftronomical obfervations, and they contrived fo to marshal the stars, as to reprefent on the sphere the principal events of the deluge. Some of these we have mentioned. Others occur. From the brilliant conftellation of Orion, Nimrod ftill overlooks the affairs of mortals, encountering the arkite bull; that is, making an attack on the worfhip of Noah, to introduce that of the heavenly luminaries. The great constellation of the Dragon was another memorial of the deluge, infcribed on the fphere. According to Aratus, the Dragon or ferpent was Jupiter, who was Noah. This was not very unlike the urbanity of more modern days in the names of the Julium and Georgium Sidus.
The two faces and four eyes of Janus reprefented the double view of Noah into the old and new world. According to the poets, Venus rofe from the fea. She was the ark of Noah: and hence the dove was faid to be her favourite. From her being the ark perfonified, Venus was called Arfinoe, and Baris-Noe, that is, the ark of Noah, and Hippodamia, the arkite mother.*
Plutarch relates that Ofiris, which is another name of Noah, was a husbandman, a legiflator, and zealous advocate for the worship of the gods. Typhon, or the fea, confpired against him, and compelled him to enter an ark on the feventeenth of Athyr,
Strab: Voss: Hesych:
We have before obferved that the arkite worship once prevailed in Britain. One of the Scottish ifles retains its Egyptian name, Buto. Another, Arran, fignifies the ark. Mona, and Menai its Frith, are probably variations of Men-Ai, the land of Menu, or Noah. Probably Argyle in Scotland, received its name from Argh Al, the god of the ark. The Scots have a wild tradition that they are defcended from Erc, the fon of Scota. Scota is the ark. Scuth or Scudh, or, when latinized, Scota, fignifies in the Celtick dialect, a fhip.
The ruins of a very ancient temple in Ireland, have the exact form of a galley. The name of the temple fignifies, "the remains of the only fhip." A portable fhrine or ark was ufed by the ancient, idolatrous Irith; it was denominated, the ark of the covenant. Ireland was, perhaps, called Erinnus in honour of Aran-Nus, the ark of Noah. The Irish once called their principal marine deity, Mann, and had a romantick legend of his prefiding over the life of Man.
According to Tacitus, the Goths were acquainted with the history of Noah. They venerated Zuifto, or Adam, who, according to their traditions, fprang from the earth; they also venerated Mannus, who had three fons. Through Hindoftan the fame perfonage was revered under the name of Menu; in Egypt he was called Menes, and attended by the fymbolical bull. He with feven other Menies was fuppofed to have fucceeded "ten lords of created beings, eminent in holiness."
These were probably the ten generations in the line of Seth. The ancient Germans facrificed to Ifis; a fhip formed the fymbolical part of their worship. The two fymbols, the bull and ferpent were equally familiar in the North of Europe, in Greece, Italy, and Egypt. The Egyptians obferved two annual feftivals in honour of Ofiris; one to perpetuate the remembrance of his enclosure in the ark; in the celebration of this, they placed his ftatue in an ark. The other was a commemoration of his deliverance. According to Paufanius, Ofiris with Semole, was enclofed in an ark, and thrown into the fea. Another tradition represents Perfeus, placing his daughter with her child in an ark, and cafting them into the fea. Noah was worshipped under the name of Pan. Herodotus fays he was the most ancient of the eight gods of Egypt. Diodorus Siculus informs us, he was the fame as Serapis, Ofiris, Dionufus, Pluto, Ammon, and Jupiter. By Livy and Macrobius, he is denominated Inuus and Junus, from his connexion with the dove, Junch. By the Egyptians he was worshipped under the name of Mendes or Men-Deva, the divine Noah. When in danger from the ocean, he is faid to have affumed the form of a monster, a goat and a fifh; hence Pan was esteemed fynonymous with Cetus, a fea monster. The three fabulous fates, the three furies, and the three judges of hell, were connected with the myfteries of the ark. The furies were called Erinnues, a word dẹrived from Aron-Nus, the ark of Noah. The fates were denomi. nated, P' Area, the ark. The judges were the three fons of Noah. Minos was the Menu of Hindoftan, and the Menes of E
gypt. Rhadamanthus fignifies the god of the lordly ark.
The city of Corinth derived its name from the worship of Cor, the fun. It was founded by the Aletes, faid by Sanchoniathon to be the children of Chronus, the fcriptural Noah. So the two great Rajah families of Hindoof tan, ftyled themfelves Surya-Bans and Chandra-Bans, or children of the fun and moon. In Peru, the fame notion prevailed; the Yncas boasted of their defcent from the fun and moon; or from Noah and the ark, who were worshipped with the fun and moon.
In Armenia, according to Nicolaus Damafcenus, a tradition had conftantly prevailed that fome ancient perfonage had been conveyed in an ark to the fummit of mount Baris or Lubar; a city there bore the name of Cabira, in which was a temple of the arkite moon, called Pharnæum, or the ark of the ocean. This fuperftition flourished in the time of Strabo. We have the authority of Palephatus, that Pegafus, the winged horfe of Bellerophon was an ark or long fhip. Bellerophon, therefore, muft have been Noah. The Greeks defignated a temple and fhip by the fame word. At Tarfufa, tradition of the del uge prevailed. It afferted that the Tauric mountains were first vifible when the waters fubfided, at the feet of which ftood the city Tarfus; hence it was called Polis Terfia, or the city of dryness; af terward it was called Tarfus The river Araxes in this country, received its name in honour of Arach, the Ark. The island of Naxus received its name in honour of Nuach-Zeus, the god Noah.
We have remarked that certain cups of the ancients had an allufion to the ark. We now add