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dition of that country, that Noah built the ark on the fummit of this mountain, that when the flood abated, this fummit first appeared, and was the refting place of the dove. The ark itself, fay they, refted half way up the mountain, on a projecting plain of fmall ex


The Pauranicks infift, that as it is declared in their facred books, that Satyavrata, or Noah, made falt the ark to the famous peak, called Nau-Bandha, from Nau, a fhip, and Bandha, to make faft, that, therefore, he must have built it in the adjacent country. The famous peak is in Cafhmir, three days journey to the northnortheast of the Purganats of Lar. It is the refort of pilgrims from all parts of India, who climb up the rocks, to a cavern, the limit of their afcent. A few doves, frightened with the noife, fly from rock to rock; these the pilgrims suppose to be their guides to the holy place, and that they are the genuine defcendants of the dove that Noah let out of the ark.

The mountains of Coh-Suleiman are sometimes by the natives called the mountains of the dove. The whole range as far as Gazni is called by Ptolemy the Paruetoi mountains, probably from Parvata, or Paravat, which fignifies a dove. According to the Pauranicks, and the followers of Buddha, the ark refted on the mountain Aryawart, a name not unlike the Araraut of fcripture. A tomb at Naulakhi, the Bandhifts fuppofe, contains the bones of Buddha-Narayana, or Buddah dwelling in the waters; but the Hindoos denominate tho perfon Mach'hodar-Nath, or the fovereign prince in the belly of the fish. This re


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fers to Noah; by the belly of the fish, fays Wilford, they understand the cavity or infide of the ark. In China we find the fame evidence of the flood. Near Pekin is a temple called Maha-Cala-Myau, from its chief deity Maha-Cala, or the great arkite cavity.

Plato gives a particular account of Atlantis. He fays it was peopled by one pair, who were formed from the earth; that the island was divided into ten parts, the number of their pofterity. Thefe were at first remarkable for their piety, and were the favourites of heaven. Afterward they were guilty of all kinds of violence and impurity. Jupiter overwhelmed the ifland with the waves of the fea, and deftroyed the people Cofmas Indico Pleuftes relates that when the island was buried in the waters, Noah efcaped to the continent in an ark. The first pair, formed from the ground, were doubtless Adam and Eve. The ten defcendants were doubtlefs the ten generations preceding the flood.

As the deluge was univerfal, the ftory of the Atlantians is univerfal. Hence we find an Atlas in Phenicia, and in Arcadia, as well as in the island Atlantis. The widely extending traditions of this ifland prove that a remembrance of the flood was preserved in every quarter of the globe.

As the finking of the Phlegyan ifle, and the fubmerfion of Atlantis, relate to the deluge; fo the Chinese have preferved a fimilar tradition refpecting the pious Peiruun, and the island Maurigafima.

Maurigafima, fays Kempfer, was anciently famous for its fertility. The inhabitants became rich; this produced luxury and contempt of religion. The gods

were angry and determined to deftroy the whole island. But Peiruun the king of the island, being upright and godly, the decree of the gods was revealed to him in a dream; and he was commanded to flee to his fhips, and. leave the island, as foon as the faces of the two idols in the temple fhould become red. Immediately he published an account of the ruin coming on the ifland, and the figns of its approach, by which they might fave themfelves. His fubjects ridiculed him for his fuperftitious belief; by his zeal he became contemptible. Sometime after, to make sport for his companions and to ridicule the king, a vain and impious fellow went in the night, and painted the faces of the idols red. In the morning news was carried to the king, who, fuppofing it a miracle, went on board his fhips with all his family, and failed for China. Soon after his departure, the island funk, and the fcoffer, little thinking his frolick would coft him fo dear, with all the remaining inhabitants, was 'overwhelmed by the waves of the fea. The king and his friends reached the thore of China in fafety, where the memory of his arrival is now celebrated by a yearly feftival. In the maritime provinces the people divert themselves on the water, rowing up and down in their boats, as if they were preparing for flight, and fometimes crying, [From Doddridge's MS Lectures, continued Peiruun with a loud voice. The fame festival has been introduced


from page 105.] LECTURE III.

into Japan, where it is now cele- Diffenting Teachers of the prefent

brated. Thus while the Greeks and Phenicians worthipped the great patriarch Noah, under the name of Atlas, the Chinese revered him under the title of Peiruun, or P'Arun, the arkite.

By Apollodorus we are inform



ed, that Jupiter ordained, that every oath taken by Styx, the daughter of Oceanus, fhould be inviolable. If any of the gods fwore falfely by this river, he loft his divinity for a hundred years. This honour was put on Styx, be caufe fhe had affifted with all her children in the war against the Titans. The Titans seem to have been the whole race of mankind living at the time of the flood; one of them is called Ja Fetus. Styx then must be the deluge, perfonified. Confequently the inviolable cath of Jupiter muft refer to the oath of God, that he would no more drown the world. Accordingly, Iris is reprefented by Hefiod as hovering over the ocean when the oath of Jupiter was taken. Iris is the rainbow. Here then is another minute coincidence between Gentile and Jewifh hiftory, concerning the flood. Mofes exprefsly informs us that the phenomenon of the rainbow appeared immediately after the deluge, and was vifible, as a fpecial fign of the irrevocable oath of God to Noah. To perpetuate the memory of the awful event, the title of Styx was given to a fountain in Arcadia, or the land of the divine ark.

* Faber.



For the Panoplist.


EVANS. His ftyle is grave, plain, manly, and nervous. His heads are always diftin&t and well arranged; fcripture is properly collected, and thoughts especially in the application, clofely thrown

together. His fermons to young people are scarce and valuable, and his "Chriftian Temper" is one of the best practical pieces in our language. WRIGHT, has great fimplicity, and awful folemnity. His writings compofe the thoughts, and gradually elevate them. His heads are distinct, and his sentences comprehenfive. His words are elegant and well chofen, but cadence is little regarded. He is always mafter of himself. He gives plain intimation of many thoughts fuppreffed. His fentiments are candid and rational. His "Book of Regeneration," is remarkably acceptable, and one of the most useful publications of the age. His "Deceitfulness of Sin" fhews great knowledge of mankind, and is admirably adapted to prevent the ruin of young people, many inftances of which were before his eyes. His "Great Concern" is very comprehenfive, and much preferable to the "Whole duty of Man." His fubfequent treatifes are not fo valuable, nor his collection of fcripture fo judicious as was expected.

WATTS, is exceedingly different from Wright. His ftyle is harmonious, florid, poetical and pathetick; yet too diffufe. He has too many words, efpecially in his laft works, and his former are rather overloaded with epithets, yet on the whole they are excellent. All his writings are worth reading, but I most admire his first volume of fermons, "Death and Heaven," "The Love of God," and "Humble Attempt," not to mention his incomparable "Lyrick Poems," and "Hymns." +3

GROVE resembles Watts, but is not equally poetical. He has many judicious and new thoughts, Vol. I. No. 4.


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great ferioufnefs, and, in former pieces, fweetnefs; but his latter pieces are foured by his exceffive averfion to calvinifm. His "Friendly Monitor," "Book on Secrét Prayer," and several fermons are very valuable; and also his book on the "Sacrament," though much exceeded by Henry and Earl, for common use.

HENRY, is very peculiar; his ftyle is concife and pointed, he has many antithefes and little fancies, his heads beginning with the fame letters, or chiming words, yet fometimes naturally. His has great ferioufnefs, and many fprightly thoughts, digefted in very good order. His "Commentary" is excellent, though rather too large, and his interpretations, though judicious, have too much of the typical and allegorical. His "Notes on Hiftory," and the "Import of original Words," are the most entertaining things, taken from Patrick, Pool, Jofephus, Calvin, and many more; defpifed by thofe only, who do not know them. His difcourfes on "Meeknefs," "The Sacrament," and "Early Piety," are very good. His style is formed on fcripture, to which he has many allufions.

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To the above authors the tranfcriber adds,

DODDRIDGE; An author, who for juftness and sprightliness of thought, clearness of method, propriety and beauty of ftyle is equal, if not fuperior, to any of the foregoing. His writings befpeak him to be a gentleman, a fcholar, and a lively christian. His free thoughts, written in a genteel and handsome manner, are a fine specimen of purity, and elegance of language. He is remarkably happy in the introduction of his pieces; his fermons on education, and that on perfect tion, are the beft on thofe fubjects; thofe on the evidences of christianity give an admirable, though compendious view of the argument; thofe On Regeneration are excellent, but his "Rife and Progress" is most admired, and is indeed one of the best and most useful books, that this or perhaps any age has produced. His great work is the "Family Expofitor," in which both the scholar and chriftian will find the richest entertainment. All his works have met with a most remarkable acceptance, many of them have been tranflated into feveral languages, and will doubtlefs be held in the higheft eftimation, while good fenfe, candour or religion have any esteem among us. (To be continued.)

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SIN is the oppofite of holiness; and, as the latter is often describ. ed under the figure of light, the former is fitly reprefented by darkness. The deceitfulness of fin was made to appear, as foon as it was introduced into this

world. The tempter, the father of lies, faid to our firft parents, "Ye shall not surely die." They ate, and no fooner did they eat, than they experienced the deceit fulness of fin. The alluring bait, laid before them, effected their tuin. In the moment of tranf greffing, they loft, what all the world could not make up to them, the enjoyment of God. Inftead of poffeffing uprightnefs of intention, they were brought under the influence of a "deceived heart." This deceived heart led them to fhun the light, and to refort to refuges of lies.

Viewing fin as that, which blinds the mind, it is easy to conceive that it has a direct tendency to destroy our happiness in this life, and to make us wretched in the life to come. Our minds are formed to be continually progreffing either in fin or holinefs. If they are illuminated by the spirit of God, we grow in grace and in the knowledge of divine things; but, if they are under the influence of finful lufts, we are continually making advances in wickedness, and growing more and more hardened in the way of deftruction. While we are in a state of nature, unbelief is always gaining ftrength, and our hearts are gathering hardness, like the clay, which is expofed to the penetrat ing rays of the fummer's fun. With refpect to our characters, we are never ftationary. We are adding, every day of our lives, to that folemn account, which we muft shortly render to Him, who has been dealing out mercies to us, from the commencement of our exiftence, and whofe faithful nefs has been expreffed to us in feafonable warnings and corrections. With whatever fcenes we are converfant, with whatever


company we affociate, and whatever are the exercises of minds, our characters are continually forming. How great the danger of living only to fill up the measure of our iniquity, and of fuffering ourselves to be hardened through the deceitfulness of fin!

It may here be observed, 1. There is danger, through the deceitfulness of fin, of our becoming hardened in oppofition to the effential doctrines of the gofpel.

Although the depravity of men has its feat in the heart, and not in the reafoning powers, yet, through the corruption of the heart, their understanding becomes darkened. Whatever they are unwilling to believe, they are eafily perfuaded to reject. They will boldly reprobate, as unworthy of their belief, truths, which are infinitely interesting to them, merely because they are not congenial to their selfish hearts. It is owing to the deceitfulness of fin, that fo many of the prefent inhabitants of the earth are living in the belief of grofs errours. Light has been ex"hibited to the world; but, depraved men have loved darkness rather than light. Nations, which have been favoured with the pure and fublime truths of God's word, have exchanged them for errours, and plunged into the darkness of heathenifm. The truth of this obfervation is ftrikingly evinced by the history of the defcendants of Noah. This preacher of righteoufnefs was in poffeffion of divine truth, and he faithfully proclaimed it, to his children; but, they, at least the moft of his immediate defcendants, fuffered themselves to be hardened, through the deceitful

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