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Luther accordingly received a him, that he might succeed in citation on the 7th of April, to getting him into the power of appear before the Pope, at Rome, his master. Luther being unwithin sixty days, to answer for 'suspicious, was almost ensnared; his opinions. He instantly per- but being cautioned by his 'ceived the danger that awaited friends, he determined not to him, that he must either retract
wait on the Cardinal till he had or perish; but when his own received the Emperor's safe concourage would have led him to duct. This crafty Italian was obey the summons, his friend, thus again disappointed, and the élector of Saxony, whose, obliged to dissemble his chasanction the 'Pope wished to re- grin. ceive in this measure, had the
Luther appeared in his presinfluence to procure a change of
ence on the 12th of October, the place of his appearance to and would have spoken on his Augsburg, where a legate from knees, but the Cardinal raised Rome was soon to meet with the him up, patiently and calmly lisdiet of the empire. This diet tened to him, and promised to 'was to be assembled in October, make his peace with the Pope on and cardinal Cajetan, whom the three conditions, that he rePope had nominated his legate, 'tracted his heretical opinions received a commission to ter about indulgences ;-that he minate Luther's affair, if possi- avoided them in future ;-and ble, without noise ; to shew him that he should abstain from every every kindness if he recanted; thing that might disturb the but if he refused to give himself church.
Luther's defence of up, to demand him of the elec- himself was unanswerable. Cator, in order to have him convey- jetan, who attempted to reply, ed to Rome ; and if the elector so deeply felt his own inferiority refused, to excommunicate Lu- in point of argument, as to be ther and all his adherents. Having provoked to threaten him with received 'assurances of protec- the power of Rome. In departtion from the elector, so as to ing from his character of judge, prevent him from being carried and becoming a party in the disto Rome, Luther set out for pute, Cajetan committed a fault Augsburg on foot, and after a which was irretrievable, and alter painful journey, arrived there on several unsuccessful attempts to the 8th of October. The letters silence the intrepid Saxon reof recommendation which he former by the arts of sophistical carried to the senate and princi- reasoning, thought it prudent to pal inhabitants, from Frederic, try what effect the solicitations of made them anxious to obtain his friends might have. Accord-, forbim à safe conduct from ingly, after having received with the emperor. They succeeded, disdain, a submissive letter from to the mortification of Cajetan, Luther, which contained the who expected to have Luther en- strongest declarations of subject tirely in his power. Scarcely tion to the judgment of the was he arrived, when he was visa church, and earnest prayers to ited by a domestic of the cardi- the Legate to intercede for hiin Dal's, who caressed and flattered with the Pope, Cajetan, afraid of,
suffering on account of the un- Luther retired more determined favourable termination of this than before, to oppose her enbusiness, sent for Staupitz, and 'croachments; and the wrath of directed him to exert all the in- man was thus made to praise the fluence of his age, authority, Lord, by the effect which it had persuasion, and affection with his in strengthening the foundations heretical friend. A mind that of the Reformed religion. can resist the frowns of power, Luther, though delivered may be subdued by the smiles of from immediate danger, by escafavour. Staupitz was more "ping from Augsburg, was by no successful than he expected; means free from anxiety and and though his solicitations did apprehension even at Wittemnot prevail on Luther to retract, berg, whither he retired, and they had the effect of making where, till that time, he had enhim write to the Cardinal, asking joyed' a secure retreat. The pardon for the disrespect with general integrity and generosity which he had spoken of the of Frederic, supported the hope Pope, promising silence, if his of his continued patronage ; but, adversaries were equally moder- on the other hand, his political ate ; but steadily refusing to re- prudence, and the fear of resistcant, or submit his opinions to ing the papal court,might induce the dogmas of the schoolmen. him to withdraw his protection.
While he waited the effect of Luther, therefore, began to think this letter, he prepared an appeal of some other asylum, and cast from the Pope, to the Pope bet- his eyes on France, to which, ter informed; but after remain- when at Augsburg, he had been ing four days without receiving invited by the ambassador of any answer from the Cardinal, Francis I.; and where the faculhe began to suspect, that this to- ty of Paris had formerly opposed, tal silence portended violence to not altogether without success, his person, in consequence of the all-grasping domination of which, having put his appeal into Rome: The Elector, when inthe hands of a notary public, and formed of this, determined still written an excuse to the Legate, to protect him, and prevailed on he left Augsburg, on the 19* or him to remain at Wittemberg. 201 of October, by a private gate, To this he was instigated not which one of the magistrates di- merely by affection for Luther rected to be opened for him. At and his opinions, but by the comNuremberg he first learned the bined inHuence of policy and extent of the danger to which he resentment ;-policy, lest the had been exposed, by being university should be deprived of shown a copy of the brief which its brightest ornament, and reCajetan had received, ordering sentment, on account of a letter him to be arrested, and forcibly which he had received from conducted to Rome,
Cajetan, requiring him čither Such was the result of the con- to send Luther to Rome, or banference at Augsburg. Rome ish him from his dominions. Inwas disappointed of her aims; stead of adopting lenient meas
ures, the Pope still farther widenBeausobre, Milner. ed the breach, by issuing a bull,
which, without mentioning Lu- The indignation of God is risen ther's name, condemned his ten- upon thee to the utmost height, ets in the most unambiguous which thou hast but too well demanner, by commanding all his served : Far from receiving any vassals, high and low, secular advantage from
secular advantage from the prayers, and ecclesiastic, to acknowledge, which have been made for thee, under pain of excommuni- thou hast become more wicked cation, his power of delivering by their means. The wounds from the guilt and punishment of Babylon have been dressed, of every kind and degree of sin. but she has not been healed. This imprudent and impolitic Let us now desist, let her be the step gave an increased celebrity resort of dragons, evil spirits, to Luther, as the persecuted and monsters ; let her remain in combatant of that arbitrary pow- everlasting confusion. She is er, which disregarded the senti- full of idols, of misers, of traitments of Germany concerning ors, of apostates, of infamous indulgences, and endeavoured persons, of robbers, of sinners ; to establish them in opposition and is, as it were, a new Panto that general indignation, which theon of iniquity. Farewel, their abuse, and the scandalous reader; pardon my grief, and lives of their venders had excit- compassionate it.” ed. Convinced that the violence Meanwhile, Leo became senof Rome at that time prevented sible of the imprudence of havany sort of accommodation, Lu- ing entrusted the management ther on the 28th of Nov. appeal- of this cause to Cardinal Cajecd from the Pope to a general tan; and resolved to adopt meacouncil ; thus practically assert- sures of a more soothing nature, ing the superiority of the latter in order to accomplish by modeover the former.
ration, what violence had at. The extravagance of the ten- tempted in vain. With this ets, which Prierias, in a defence view, Charles de Miltitz, a Sax. of his first treatise, about this on knight of the ancient house time published, was so exces. of Misnia, and chamberlain of sive, that even the court of honour to the Pope, was sent inRome was displeased, and em- to Germany about the end of ployed every mean to prevent 1518, under pretext of private its circulation ; but Luther im- business, but in reality to execute mediately discerning the advan- the purpose of his master. The tage that might be taken of it, knowledge of this new appointas the best mode of refutation, ment alarmed the Elector for caused it to be re-printed at the safety of Luther, whom, as Wittemberg, with the addition being a monk, and of course of a preface and a few notes, in amenable to the papal authority, which he expressed himself he durst hardly promise to pro. more vehemently than he had tect, lest a bull of excommuniever hitherto done. He con- cation should dissolve the alle. cluded the preface with these giance of his subjects, and subwords, “ Adieu unhappy Rome! vert the order of his govern. Lost and blasphemous Rome! ment. But though Miltitz had Vol. I. No. 10.
certainly a commission to em. mean of accommodation, he reploy force, if it should be found quested him only to acknowl. necessary, and to publish briefs edge, that he had exceeded the in all the cities through which bounds of reason and moderation he was to pass, requiring the co- in his representations of the operation and assistance of the heinousness of indulgences, and people, he ng sooner entered the his invectives against the Pope German dominions, than he and his ambassadors; and on his clearly saw that force was inex- own part conceded, that Tetzel pedient, that the briefs were use- and his delegates had acted in less, and that, as he himself ac- the most unjustifiable and in. knowledged, though the court of iquitous manner, taking care at Saxony had delivered up Luther, the same time to affirm, that in an army of 25,000 men could this they had gone far beyond not have conveyed him to Rome. the design and extent of the pa
Though he had orders to re- pal commission. Luther was quire the Elector either to oblige softened ; confessed that, in Luther to recant, or to deny him some instances, he had been too protection, he, therefore, deem- rash and vehement; and though ed it expedient to try what could he afterwards affirmed, that he be effected by the arts of concili- saw through the arts of the ation. He began, accordingly, crafty Italian, and, even at the with loading Tetzel, the chief time, openly attributed the evils agent in the nefarious sale of of which he complained not to indulgences, with the bitterest Tetzel alone, but to the Pope, reproaches ; ordered him to re- whose intentions, he said, were pair to Altenberg, to receive the better than his plans, he agreed chastisement due to his misde- to be silent in future, if his enmeanours ; and openly blamed emies were also restrained, and him as the author of all the to write a respectful letter to abuses, which had roused the in- Leo, acknowledging his regret dignation, and produced the op- for the injury, which he had unposition of Luther. In his first intentionally done him, and interview with the Reformer, he promising the most filial subrepeated the same accusations of mission to his authority. He Tetzel, and condemned, in gen- persisted, however, in refusing eral, the excesses and impieties to retract; but expressed his of the collectors. He represent. willingness to refer this point to ed to Luther the danger to the decision of the archbishop of which he exposed himself, and Treves and the Bishop of Freisthe wrongs, which he had done
engen; while Miltitz promised to the Pope ; endeavoured to to use all his influence to proflatter him by caresses ; extoll- cure an imposition of silence on ed his talents and character ; both parties, from the court of wept over the injury, which the Rome.* church had sustained through
(To be continued.) his means; and, in a word, omitted nothing that ingenuity could suggest, either to Berlin, 1785. Vol. 1. p. 158.
Beausobre, Hist, de la Reforn. alarm or to soothe him. As a
LETTERS TO A BROTHER. consistent answer, unless it may
be supposed, that time will afLETTER VI.
ford some new advantage for a
proper determination. But what ON THE CHARACTER OF GOD.
new advantage can time afford? (Continued from page 393.) If any be possible, it must con
sist in more clear and perfect Beloved Brother,
knowledge, or in a better dispoTHE second objection you sition. To suppose God capable state against the character, which of either, is to dishonour his imCalvinism ascribes to God, is, mutable perfection. One more the gloomy doctrine of his eternal question remains. Is it desiradecrees, But why is this a ble, that the eternal purpose of gloomy doctrine? Was it not God be absolute and unalterable ? suitable, that God, in the exer- If it were possible, that the di. cise of unlimited knowledge and vine purpose should need or adbenevolence, should eternally fix mit any amendment, every good the plan of his own operations, man would feel an objection and the whole course of events? against its being absolute and The denial of this must spring unchangeable. But, who can from the want of confidence in wish the purpose of infinite wisdivine perfection. The ques- dom and infinite love to be tion is, shall the circumstances changeable ? of creation, the events of provi- If, my dear brother, you would dence, and the condition of crea- have a clear and comfortable tures be referred to the deter- view of this doctrine, you must mination of God, or to the de- detach from it all the false aptermination of creatures, or to pendages, with which the blindthe determination of chance, ness of prejudice and the malig. that is, left without any deter- nity of sin have surrounded it. mination ? The last can have no You must remove the misrepresober advocate. The great de sentations, by which its cunning termination, then, must lie be- adversaries have deformed and tween God and his creatures. disgraced it. You must cure To whom can it be most safely the disease of the jaundiced eye. referred? Who is the best qual. Then you will view the divine ified? All must answer alike; decrees, not as the frightful in. it is most desirable, that all struments with which a cruel things should be determined by despot injures and destroys his him, who is infinitely wise and harmless subjects, but as the regood, and whose determination sult of infallible wisdom, the dic. must, therefore, be right. Anoth- tate of unbounded benevolence. er question is, whether it appear I contemplate the divine decrees, best, that the divine determina- which pride and guilt have dress. tion take place in eternity, or in ed in horror, as the eternal opesome period of time? In eterni. ration of Jehovah's perfections. ty, must be considered the most If I admire his perfections, I