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moral and political consequences which may be deduced from it. He confidently believes that, in à great majority of cases, the natural character and disposition of individuals may be accurately ascertained by inspecting or feeling the shape of the cranium; and that, having obtained this datum, we are qualified for proceeding with peculiar advantage to model the intellectual qualities by education, almost ad libitum. The following quotation embraces a detail of the author's plan, and at the same time affords a view of some of the leading tenets which he adopts:

The General Principles of the System. The History of the Discoveries whereon the system is founded. The Anatomical Structure of the Brain and Nerves. The division of the Brain into separate organs, and their respective place, and the Physiology of each. They are divided into, 1st, the organs of the propensities; and 2d, those of the sentiments, constituting what the French call L'Ame, and the Germans Gemüth; 3dly, the knowing faculties; and 4thly, the reflecting faculties, constituting what the French call L'Esprit, the Germans Gheist, and the English the Intellect. I shall then briefly consider,-The Application of this system to Education; as regards, 1st, the cultivation of the intellect, and 2dly, the regulation of the moral character. The influence it will have on the mode of adapting to malefactors in houses of correction a punishment commensurate to their peculiar vices. And the improvement of the treatment of insane persons, at present so much neglected. In the course of these observations, I shall briefly notice some of the popular objections made to the new Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, with the proper answers to each.'

This work is professedly intended for popular use; for which reason, and also because in our account of Dr. Spurzheim's publication we have entered fully into the merits of the new doctrine, we shall not deem it necessary to bestow much minute criticism on Mr. Forster. He indeed appears to be a devoted and even obsequious disciple of the Doctor, assenting to his hypothesis not in its outline or general detail alone, but in all the subordinate parts of it; and he so entirely resigns his judgment to the keeping of his master, that he seems to consider it as a kind of heresy to hold any opinion of his own. Accordingly, in different places, where the subject is more than usually obscure, or the reasoning more than usually futile, Mr. Forster regards it as quite sufficient to quote his preceptor's ipse dixit. For example, after having informed us that Dr. Spurzheim thinks that the faculty or organ of haughtiness is possessed by the turkey, the peacock, the horse, and some other animals,” he adds,


I can discover myself in the horse no elevation sufficient to d monstrate distinctly this faculty; but I yield to Spurzheim's superior knowledge and experience in these matters.'

Mr. F.

Mr. F. expresses some doubts respecting the nature of individuality, and then modestly observes;

I state this merely as the operation my mind went through before, from repeated reflections, I arrived at my present conceptions of the operations of intellect, because I conceive that what occurs to one person may possibly occur to some other, who may be assisted by observing the progress of thought in other persons; to Dr. Spurzheim, who rectified many of my imperfect views of these subjects, and who has thought longer thereon, I refer the metaphysical reader ; as he has recently made, in my opinion, the most philosophical arrangement of the mutual influence of Individuality in the other Knowing Faculties, founded on an accurate observance of the connection between the juxtaposition of the organs and the order of thought, with respect to our knowledge of bodies. The Lectures he is now giving contain a most beautiful illustration of the physiology of this arrangement of organs.'

It is not only in points of argument, or in cases which relate especially to the craniological system, that Mr. Forster is so ready to resign his judgment to superior authority; he does it equally as to his belief in matters of fact: expressing his conviction of the story of the rats, to which we referred in our review of Dr. Spurzheim, and of the arithmetical magpies, &c. From the character and situation of the present author, we have every reason to suppose that he is actuated simply by a love of truth, and by the firmest persuasion of the importance of what he so zealously defends: but, from the mere perusal of his book, we might have been tempted to regard him as employed by Dr. Spurzheim for the purpose of puffing off his works and his lectures, so frequently and so warmly are they commended.


ART. VII. Eighth and Ninth Reports of the Directors of the African Institution, read at the Annual General Meetings on the 23d of March 1814, and 12th of April 1815. To each of which are added an Appendix, and a List of Subscribers. 8vo. pp. 90. and 140. 28. each. Hatchard. 1814. 1815.

the philanthropic exertions of this truly Christian Institu

Ttion, we feel it a bounden duty to offer our warmest praise

whenever they come under our contemplation, and to call on our fellow-subjects to yield them their most cordial support. It is a noble feature in the moral character of Great Britain, that she takes the lead in the march of humanity; and that, while she stands pre-eminent for science, arts, and arms among the nations of the earth, she occupies even a still prouder elevation in the career of benevolent feeling and charitable activity. If those individuals who are influenced by a cold-blooded, calcu

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lating commerce, and view with apathy the miseries of Africa View and the agonies which the slave-trade entails on her children, render us almost disgusted with our race, such men as Sharp, Wilberforce, Clarkson, and their associates in the cause of abolition, convert the blush of shame on our cheeks into a glow of exultation; since they shew that mankind, when pursuing the course which the best principles of nature and religion suggest, are only a little inferior to the angels" who encircle the throne of eternal love. It is gratifying to observe the laudable assiduity which the African Society has displayed from s first institution; and we are so convinced that its labours will not be in vain, that we cannot better express our approbation than by saying to this band of philanthropists, Persevere.


Though the Reports of the Institution, printed from year to year, state discouragements, they present us with views of the chief subject in contemplation which are far from being unsatisfactory. We are obliged to them for a full account of all that has occurred relative to the slave-trade, since the act of abolition. The policy of states, and the avarice of merchants, have in various ways counteracted this humane measure of the British legisla ture; so that at present this trade, though it was declared at the Congress of Vienna to be "a scourge which has long desolated Africa, degraded Europe, and afflicted humanity," is yet carried on to a considerable extent. France and Spain are still urgent for its continuance, and will not listen to the call of duty and mercy because they are in want of slaves for their American colonies. Russia, Austria, and Prussia having no West India islands, readily concur in the measure of abolition: but France requested that Africa may be desolated and slave-ships crouded with victims for five years to come; and Spain, deeming this period too short for effecting her purpose, urged the continuance of the slave-trade for eight years! If such arrangements are made at the general peace, or if we only wink at the continuance of the trade by the two protesting powers, it is evident that the scheme of mercy in the contemplation of this Institution will be much retarded. Yet the unqualified condemnation of it by the Congress at Vienna is high evidence on record in favour of the great cause; in spite of those qualifying clauses which admit that "ill effects may arise from the precipitation of the measure;" and that the general declaration, respecting the immoral nature and cruel effects of this trade," should not prejudge the period" which each particular power should look upon as the most expedient for the definite abolition of the traffic in slaves." It will, we know, be said by some persons, that object so long deferred may be considered as lost; and that, if on the settlement of Europe the slave-trade be resumed with activity by two



such powers as France and Spain, their feelings of humanity will be soon absorbed in the lust of gain, and a war may be necessary to induce their most Christian and Catholic majesties to act the part of true Christians. This is the dark side of the picture. On the other side, it may be presumed that, as most of the states of Europe, with Great Britain at their head, have set their faces against the traffic in negroes, the trade will become odious; and that, if the African Institution, with other public bodies, will nobly persevere in their reprobation of it, in extending civilization to Africa, and in urging a kind treatment of negroes in our islands, the whole continent of Europe may, after a time, be brought to say with one voice, Let this accursed trade be abolished. For France and Spain, some sort of apology ought to be made. They look with a jealous eye on the superior condition of our West India islands, which, during our prosperous maritime war, have been abundantly stocked with slaves; and they conclude that they cannot compete with us unless their own colonies are equally supplied with negro labourers. Policy, therefore, renders them deaf to our sermons on mercy; and Cuba and Guadaloupe excite a stronger interest with them than the whole African continent. These are the impressions of foreign statesmen and politicians, with which Lord Castlereagh had to contend; and if he contended without absolute present success, it is something to have it declared by the plenipotentiaries assembled at Vienna that the final triumph in this cause of mercy, and of man, "will be one of the greatest monuments of the age which undertook it, and which shall have gloriously carried it into complete effect."

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Having thus adverted to the prominent object in these and some preceding publications of the African Institution, we shall now direct the attention of our readers to those parts of the Reports before us which we deem to be most worthy of their notice. In the Eighth Report, the Directors inform the general meeting that notwithstanding all the efforts which have been made for the suppression of this execrable traffic, a very considerable slave-trade, carried on under the Portuguese flag, still exists on the western coast of Africa ;' and that there is too much reason for believing that a considerable traffic in slaves still exists on the north coast of Africa; whither it would seem that considerable numbers are brought for sale from the interior, and thence exported chiefly to the islands, and the opposite continent of Europe. It appears, too, that in Tunis and Tripoly, and the towns of Egypt, there are regular slave-markets, where men, women, and children, are sold at very low prices.'-A fact is mentioned which strongly marks the pertinaci tywith which this horrid traffic is still pursued:


Captain Maxwell, of the Favourite sloop of war, who suc ceeded Captain Irby as Commodore upon the African station, has contributed his full share to the suppression of the traffic in slaves. He has recently returned to England, and has reported to Government, that in November last he proceeded up the Rio Pongas, for the purpose of rooting out the slave traders in that river, some of whom were Americans, and others British subjects. He succeeded in destroying several slave factories, and spiked a number of cannon. The traders afterwards retreated into a strong fort near the head of the river, where they could not easily be attacked by a naval force, and there bade defiance to Capt. Maxwell and his crew. This flagrant outrage upon the laws of England will doubtless engage the immediate attention of his Majesty's Government, and, the Directors trust, will meet ere long with the punishment which it deserves. Captain Maxwell has likewise captured four slave ships.'

On the other hand, we read it is a favourable circumstance, however, that, according to intelligence received from Major Chisholm of Goree, the inhabitants of that island and its neighbourhood were beginning to relinquish the trade in slaves, in consequence of the firm and active measures which have been adopted for its suppression; and that few, if any, slaves have been taken away from that part of the coast for a considerable


2. In that part of the Report which respects the continent of Africa, it is stated

That all the natives in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone were busily employed in cultivating rice, which, the Governor says, might be grown in almost any quantity: and, as the white rice of Africa is of the best quality, he thinks that, if cleaning mills were erected at Sierra Leone, African rice might soon be expected to enter the market in competition with rice from India, or even from Carolina.'


• Dr. Roxburgh, of Calcutta, to whom the Directors have so frequently had occasion to express their thanks, has again obliged the Institution, by sending to them a chest of the most useful growing plants, and a few seeds of the best East India timber trees. seeds were all safely received; and a considerable portion of the plants arrived alive, and continue in a promising state. The latter have, through the kind interference of Sir Joseph Banks, been placed in the Royal Gardens at Kew, under the care of Mr. Aiton, his Majesty's gardener there; who has very obligingly undertaken to give them his attention till they can properly and safely be sent to Africa, and to prepare them for a sea voyage, and their ulterior destination.'

The Eighth Report concludes with some interesting oircumstances which shew the nature of the kidnapping system pursued in Africa to obtain slaves, and the impression which it leaves on the minds of expatriated negroes. The account respects a legacy left to the Institution by a black man of the 6+


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