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to their relative importance. Still, room is left for higher excellence pedigrees, which should precede the lives, terminate them; Rollin and Blackwell are used as authorities, whereas the original antient passages on which they rely should have been adduced, and their inferences re-examined: a more lucid flow of narrative, less incumbered with quotation, document, and nomenclature, would facilitate attention, and exhibit more distinct reflections to the memory; and, lastly, all discussion that was necessary should have been thrown into notes; modern names ought to occur in the text of classical antient biography.

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The first life is that of Caius Asinius Pollio, whose grandfather Herius was a petty provincial mayor at Marrucinum, near Alba, whence his father migrated to Rome. Pollio and his younger brother were born about the year 675, A. U. C. and previously to that migration, if we may make this inference from the name of the younger being Marrucinus. The poet Catullus praises Asinius Pollio as a boy of drollery and wit: but mention from such a quarter is not favourable to the supposition of early purity of habits: while the younger brother was notoriously good for nothing," and has been satirized as a stealer of napkins at the supper-tables to which he was admitted. Since Catullus knew the two Pollios in their youth, it should seem that they were soldiers under Julius Cæsar, when he was quartered at Verona, and had lodgings in the house of the father of Catullus; and they must already have been honoured with the patronage of Cæsar to have visited the family in which he resided. Asinius Pollio was an officer of merit, and was intrusted by Cæsar with a separate command. He passed' the Rubicon with his patron; he invaded Sicily in defiance of Cato; he waged efficacious war in Dalmatia; and Cæsar rewarded his services by the profitable government of Spain. After the death of Cæsar, Pollio hesitated about the course to be pursued, and corresponded with Cicero, as if for advice: but he finally decided on supporting Anthony; and, after the battle of Actium, he declared his adhesion to Augustus. Mr. Berwick materially mis-translates the passage of Paterculus, at p. 30., in which this profession of allegiance is recorded. Tacitus calls Pollio ferocious, on what evidence it is not known; unless his listening with impatience to an elegy on the death of Cicero may be supposed to authorize the charge; or the fact that Quintius, his father-in-law, was included in the proscription. conteniend Pollio was distinguished rather for the force than the grace of his oratory, which he is said to have rated higher than his hearers estimated it. He attempted tragedy, and wrote a his



tory which is justly regretted; for he had an independent
spirit, and harboured Timagenes when under the frown of
Augustus. From acquired or inherited property, he became
very rich, and spent his income nobly: Virgil, Horace, Gallus,
and Varro, were among his favourite guests and companions;
and he founded a magnificent public library at Rome, which
was adorned with busts and statues of the learned. Th
library Mr. Berwick states to
public at Rome: but, in the life of Varro, he admits that
Lucullus had previously opened his fine collection of books to
the people. Perhaps the library of Lucullus remained as pri-
vate property, and that of Pollio was the first foundation-
That Dorste

to have been the fir
first which was

Pollio had four sons, of whom the third became head of the family, and a daughter married to Aserninus; and in teaching rhetoric to Marcellus, his grandson by this marriage, Pollio took great pleasure in his old age. Descendants from him sat on the imperial throne, which circumstance has contributed to the progressive varnish of his reputation: but the praise of Virgil has done more perhaps the poet's farm had been comprehended in the confiscated lands granted to Pollio, and was liberally restored.



Marcus Terentius Varro was born in the 637. he Serving under Pompey against the pirates, ted a naval crown; and he took part with his commander in the civil wars of the republic. The leisure which his military duties allowed was devoted to literature, he was intimate with Cicero, dedicated to him a work on grammar, and received from him the literary attention of being introduced into one of the academic dialogues. Varro was proscribed, but exempted from the sentence of death by Anthony, at the solicitation of Calenus, and of Pollio: though his property and books were all confiscated. He lived to the age of a hundred, and was indebted for the comfort of his declining years to Pollio, whom he was in some degree librarian. He wrote many books, of which Mr. Berwick with meritorious industry has endeayoured to make out a complete catalogue, which we transcribe:

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1. De Cultu Deorum liber.This is noticed by St. Augustine in his seventh book; wherein he says, Varro considers God to be not only the soul of the world, but the world itself; to prove which, he quotes two verses from Valerius Soranus to that effect.

Jupiter omnipotens, regum rex ipse, Deusque

Progenitor, genetrixque Deûm, Deus unus et omnis.

The words of Pliny are: "Qui primus bibliothecam dicando ingenia bominum rem publicam fecit." REV. OCT. 1815.



These verses Varro expounds, and calling the giver of seed the male, and the receiver the female, accounted Jove the world, that both giveth all seed itself, and receiveth it into itself.

2. De rerum humanarum Antiquitatibus, in twenty-five books, et Divinarum, in sixteen, addressed to Caius Cæsar.

St. Augustine mentions these books particularly, and gives the subjects of each. Of the former he says, that the first six treated of men, the second six of places, the third of the seasons, and the fourth of things; but that the remaining one, which makes up the number twenty-five, and which he says treats of things in general, is placed at the beginning, as an argument to the whole. Of the latter, which treated of Divine Things, he says the first ternary discoursed of pontiffs, augurs, and the quindecimviri; the second ternary, of chapels, sacred edifices, and religious places; the third of holidays, the Circensian games, and scenic diversions; the fourth of consecrations, private sacrifices, and public ones; the fifth, of such deities as were known; next, of those that were unknown; and lastly, of both together. The remaining book, which completes the number sixteen, is placed at the beginning as an argument to them all.

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Dionysius Halicarnensis calls the foregoing books Archaiologia, from which he quotes the following passage, namely, that the towns of the Aborigines were situate in the Reatine country, not far from the Appennine hills: in other parts of his history, Varro's authority is strictly followed.

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3. De vitá Populi Romani, addressed to Atticus. The eleventh book of this work is praised by Nonius, in his chapter in Pauper tates. Vossius says, all the books are noticed by Fabius, in his first book and eighth chapter.

4. De Gente Populi Romani, in four books, which are mentioned by Arnobius and others.

De Initiis Urbis Romane liber, noticed by Quintilian.

6. De Republicâ libri, of which the twentieth is mentioned by Nomus, and is called Aia, sive causa. Books of similar description amongst the Greeks were written by Callimachus, Butas, and Plutarch.

7. De Philosophia liber; in this book, according to St. Augustine, Varro has examined the various sects of philosophy, of which he specifies 280; and from them all adopts the sect of the old academy for his own use.

8. Liber secundus de Formá Philosophia, mentioned by Charisius, 9. Novem Libri disciplinarum, addressed to Marcus Elius Rufus, amongst which is one on the subject of architecture, according to the report of Vitruvius.

10. Hebdomadum, sive de imaginibus libri; from the eleventh book of which, it is said Charisius made some advantage. If I am not mistaken, adds Fabricius, Varro pourtrayed the pictures of seven illustrious men in each of the said books. Pliny, as we have observed before, has given the pictures of 700 famous men. Vossius says, the Hebdomades contained the portraits and panegyrics of learned men, as appears evident from Symmachus's letters to Ausonius. The pa negyric that was annexed to the picture of Demetrius Phalereus is still preserved.

Hic Demetrius æneas tot aptu' est,

Quot luces habet annus absolutus.

This Demetrius has obtained as many brazen statues as there are days in a complete year.

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11. De proprietate Scriptorum, quoted by Nonius in Liquidum. 12. Theatrales sive de actionibus Scenicis libri, quoted by Priscian in his third book, and by Charisius in his fifth.

13. De Scenicis originibus libri, mentioned by Nonius and Chari

sius. ?

14. De Poetis libri, noticed by Gellius and Priscian.

15. Libri de Poematibus, of which the second is noticed by Charisius.Diomedes' praises the poetical books of Varro.

16. De Plautinis Comadis liber.-Varro, in examining what plays of Plautus were genuine, has selected 21, which are termed Varronian, from the others which he considered as doubtful. In comedy we are greatly deficient, says Quintilian, though Varro is of the same opinion with Ælius Stolo in asserting, that if the muses were to speak in Latin, they would make use of the language of Plautus.

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17. Libri de Plautinis questionibus, quoted by Nonius. This must be, one would suppose, a continuation of the preceding article. 2018. Epistolicarum quæstionum libri, of which the 18th is cited by Charisius.

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19. Epistola, addressed to Caius Cæsar, Fabius, Marcus Sulpitius, Fusius, Nero, Marcellius, Servius Sulpicius, Oppian, &c.

• Varro, in his letters to Appianus says, that the Commentary which he gave Pompey when first elected Consul, called "Isagogicum de officio Senatus Habendi," was lost; but Gellius acquaints us that many things on the same subject are to be found in his fourth book of Epistolary Questions.

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20. De Bibliothecis; the second book of this treatise is cited by Charisius.


21. Liber de Vitâ suâ, quoted by the same author as the preceding.

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22. Complexionum Librum sextum, citat Diomedes.

< 23. Ad Libonem Liber. Macrobius alludes to this book in the 14th chapter, and second book of his Satires.

24. Annales Libri, of which the third book is cited by Charisius, who as we learn from Vossius, says that Servius Tullius was the first 'man who caused silver to be coined, which exceeded what was coined in the days of Varro by four scruples.

25. Belli Punici Secundi Librum Secundum, citat Priscianus. 26. Libri de Familiis Trojanis.-This book treats of the families that followed Æneas into Italy.

27. De Gradibus necessitudinum

ship, Servius says he wrote a book.

on the Degrees of Relation

28. Rhetoricorum libri, of which the 20th is praised by Nonius. 29. IIeps xaрaxτnpw, the third book of which is commended by Charisius.

30. Libri de Lingua Latina ad Marcellum, of which the seventh book is praised by Rufinus, in his dissertation de Metris Terentianis. N 2

31. Libri

31. Libri de Similitudine Verborum.The second book of this treatise is quoted by Priscian: hence it is probable that these books were a part of the preceding, on the Latin tongue.

32. De Utilitatê Sermonis, of which the fourth book is noticed by: Charisius.

33 De Compositione Satyrarum, mentioned by Nonius. • Here endeth Fabricius's list of names.

34. Sisenna, sive de Historiá, mentioned by Vossius.

35. A Treatise on Navigation, mentioned by Vegetius.

36. Tricipitina or Tricarenus, a Satyrical History of the triple Alliance between Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus.

Besides all the aforesaid enumerated treatises, I must notice his panegyric on Porcia, alluded to by Cicero in one of his letters to Atticus, wherein he says, "I am inclined to reperuse Varro's panegyric: for I read it so cursorily, that many things may have escaped me." This panegyric was probably written in imitation of Cicero, who compiled a little treatise in the way of a funeral encomium, in praise of Porcia, the sister of Cato and wife of Domitius Abenobarbus. From the above list of his literary labours, though far from being complete, well might Quintilian exclaim,

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Quam multa, imo penè omnia tradidit Varro."

It will be perceived from this list that Varro was the encyclopedist of his time, an accomplishment which confers on conversation the power of interesting and of instructing; yet so inferior is knowlege to intellect, that the compilations of erudition presently grow old, and furnish only some fragments of brick and stone to build into the edifices of their successors. Pliny was much indebted to the works of Varro, and has probably preserved to us all that was most worth knowing in them.

Cneius Cornelius Gallus was born of an equestrian family in the year of Rome 687, at Forum-julii Carnorum, now Friuli. Early in life he became attached to Octavius Cæsar, whose for tunes he followed through the perils of the civil war, and from whom he received in recompence the rich government of Egypt. The guest of Mecenas, the friend of Virgil, an agreeable poet, and a jovial companion, he seemed to have to sigh only for the constancy of his mistress. He formed, however, at Alexandria, some connection with the friends of Ægyptian independence, which was interpreted at Rome as a conspiracy against the state; and the senate tried him, confiscated his property, and sentenced him to exile: but he preferred a voluntary death to acquiescence in this doom. Augustus lamented the event, and complained that he had not been al lowed to define in what degree his friend had offended him, The poems of Gallus are lost to us, unless the Ciris be one of them they were chiefly love elegies, and are ranked by Quintilian below those of Tibullus.


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