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“ to lend to Portugal all the succour of which she may stand in need, “as often as her independence may be menaced by any other power, “in any manner whatever.” This declaration, so worthy of our free and happy constitution, was made and received with great exultation, and must have an effect upon other states. Would that it may be to the prevention of a war, in which we fear that, sooner or later, England must be plunged! Whilst troops are likely to be wanted so much nearer home, we cannot, however, but be surprised at the folly of the Portuguese government, in sending out an expedition of 3000 men to Babia, in the delusive hope of restoring the Brazils to her allegiance to the mother country; for she has shaken it off for ever. The Queen has refused to swear obedience to the constitution, and, on being menaced with expulsion from the kingdom, replied, that she would consent to it, provided that the dower she brought the king was returned to her. Her banishment has, however, been decreed by the Cortes, without, as it would seem, a compliance with her demand; and the King her husband has confirmed the sentence, though its execution is delayed by the state of her health, until the recovery of which, sufficiently to enable her to travel, she has been ordered to seclude herself in the Quinta del Ramalhao, where ten physicians are in attendance upon her. Since that period, very recently indeed, a counter revolutionary movement has been attempted, having for its object a similar attack upon the constitution of Portugal, to that made by the regency in Spain, but it does not appear at all likely to succeed.

With respect to Italy, it would seem that the influence of England at the congress of Verona has been beneficial to her, as well as to Spain. Sardinia is to be evacuated by the Austrian troops, by three equal portions, in January, May, and September; whilst half of the same force, in Naples, is to be immediately withdrawn, and a more moderate contribution for the support of the remainder is at the same time to be accepted. The final evacuation of that kingdom is, however, we regret to add, deferred “until a more con“: venient season;" yet if the attack upon Spain is madly persisted in by the Holy Alliance, these troops will, we doubt not, be wanted nearer home.

In GERMANY, the Emperors of Austria and Russia have been acting the Two Gentlemen of Verona on a very imperial scale, for they have taken upon themselves, in their new characters (in conjunction with the Kings of France and Prussia) of dictators of Europe, to remonstrate with the Kings of Bavaria and of Wurtemburg, on their permitting the publication of the debates of their deliberative bodies, and request them to put a stop to so democratical a practice. This the monarchs have refused to do, as the former also has done with respect to their demands for restricting the sittings of the states-general, and submitting the press to a severe censorship; but, in their turn, have remonstrated against the holding of general congresses for settling the affairs of Europe, from which kings and states of their rank and dimensions are excluded. In the same proper spirit, the king of Saxony, on certain changes being proposed to him by the Holy Alliance, replied, “ For many years I have been very well “ satisfied with my ple—and my people are satisfied with me“ what more is wanted ? My subjects have never done me any " harm-I see nothing to change."

of the movements of Prussia, separate from those of Holy Alli

ance, of which she forms a part, nothing very particular has transpired; but we cannot argue much for the progress of liberal opinions in that kingdom, from the fact of the edict issued in 1815, for rendering Jews admissable to offices in schools and academies, if possessed of the necessary qualifications, having lately been repealed.

The government of the NetheRLANDS has issued an ordonnance, highly satisfactory to the great mass of the population, directing, as it does, that as Flemish is the language of the arrondissements of Brussels and Louvain, all public functionaries, who are not masters of it, are to be displaced ; whilst all public pleadings, proclamations, arrets of government, civil contracts, and acts, are henceforth to bé drawn up in that language. In proportion, however, to the popularity of the measure with the people, is its unpopularity with the great mass of the functionaries, for as it is fatal to the immense number of French employed in the courts, bureaus, and offices of Brussels, it is very naturally opposed by them and their adherents with great clamour; but we do not fear any success to their views, from the hot paper-war which they have commenced upon the subject.

For the ultimate triumph of the GREEKS over their ruthless and barbarous oppressors there is still much ground to hope, notwithstanding the official denunciation of their conduct by the self-appointed arbiters of the world, “as rash, culpable, and rebellious." Napoli and Corinth are closely pressed by their patriotic troops, and the condition of the besieged is said to be so desperate, that they might be expected soon to surrender. The latter place contained 5000 Turkish troops, the remains of 25,000 which entered the Peloponnesus to ravage and re-enslave it, and forming the whole army of the Turks in the Morea, where their cause seems to be at the lowest ebb, their besieged troops being in the greatest distress for provisions, whilst the Greeks had an abundant supply. We regret, however, to add, that during the siege, the horrid acts of cruelty which have distinguished this protracted warfare from all others, save those of cannibals and savages, are constantly practised. Not long since, four Greeks had each a stake driven through his body, in which condition they lingered for four days, when their death was avenged by a like cruel martyrdom of as many Turks. Amidst these horrible scenes of brutal outrage and equally brutal retaliation, superadded to the ordinary horrors of a siege, (in themselves, one would imagine, terrible and disgusting enough,) Corinth, one of the most polished cities of ancient Greece, the seat of one of the first apostolic churches, presents the appearance of a charnel-house of death-surrounded as it is by bodies in every state of putrefaction, from the one that fell yesterday, to the first victim of this cruel and protracted siege. Nor is this a solitary spectacle: for the ruthless Turks, as yet unsatiated by the sufferings of the hapless Sciots, have destroyed, in cool blood, the few fugitives from their first massacre, who, trusting to the faithless promise of protection, and impelled, no doubt, by their necessities, returned to their homes but to find a grave. The cause, however, in which they died is triumphing, and we hope will triumph ; for, on the lower part of the town of Napoli, the Greek flag was some months since flying triumphant, whilst of 5000 Turks of both sexes, shut up in the upper fortress, only 1500 were capable of bearing arms. The last attempt of the great Turkish fleet, commanded by the new Captain Pacha, to

relieve this fortress, having failed, it is confidently expected that want of provisions must soon force a surrender. Our government is said, and we hope the report is true, to have adopted a more friendly conduct towards this gallant people, who, in their slight merchant vessels, have proved themselves fully qualified to cope with the regular navy of the Porte. Recalling to mind the deeds of their ancestors, they have again set fire to a Turkish fleet in Tenedos, blowing up the ship of the Captain Pacha, (whose vessel had on board it the staff, money for paying the fleet, and a division of troops,) driving two frigates on shore, and capturing a brig. On land also they have recently been equally successful, in Western Greece, which has been freed from all hostile attack, at least until the expiration of the winter, by the defeat of Omar Vrioni, who, besieging and surrounding the Greek chiefs, was resisted for three days in the pass of Tygos by 3000 Greeks, who during that time were without food, and well nigh reduced to despair, when twelve Greek vessels arrived at the port, burnt the three Turkish vessels which were bombarding the town, and landed the succours; by whom, and a sortie from the garrison, the Turkish army was completely routed, several of them being drowned in the Archelous in the pursuit, in which niany were captured, none indeed but the cavalry escaping. These disasters in Greece have led to great disturbances in Constantinople, where for a considerable time the "Janizaries and rabble contesteda; point with the Sultan, which he at length was obliged to yield, by dismissing his minister, and appointing as his successor the nominee of this mutinous people. This compliance with their demands, and the beheading of Chourschid Pacha, the unsuccessful commander against the Greeks, has in some measure restored tranquillity to a capital, where there has too often been but a step between a bowstring and a throne. That throne seems now tottering to its fall, for the Persians having attacked and completely defeated the Turkish army, they pursued them to within two days' march of Azzaroom, which would have fallen into their hands, but that the cholera morbus, and the fatigue of the pursuit overland, compelled the Prince Royal to lead back his troops to Tabris, with the spoils they had taken. The Porte, when the last accounts came away, was about to sue for peace.

AMERICA seems likely to be engaged in another warfare with Algiers, from a failure in point of etiquette of her consul at the regency, who, in riding out of the city, suffered the aga, or chief minister, to pass him without alighting, as it is customary to do. For this neglect, the consequence, it is said, of ignorance of the established forms, he was immediately pulled from his borse, and very ill treated, and, on demanding satisfaction of the Dey, he was refused it. Upon this, after drawing up an account of the insult he had received, and causing it to be signed by several European consuls, he immediately embarked for Mahon. In its interior concerns, it would appear from the message of the president, that the country is in a very flourishing condition, with a surplus revenue of three millions of dollars, the military and naval forces in an efficient state, and manufactories fast reviving from the depression of the peace.

In South AMERICA, confusion is still but too prevalent amongst the various independent states, just starting into a new political existence, which will, we doubt not, have a most important effect upon the future history of the world. Recent accounts from the Havannah

represent that city to be in the most miserable state, infested with a band of bravoes, who commit depredations of the most atrocious kind: no family can go to rest at night, without the most alarming apprehensions for their safety, the ruffians, armed with deadly weapons, being so numerous and so bold as to compel the police to call the inhabitants to their aid. Piracies are there carried on upon the broadest and most daring scale, against all lawful commerce; a lawless course, from which the Americans are the chief sufferers, although our own trade does not escape, notwithstahding the measures taken for its protection, and which have led to the capture of some of these daring Buccaneers. It is expected, however, and we think with abundant reason, that the treaty between Columbia, Peru, Cbili, and Buenos Ayres, will have a most important effect in Europe; and it is supposed that, with proper energy, a few months may terminate the war still carrying on between the Independents and the Royalists, in the former transatlantic possessions of Spain and Portugal. The troops of the latter power are expected ere this to have come to an engagement with the Brazilian army, the distant roar of canon in their direction having thrown the inhabitants of Bahia into the greatest alarm, in consequence of which they were shipping off all their valuables on board the vessels in the harbour. An embargo, at all events, has for some time been laid in the Brazils, upon all ships bound to the Eastern dominions of Portugal, and all Portuguese property has been sequestrated. In the new empire of Mexico, the military emperor, Iturbide, the Napoleon of South America, has already been annoyed by addresses from various public bodies and districts of his territories, loudly complaining of the oppression of his government, and upbraiding bim, not very ceremoniously, with the violation of the oath which he took in the presence of his congress: so that misgovernment and tyranny are proved not to reside in legitimacy alone, but in the evil propensity of man to domineer over and oppress his fellow men. In the truc spirit of a tyrant, therefore, whether he be elected or hereditary, he has paid no regard whatever to these remonstrances, but proceeded, in the most arbitrary manner, to place under his sole authority, the country which he delivered from a foreign yoke, but to subject it more absolutely to his own. He has accordingly deposed the Junta, subverted the decrees of the Cortes, and seized on property of the merchants to the amount of two or three millions of dollars. For the latter offence, the minister of Peru has been dismissed his office by General San Martin, to whom a petition to that effect was presented by the people, though even he hesitated for some time in complying with it.


ERRATUM IN No. XI. Page 202. _At the close of the Anecdote relating to M. Foscue, the French Extortioner, “Waverley” was referred to by mistake, instead of the novel of “Kenilworth,” by the same Author.

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