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atd. per quart. Now we come to recommend itself to the public. This the Queen's time, when, France dis. they ventured to sell at 23s. per barturbing us again, the malt tax, the rel, that the victualler might retail it duty on hops, and that on coals, took at 3d per quart. Though it was slow, place; and, as the duty on malt sur- at first, in making its way, yet, as it passed that on hops, the brewers en- was certainly right in the end, the deavoured at a liquor wherein more experiment succeeded beyond expecof the latter should be used : thus, tation. The labouring people, porthe drinking of beer became encou- ters, &c. found its utility; from whence naged in preference to ale. This beer, came its appellation of porter, or enwhen new, they sold for 22s. per bare tire butt. As yet, however, it was far tel; and, at the same time, advanced from being in the perfection which their ale to 195. and 20s. per barrel; we have since had it. but the people, not easily weaned “ Porter was, at different times, from their heavy, sweet drink, in ge. raised to 30s. per barrel, where it reneral drank ale mixed with beer mained till the year 1799, and was refrom the victualler at 2 d. to 2 d. per tailed at 3 d. per quart, when, in conquart. The gentry now residing in sequence of inalt rising in price to, London more than they had done in from 41. to 41. 10s. and 51. per quarformer times, introduced the pale ale ter, and hops from 4l. jos. to 176. and pale small beer, which they were 181. and 201. per cwt. porter was habituated to in the country, and raised to ll. 158. per barrel, and reeither engaged some of their friends, tailed at 4d. per quart. Ale, likeor the London brewers, to make for wise, experienced a rise of from 21. 2s. them these kinds of drink; and af- to 21. 128. 6d. per barrel.” P: 10-15. Duence and cleanliness promoted the The Author adds the subsequent delivery of them in the brewers own advances upon porter; but as these casks, and at his charge. Pale malt have been taken off again, we trace being dearest, the brewer being load- him no further. ed with more tax and expence, fixed At the end of the work, Mr. M. the price of such small beer at 8s. and gives the expence of licences, and a 10s. per barrel, and the ale at 30s. table of the various duties payable to per barrel : the latter was sold by the the excise on strong beer. victualler at 4d. per quart, and under the name of two-penny. This little opposition excited the brown beer trade XXXI. LA BAGATELLA, Of Delito produce, if possible, a better sort

neations of Home Scenery, a descripof commodity, in their way, than

tive Poem, in two Parts, with Nores heretofore had been made. They

Critical and Historical. By WM. began to hop their mild beers more, Fox, Jun. Fine crown 8vo. with and the publican started three, four,

engraved vigneties, pp. 274. 7s.6d. or six butts at a time; but so little

Conder, Rivingtons, and Johnson. idea had the brewer, or bis customer, of being at the charge of large stocks

"INTRODUCTION, of beer, taat it gave room to a set of

T Inouied pen, ... to make a trade, by ders to learn the history of the buying these beers from brewers, following Bagatelle, which is briefly keeping tien, some time, and siling this :-i bajpened, that on a fine them, when stale, to victuailers, for morning, in the early part of last 29s. ","3"... per barrel.

spring, having just recovered from * Vur iustes but slowly aiter or re- the languors of an ivdisposition, I form. Some drank mild and stale strolled forth through the fields that bear; others, what was then called lie contiguous to my habitation 3.threads, at jd. per qusrt; bui ma- [Hackney), and feeling greatly re. mid all stale, at 4d. per quart. vived by the genial warmth of the Ou tous footing stood the trade until air, and the fresh and blooming aspect abrut the year 1722, when the brewers of every object around me, I could cor.ceired that there was a mean to not forbear, on returning froni iny be found preferable to any of these walk, to express myself in terins, per. extremes; which was, that beer should haps too enthusiasiic, of the beauties be well brewed, and from being kept of the country, and the pleasantness its proper time, becoming mellow of the scenery, over which I had (i.e. neither new por stale) it would rambled.


ing air,

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in ours;

“ A lady, who was then visiting in With Guttering wing, and sharp quickmy family, rallied me a great deal on quivering note, the poetic fervoor of my descriptions; Soars upward, gladden'd by the morebut sarcastically lamented, that my Jabours should have been employed The soft and tender breath of balmy on scenes so entirely unworthy of Spring: the embellishment which I had be- “ The early rose, the pale-bu'd stowed upon them; and concluded hyacinih, by triumphantly asking, What of Rathe primroses, and modest violets, sylvan or of rustic beauty could White flowering lilacs, harebells stain

be any where found at a distance ed with blue, • of not more than three iniles from And such like fragrant flowers, now " the metropolis, within the din of shed their bloom,

its noises, and the very smoke of With sweetest odours scenting every its chimnies?

gale. “ Piqued by the severity of the « Ere this the feather'd race have observation, niy spirit inwardly mut- told their joy, tered,. Although, my fair friend, And thousand untledged throats now • you despise now these home-scenes, strain to join

in the praises of which I am so la. The choral harmonies that hail the

vish; yet I will, methinks, one day year. • compel even you to allow that they " First came the swallow, Summer's • are not destitute of every attraction; harbinger,

and that if to your eyes they can From distant lands, to skim and float • present no real verdure, you shall

one day confess, that at least they The nightingale, the lovers' favourite • jonk green in song."

bird, ** Pleased, and strongly impressed Next follows, soothing ost his even. with such an idea, l examined with ing walk; some attention the capabilities of my 'The cuckoo's tame and solitary cal! subject for poetical embellishment'; Still from the quiet grove is often and I will freely acknowlecige, that

heard; the first result of this examination From each low shrub, from ev'ry budwas by no means flattering to my ding spray, wishes. Not, however, to be divert. Soft flutt'rings rostle, or sharp twito ed from my design, and not easily to terings sound: be discouraged by clifficulties, I turn- Thus, as the season gay, lightsome of ed over in my recoilection the many heart, adinired poeins, which had been pro- And raptur'd with the sweets that duced from materials even more bar

round me rise, ren and unyielding than those on My morning walk I once again purwhich I had fallen; and thus ani

sue, mated, I resolved


the prosecu. And first the low and pond'rous gate tion of my design." p. iii, iv.

I turn Hasing given the occasion of this That bounds the path, then to a Poem, in the Author's own words, we

milder scene, now present our readers with the open. Where hedge nor fence exclude the ing of the Poem, which is as follows: passing gale,

And where, hard by, a still and rip“ Tis lovely May, and Nature's ling spring freshen'd face

Steals its clear waters--there, at sober Is all o'er-hung with new-blown flow

noon, ret bells,

The thirsty school-boy with his fold. Cull'd from tle primrose paths of

ed hat laughing Springs

Oft stoops to drink, and triumphs in The azure brightness of the dappled the draught. sky,

"Now by young springing corn I By long, light, shiver'd clouds, just

pass, and o'er marbled'o'er,

A ruggerl unaccommodating stile, Cheers and revives the sight. While (The terror of our fair) whence gently the gay sun

winds Gilds the rich landscape round, th' My fav'rite wand'ring path the meads earth-roosted lark,



Close at its side the streamlet mur. The greater part condemn'd, alas ! by murs on,

Fate, By drooping willows shaded, and o'er. To droop and die in yonder sickly hung

town." By spreading elders, whose low-bending boughs

The notes suhjoined are far more In the cool water dip their fragrant extensive than the poem itself. Their flowers.

contents are miscellaneous, and conPendant with night-fallen dew the tain, many quotations, with reearly grass

marks, from poets and critics of our Dips o'er the path, or in the sunny own and other countries. The Apgleam

pendix is devoted to the defence of as crystal sparkles on an emerald descriptive poetry, with extracts from stem.

our best descriptive poets. « On either hand the flower-ena.

mell'd meads Swell with the varied blossoms of the spring:

XXXII. MARSH'S MICHAELIS. The modest daisy, the wild marigold, The deep-red poppy, and the yel- (Continued from p. 53.)

low orchis, With variegated tints enrich the PROM the many subjects illusgreen.

trated in the fourth volume, we # Os how I love to stop and loiter extract the following account of “St. here,

Paul's character and mode of life. On the green bench, beneath the " Whether St. Paul was an impostor, willow tree,

an enthusiast, or a messenger from HeaTo list the trembling of the water by, ven. To watch the herd that in the mea- “ As St. Paul was not a disciple of dow graze,

Christ during his ministry, and as Or track the labourer to his morning many Jewish zealots and other heretoil.

tics were offended at his doctrine, Or, if my ragrant eye should rove so his right to the name and dignity of far,

an apostle of Christ was disputed by To tell the turrets of the distant town, many, especially in Galatia and at Pleas'd with the space that rolls 'twixt Corinth. ‘And, though he triumphed them and me.

over his enemies, and silenced them “ Flence, oft as turns my path, I during his life, yet some later herebackward turn,

tics have refused to acknowledge To spy, at intervals. our village tower. him as a messenger from Christ: but Just peeping forth 'twixt yonder aged his divine mission is sufficientiv einis;

proved by his miracles and gists of In this lone path the foot of passen. the Holy Ghost. I have not room ger

to enlarge, as I could wish, on this I seldom meet, save one good care. subject : but I will take notice of the sul dame,

principal objections, which in modern Who, as the morning punctual, tends times have been made to St. Paul's her charge,

divine mission. That he wilfully and A ruddy blooming child on either maliciously imposed upon the world land,

is an assertion almost too absurd to To daily school. -'Good morrow, sir,' be made ; for it is impossible to conshe cries,

ceive what advantage he could have With curtsey dropp'd Good more proposed to himself from the impus. row,' I rejoin,

ture. He subsisted by the labour of And onward each our distant journey his own hands; he lost his credit wind.

among the Jews by preaching the Far to the right the nursery extends, Gospel; he involved himself in tronThe school of plants, where, as in bles and disgrace; and was at last other schools,

obliged to seal his doctrine with his Scions are formed and cultur'd for blood. If we consider farther the the world,

undissembled calmness of mind conRear'd but to be remov'd to strangerspicuous throughout the second Epissoils;

tle to Timothy, at a time when liis

death was impending, he cannot pos- wrought certain miracles which were sibly be taken for a wicked deceiver, never wrought? Were not his senses who was disappointed in his hope. evidences to him of the contrary ? According to Epiphanius*, the Ebi. How could be imagine that he comonites propagated the following ridi. municated to others the gift of culous story: St. Paul,' they said, tongues, if they did not speak lan• who acknowledged himself to be a guages, with which they were not be• native of. Tarsus, was born a hea. fore acquainted? Was St. Paul himself, • then ; but that on coming to Jeru- were the Christian communities to • salem, he was captivated with the which he wrote, were his fellow-labou. • daughter of a Jewish high-priest +, rers, so deprived both of their sightand • and in order to obtain her in mar- hearing, as to imagine these things 4 riage, underwent the rite of cire if they had never happened? The • cumcision. His expectations, how- prophets of the Cevennes, in the pre• ever, they say, were disappointed, seni century, wete the greatest" en• and on that account St. Paul be- thusiasts in the world, yet they did •came such an enemy to the Jewish not imagine the contrary of what • religion, that he resolved to preach they saw and heard; and though they • Christianity as the surest means of were sanguine in prophesying that • undermining it.' This story is so they should raise the dead, they neabsurd, that it carries with it its own ver ventured to make the experiment. confutation.

But St. Paul, it is pretended, per“ Others pretend, that St. Paul was suaded himself almost twenty succesan enthusiast, and that be was not sive years, that he was working what so much an intentional deceiver of he did not work; and that many others, as one who was himself de. thousands joined with him in be ceived. It is said, that the appear. lieving the contrary of what they ance of Christ to St. Paul, on bis saw. Is this possible? journey to Damascus, was merely an " 3. What enthusiast, or fanatic, imaginary vision, and the result of erer ventured upon morals, without St. Paul's heated imagination ; that being misled by his imagination to it was merely tbunder which he took invent an extravagant system wherefor the voice of Christ, and which he as, in the morality taught by St. Paul, fancied to be a call from Heaven; we meet with nothing but what is and that his own gift of miracles, as rational and consistent with philosowell as his power of imparting it to phical ethics. others, was wholly ideal. The com. “ 4. When a man of frantic and inon answer to this objection is, that disordered brain suffers the heat of his former zeal for the law and against his imagination to carry him so far Christ, rendered it impossible for him as to seal his error by his death, his to persuade himself falsely that Christ resolution is generally accompanied had appeared to him, and called him with a wild irrational vehemence and to be an apostle. But this answer is despair. The joyfulness of the marnot satisfactory, for enthusiasts always tyrs in the second and third centu. run into extreines, and are very apt, ries, and the eagerness with which in certain circumstances, to imagine they plunged into sufferings, frethings directly opposite to their for- quently bordered on this kind of mer sentiments. I would propose, phrenzy. But, when St. Paul saw therefore, the following questions : death approaching, his temper of

“ 1. If the appearance of Christ mind was calm and rational. He to St. Paul, related in the ninth chap- went with fortitude to meet death, ter of the Acts, was a mere imagi- but lie did not seek it; on the connary vision, and only a phantoin trary, he defended himself, as well which presented itselt' to St. Paul's as he was able, and felt the usual and agitated 'mind, what is the reason natural apprehensions of a man who that his companions likewise saw and expects to forfeit his life. heard any part of what passed? * Lastly, some have contended

" 2. How could St. Paul imagine, that St. Paul was not an enthusiast, to the end of lig days, that he but a cool and deliberate free-thinker,

whose object was to deliver, by * Hares. xxx. $ 16.

well-intended fraud, both the world + The name of the bigh-priese is very in general, and the Jews in particu. prudently not mentioned.

lar, from the yoke of superstition. Put to this objection I shall not re- “ That among the Jews, even men piy at present, because it belongs of learning (as St. Paul certainly rather to deistical controversy, than to was, who had been educated under an Introduction to the New Testa- Gamaliel) gained their livelihood by ment.

the labour of their own hands is a matter which is well known. But the

question is, by what kind of labour « Of St. Paul's Profession, or Trade.

was St. Paul, who devoted so much "ST. PAUL frequently says in his time to the exercise of his apostoli. Epistles, that he received no pay from cal office, enabled to provide so plenthe Christian communities, except tifully both for himself and his comfrom that of Philippi, and that he panions. The Greek term used by earned his bread by the labour of his St. Luke, Acts xviii. 3. where he says own hands; though at the same tiine that St. Paul and Aquilas exercised be declares, that the labourer is wor- the same art, is O'XNVOT 0105. This word, thy of his hire, and that the teacher which does not occur in other Greek deserres to be recompensed by those authors, is supposed to be equivalent who are taught. He even ordained to ornvogęczpos, and is taken by some that other teachers should be paid by cominentators to denote a worker in the churches, and excluded only him- leather, either a saddler, or a maker of self from a participation of the pay* deather chairs which were strapped He says, in express terms, to the

on the back of a camel. But no man elders of the church at Ephesus, can exercise the trade of a saddler, where he had resided three years, I who leads such a wandering life as • have coveted no man's silver, or

St. Paul did; for a saddler has so • gold, or apparel, yea, ye your many materials necessary for his •selves know, that these hands have business, that they cannot be conve* ministered unto my necessities, and niently transported from town to

to them that were with me t' Now town. Whoever, therefore, reads with St. Paol had gewerally several assis. attention the sixteenth and seven. tants with him ; and when he was at teenth chapters of the Acts of the Ephesus, he by no means lived in Apostles, and observes how short a a narrow or sparing manner; for he stay St. Paul made in each place, and hired a public auditory, where he how frequently he was forced to dedaily taught the doctrines of Chris. part suddenly, must perceive that the tianity , and where every one was

notion of St. Paul's being a travelling permitted to enter without fee or saddler is wholly absurd. Besides, revard. And among his Ephesian the very employment of a saddler is friends he reckoned several Asiarchs, by no means calculated for a travel who were opulent annual magistrates, ling trade; for since saddlers in every and who were certainly nut Chris. town have generally their fixed custians, as it was their office, especially tomers, a man of this trade, who of one of their body, to preside over

came a stranger to any place, might the religious games, of which the wait there a twelvemonth before he president defrayed the greatest part found employment. And even if this of the expence g. Nor does St. Paul objection were removed, it is still appear to have been in narrow cir. difficult to comprehend how

any cumstances during his two years inn- man, who devoted the greatest part prisonment at Cæsarea; for the Ro- of his time to spiritual purposes, and inan governor, Felix, frequently sent had only a few hours' leisure every for him, and conversed with him, ex. day for the labour of his hands, could pecting that money would be offered earn enough as a saddler to supply, for his release.

in an ample manner, the necessities

both of himself and of his friends. See 1 Cor. ix. 2 Cor. xi. 7-11. Gal.

If we explain OXNvotovos as denoting vi. 6--10. Phil. iv. 10-16. Tim. v, 17,

. a maker of leather chairs to be strap15.

ped on the backs of camels,'the dif† Acts xx, 33. 34.

ficulty will be still increased; for St. Acts xix. 9.

Paul was very frequently in places See Boze's Essay on this subject, ita where there were no camels, and the 17th volume of the Memoires de l'Aca- * consequently where no such chairs demie des lascriptions et Belles Lettres, were wanted. Other coinmentators VOL. 1.


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