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9 d. per quart. Now we come to recommend itself to the public. This the Queen's time, when, France dis. they ventured to sell at 23s. per barturbing us again, the malt tax, the rel, that the victualler might retail it duty on hops, and that on coals, took at 3d per quart. Though it was slow, place; and, as the duty on malt sur at first, in making its way, yet, as it passed that on hops, the brewers en was certainly right in the end, the deavoured at a liquor wherein more experiment succeeded beyond expecof the latter should be used : thus, tation. The labouring people, porthe drinking of beer became encou ters, &c. found its utility; from whence raged in preference to ale. This beer, came its appellation of porter, or enwhen new, they sold for 22s. per bar- tire butt. "As yet, however, it was far rel; and, at the same time, advanced from being in the perfection which their ale to 195. and 20s. per barrel; we have since had it. but the people, not easily weaned “ Porter was, at different times, from their heavy, sweet drink, in ge. raised to 30s. per barrel, where it reneral drank ale mixed with beer mained till the year 1799, and was refrom the victualler at 24d. to 2 d. per tailed at 3 d. per quart, when, in conquart. The gentry now residing in sequence of malt rising in price to, London more than they had done in from 41. to 41. 10s. and 51. per quarformer times, introduced the pale ale ter, and hops from 4l. 10s. to 176. and pale small beer, which they were 181. and 201. per cwt, porter was habituated to in the country, and raised to 1). 155. per barrel, and reeither engaged some of their friends, tailed at 4d. per quart. Ale, likeor the London brewers, to make for wise, experienced a rise of from 21. 2s. them these kinds of drink; and af- to 21. 12s. 6d. per barrel.” p. 10–15. Duence and cleanliness promoted the The Author adds the subsequent delivery of them in the brewers own advances upon porter ; but as these casks, and at his charge. Pale malt have been taken off again, we trace being dearest, the brewer being load- him no further. ed with more tax and expence, fixed At the end of the work, Mr. M. the price of such small beer at 8s. and gives the expence of licences, and a 105. per barrel, and the ale at 30s. table of the yarious duties payable to per barrel : the latter was sold by the the excise on strong beer. victualler at 4d. per quart, and under the name of two-penny. This little opposition excited the brown beer trade XXXI. LA BAGATELLA, of Deli10 produce, if possible, a better sort

neations of Home Scenery, a descripof commodity, in their way, than

live Poem, in two Parts, with Notes heretofore had been inade. They Critica! and Historical. By WM. began to hop their mild beers more, Fox, Jun. Fine crown 8vo. with and the publican started three, four,

engraved vigneties, pp. 24. 7s.6d. or sis butts at a time; but so little

Conder, Rivingtons, and Johnson. idea had the brewer, or his customer, of being at the charge of large stocks

"INTRODUCTION, of beer, that it gave room to a set of T movied pengilo? to make a trade, by ders to learn the history of the buying these beers from brewers, following Bagatelle, which is briefly keeping toen, some time, and seiling this :-li happened, that on a fine them, wien stale, to victuailers, for morning, in the early part of last 25. O; 24.7. per barrel.

spring, having just recovered from * Vur tastes but lowly aiter or re the languors of an indisposition, I form. Some drank mild and stale strolled forth through the fields that ber; others, what was then called lie contiguous to my habitation 3-threads, at 3d. per qusrt; but ma [Hackney], and feeling greatly reng all stale, at 4d. per quart. vived by the genial warmth of the On this footing stood the trade until air, and the fresh and blooming aspect abrut the year 1722, when the brewers of every object around me, I could couceired that there was a mean to not forbear, on returning from my be found preferable to any of these walk, to express myself in terins, pero extre nes; which was, that beer should haps too enthusiastic, of the beauties be well brewed, and from being kept of the country, and the pleasantness its proper time, becoming mellow of the scenery, over which I had (i.e. neither new nor stale) it would rambled.

ing air,

" A lady, who was then visiting in With Guttering wing, and sharp quickmy family, rallied me a great deal on quivering note, the poetic fervour of my descriptions; Soars upward, gladden'd by the morn but sarcastically lamented, that my Jabours should have been employed The soft and tender breath of balmy on scenes so entirely unworthy of Spring the embellishment which I had be “ The early rose, the pale-bu'd stowed upon them; and concluded hyacinth, by triumphantly asking, What of Rathe primroses, and modest violets,

sylvan 'or of rustic beauty could Wbite flowering lilacs, harebells stain" be any where found at a distance ed with blue,

of not more than three miles from And such like fragrant flowers, now • the metropolis, within the din of shed their bloom,

its noises, and the very smoke of With sweetest odours scenting every • its chimnies?'

gale. “ Piqued by the severity of the “ Ere this the feather'd race have observation, niy spirit inwardly mut told their joy, tered, . Although, my, fair friend, And thousand untledged throats now • you despise now these home-scenes, strain to join • in the praises of which I am so la The choral harmonies that hail the

vish; yet I will, methinks, one day year. • compel even you to allow that they * First came the swallow, Summer's • are not destitute of every attraction; harbinger,

and that if to your eyes they can From distant lands, to skim and float present no real verdure, you shall

in ours; one day confess, that at least they The nightingale, the lovers' favourite * look green in song."

bird, "Pleased, and strongly impressed Next follows, soothing ost his evenwith such an idea, 1 examined with ing walk; some attention the capabilities of my 'The cuckoo's tame and solitary cal! subject for poetical embellishment; Still from the quiet grove is often and I will freely acknowlecige, that

heard ; the first result of this examination From each low shrub, from ev'ry budwas by no means flattering to my ding spray, wishes. Not, however, to be divert. Soft flutt'rings rustle, or sharp twito ed from my design, and not easily to

terings sound: be discouraged by difficulties, I turn- Thus, as the season gay, lightsoine of ed over in my recoilection the many heart, adinired poeins, which had been pro And raptur'd with the sweets that duced from materials even more bar

round me rise, ren and unyielding than those on My morning walk I once again purwhich I had fallen; and thus ani

sue, mated, I resolved upon the prosecu. And first the low and pond'rous gate tion of iny design."' p. iii, iv.

I turn Hasing given the occasion of this That bounds the path, then to a Poem, in the Author's own words, we

milder scene, now present our readers with the open. Where hedge nor fence exclude the ing of the Poem, which is as follows: passing gale,

And where, hard by, a still and rip“ Tis lovely May, and Nature's ling spring freshen'd face

Steals its clear waters—there, at sober Is allo'er-hung with new-blown flow

noon, ret bells,

The thirsty school-boy with his fold. Cullid from the primrose paths of laughing Spring;

Oft stoops to drink, and triumphs in The azure brightness of the dappled the draught. sky,

" Now by young springing corn I By long, light, shiver'd clouds, just

pass, and o’er marbled'o'er,

A ruggerl unaccommodating stile, Cheers and revives the sight. While (The terror of our fair) whence gently the gay sun

winds Gilds the rich landscape round, th' My fav'rite wand'ring path the meads earth roosted lark,


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Close at its side the streamlet mur The greater part condemn'd, alas ! by murs on,

Fate, By drooping willows shaded, and o'er- To droop and die in yonder sickly hong

town." By spreading elders, whose low-bending boughs

The notes suhjoined are far more In the cool water dip their fragrant extensive than the poem itself. Their flowers.

contents are miscellaneous, and conPendant with night-fallen dew the tain many quotations, with reearly grass

marks, from poets and critics of our Dips o'er the path, or in the sunny own and other countries. The Apgleam

pendix is devoted to the defence of As crystal sparkles on an emerald descriptive poetry, with extracts from stem.

our best descriptive poets. « On either hand the flower-ena

mell'd meads Swell with the varied blossoms of the spring :

XXXII. MARSH'S MICHAELIS, The modest daisy, the wild marigold, The deep-red poppy, and the yel (Continued from p. 53.)

low orchis, With variegated tints enrich the "ROM the many subjects illusgreen.

trated in the fourth volume, ve « Oh how I love to stop and loiter extract the following account of “ St. here,

Paul's character and mode of life. On the green bench, beneath the “ Whether St. Paul was an impostor, willow tree,

an enthusiast, 01 a messenger from HeaTo list the trembling of the water by, ven. To watch the herd that in the mea “ As St. Paul was not a disciple of dow graze,

Christ during his ministry, and as Or track the labourer to his morning many Jewish zealots and other heretoil.

tics were offended at his doctrine, Or, if my vagrant eye should rove so his right to the name and dignity of far,

an apostle of Christ was disputed by To tell the turrets of the distant town, many, especially in Galatia and at Picas'd with the space that rolls 'twixt Corinth. ‘And, though he triumphed them and me.

over his enemies, and silenced them “ flence, oft as turns my path, I during his life, yet some later herebackward turn,

tics have refused to acknowledge Topy, at intervals, our village tower, him as a messenger from Christ : but Just peeping forth 'twixt yonder aged his divine mission is sufficientiv elms;

proved by his miracles and gifts of In this lone path the foot of passen. the Holy Ghost. I have not rouin ger

to enlarge, as I could wish, on this I seldom meet, save one good care. subject : but I will take notice of the

sul dame, Who, as the morning punctuat, tends principal objections, which in modern

St. her charge,

divine mission. That he wilfully and A ruddy blooming child on either naliciously imposed upon the world hand,

is an assertion almost too absurd to To daily school. Good morrow, sir,' be made ; for it is impossible to con. sbe cries,

ceive what advantage he could have With curtsey dropp'd— Good more proposed to himself from the impus. row,' I rejoin,

ture. He subsisted by the labour of And onwap each our distant journey his own hands; he lost his credit wind.

among the Jews by preaching the Far to the right the nursery extends, Gospel; he involved himself in trouThe school of plants, where, as in bles and disgrace ; and was at last other schools,

obliged to seal his doctrine with his Scions are formed and cultur'd for blood. If we consider farther the tbe world,

undissembled calmness of mind conBeard but to be remov'd to stranger spicuous throughout the second Epissoils;

tle to Timothy, at a time when his

death was impending, he cannot pos- wrought certain miracles which were sibly be taken for a wicked deceiver, never wrought? Were not his senses who was disappointed in his hope. evidences to him of the contrary? According to. Epiphanius*, the Ebi How could he imagine that he comonites propagated the following ridi- niunicated to others the gift of culous story : St. Paul,' they said, tongues, if they did not speak lan• who acknowledged himself to be a guages, with which they were not be• native of. Tarsus, was born a hea- fore acquainted? Was St. Paulhimself, • then ; but that on coming to Jeru- were the Christian communities to • salem, he was captivated with the which he wrote, were his fellow-labou• daughter of a Jewish high-priest +, rers, so deprived both of their sigbt and • and in order to obtain her in mare hearing, as to imagine these things , riage, underwent the rite of cir- if they had never happened? The • cumcision. His expectations, how- prophets of the Cevennes, in the pre• ever, they say, were disappointed, seni century, were the greatest' en• and on that account St. Paul be. thusiasts in the world ; yet they did

came such an enemy to the Jewish not imagine the contrary of what • religion, that he resolved to preach they saw and heard ; and though they • Christianity as the surest means of were sanguine in prophesying that • undermining it.' This story is so they should raise the dead, they neabsurd, that it carries with it its own ver ventured to make the experiment. confutation.

But St. Pa it is pretended, per“ Others pretend, that St. Paul was suaded himself almost twenty succesan enthusiast, and that he was not sive years, that he was working what so much an intentional deceiver of he did not work; and that many others, as one who was himself de. thousands joined with him in beceived. It is said, that the appear. lieving the contrary of what they ance of Christ to St. Paul, on his saw. Is this possible? journey to Damascus, was merely an " 3. What enthusiast, or fanatic, imaginary vision, and the result of erer ventured upon morals, without St. Paul's heated imagination ; that being misled by his imagination to it was merely thunder which he took inventan extravagantsystem? wherefor the voice of Christ, and which he as, in the morality taught by St. Paul, fancied to be a call from Heaven; we meet with nothing but what is and that his own gift of miracles, as rational and consistent with philosowell as his power of imparting it to phical ethics. others, was wholly ideal." The com. “ 4. When a man of frantic and inon answer to this objection is, that disordered brain suffers the heat of his former zeal for the law and against his imagination to carry him so far Christ, rendered it impossible for him as to seal his error by his death, his to persuade himself falsely that Christ resolution is generally accompanied had appeared to him, and called him with a wild irrational vehemence and to be an apostle. But this answer is despair. The joyfulness of the marnot satisfactory, for enthusiasts always tyrs in the second and third centu. run into extreines, and are very apt, ries, and the eagerness with which in certain circumstances, to imagine they plunged into sufferings, frethings directly opposite to their for- quently bordered on this kind of mer sentiments. I would propose, phrenzy. But, when St. Paul sa w therefore, the following questions : death approaching, his temper of

“ I. If the appearance of Christ mind was calm and rational. He to St. Paul, related in the ninth chap went with fortitude to meet dealb, ter of the Acts, was a mere imagi- but he did not seek it; on the con. nary vision, and only a phantoin trary, he defended himself, as weil which presented itselt' to St. Paul's as he was able, and felt the usual and agitated mind, what is the reason natural apprehensions of a man who that his companions likewise saw and expects to forfeit his life. heard any part of what passed? is Lastly, some have contended

"?. How could St. Paul imagine, that St. Paul was not an enthusiast, to the end of his days, that he but a cool and deliberate free-thinker,

whose object was to deliver, by * Hares. xxx. $ 16.

well-intended fraud, both the world 4. The name of the high-priest is very in general, and the Jews in particu. prudeatly not mentioned.

lar, from the yoke of superstition.

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But to this objection I shall not re “ That among the Jews, even men ply at present, because it belongs of learning (as St. Paul certainly rather to deistical controversy, than to was, who had been educated under an Introduction to the New Testa- Gamaliel) gained their livelihood by ment.

the labour of their own hands is a matter which is well known. But the

question is, by what kind of labour "Of St. Paul's Profession, or Trade. was St. Paul, who devoted so much " ST. PAUL frequently says in his time to the exercise of his apostoliEpistles, that he received no pay from cal office, enabled to provide so plenthe Christian communities, except tifully both for himself and his com. from that of Philippi, and that he panions. The Greek term used by carped his bread by the labour of his St. Luke, Acts xviii. 3. where he says orn hands; though at the same time that St. Paul and Aquilas exercised be declares, that the labourer is wor the same art, is O'MNYOTOLOG. This word, thy of bis hire, and that the teacher which does not occur in other Greek deserves to be recompensed by those

authors, is supposed to be equivalent who are taught. He even ordained to σκηνορραφος, and is taken by some that other teachers should be paid by

cominentators to denote a worker in the churches, and excluded only him

leather, either a saddler, or a maker of self from a participation of the pay deather chairs which were strapped He says, in express terms, to the

on the back of a camel. But no man elders of the church at Ephesus,

can exercise the trade of a saddler, where he had resided three years, I who leads such a wandering life as have coveted no man's silver, or

St. Paul did; for a saddler has so gold, or apparel; yea, ye, you:

many inaterials necessary for his selves know, that these hands have business, that they cannot be conveministered upto my necessities, and

niently transported from town to to them that were with me t' Now town. Whoever, therefore, reads with St. Paul had generally several assis.

attention the sixteenth and seven. tants with him ; and when he was at

teenth chapters of the Acts of the Ephesus, he by no means lived in Apostles, and observes how short a 2 narrow or sparing manner; for be stay St. Paul made in each place, and hired a public auditory, where he how frequently he was forced to dedaily taught the doctrines of Chris part suddenly, must perceive that the tianity #, and where every one was

notion of St. Paul's being a travelling permitted to enter without fee or saddler is wholly absurd. Besides, reward. And among his Ephesian

the very employment of a saddler is friends he reckoned several Asiarchs,

by no means calculated for a travelwho were opulent annual magistrates,

ling trade; for since saddlers in every and who were certainly not Chris town have generally their fixed custians, as it was their office, especially

tomers, a man of this trade, who of one of their body, to preside over

came a stranger to any place, might the religious games, of which the

wait there a twelvemonth before he president defrayed the greatest part

found employment. And even if this of the expence Nor does St. Paul objection were removed, it is still appear to have been in narrow cir

difficult to comprehend how any cumstances during his two years im

man, who devoted the greatest part prisonment at Cæsarea ; for the Ro

of his time to spiritual purposes, and inan governor, Felix, frequently sent

had only a few hours' leisure every for him, and conversed with him, ex.

day for the labour of his hands, could pecting that money would be offered earn enough as a saddler to supply, for his release.

in an ample manner, the necessities

both of himself and of his friends. See 1 Cor. ix. 2 Cor. xi. 7-11. Gal.

If we explain CANYOTOLOŞ as denoting vi. 6-10. Phil. iv. 10-16. 1 Tim. v, 17,

• a maker of leather chairs to be strap

ped on the backs of camels,'the dif† Acts xx, 33. 34.

ficulty will be still increased; for St. Acts xix. 9.

Paul was very frequently in places See Boze's Essay on this subject, in where there were no camels, and the 17th volume of the Memoires de l'Aca- consequently where no such chairs demie des løscriptions et Belles Lettres,

were wanted. Other coinmentators



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