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OF THE CIVIL. CONSTITU. TION OF THIS REALM.
take cxnxomoros in the sense of a ' tent• maker; but the same objections XXXIII. The Constitution of the which I have made to the other applications of the word may be made
United Kingdom of Great Britain and likewise to this. And if Aquilas, who
Ireland, Civil and Ecclesiastical. By was of the same trade with St. Paul,
Francis PLOWDEN, Esq. Barriswas a tent-maker, it must seem ex.
ter at Law, with a portrait of the traordinary that a man, who was a
Author, by King. Svo, boards. pp. 562. native of Pontus, in the neighbour
Ridgway. hood of which country there were
HIS come to Corinth and Ephesus, where
parts; the former illustrating the tents were not wanted.
civil constitution, is subdivided into “ But the preceding difficulties are eleven chapters, and the latter relating entirely renoved by the following to the ecclesiastical, contains ten chap passage in Julius Pollux, from which ters. it appears that oxnvorosos has properly Part I. a very different meaning from either of those already mentioned. This * learned writer says in his Onomasti Chap. I. commences with a view con, lib. VII. § 189. that OXWOT0105,
of the magnitude and importance of in the language of the old comedy, the subject, and states, that the obwas equivalent to MOXIYOTO105*, Now ject of the work is simply to deliper motObo; signifies a maker of me neate the constitution of this country,
chanical instruments ;' consequent. gives a panegyric on its excellence, ly St. Paul and Aquilas were nei and a description of its true basis, ther saddlers nor tent-makers. And concluding with a plan of the work. this profession suited extreniely well In this chapter we notice the followtheir mode of life ; for whoever pos- ing remarks : " To the truc lovers sesses ability in the art, can earn,
of our constitution nothing should be in a few hours every day, as much as
more acceptable than the possession is necessary for his support; and can
of a faithful likeness of it, taken at easily travel from place to place, be. some critical period of its existence cause the apparatus is easily trans
whicli may survive the changes and ported. It is, therefore, extraordi. blemishes of disease and wounds, pary that no commentator has hi. and retain the native beauty of its therto taken on YOT0195, Acts xviii. 3. form in despite of nature, time, and in this sense; and still more extra
violence. Enthusiasm, however laudordinary that Julius Pollux has been able in those who enjoy this blessing, actually quoted for a very different ought not to shut out reason, or close purpose, namely, to caution the rea our eyes to the inseparable attribuie der' against ascribing to oxAVOT010,
of mortality, which attends every hu. Acts xviii. 3. the sense which is man institution. The learned Mon. given it in the Onomasticon of Julius sesquieu * says, that whoever reads the Pollux. Such commentators must adinirable treatise of Tacirus on the surely have never reflected on the manners of the Germans, will find advantages which attend this sense,
that it is from them the English have and the difficulties which attend the borrowed the idea of their political others." p. 181-186.
This beautiful ystemu
was invented first in the woods. He * Tx; di ungavomo185 GAIVOTTOISE
then predicts, with a degree of assurIrenaire xspeedice u rolucess. Though Julius ance, which an Englishman' reluctPollux says that cxNVO soos was thus used antly admits, " that as all human in the old comedy, and does not quote ' things have an end, the state we any living authors, yet it must be observed
are speaking of will lose its liberty; that the words used in comedy are the • it will perish. Hlave not Rome, words of common conversation, though . Carthage, and Sparta, perished ? not alrays used by authors.
• It will perish when the legislative
power shall be more corrupied than • The executive. To defeat, or at
* Spirit of Laws, s. xi. c. 6.
least to ward off as long as possible, than a submission to them; for the the prediction of this great man, is effects of weakness, apprehension, and my wish and view in marking this fear, which some philosophers have publication." p. t.
attributed to man in the siate of na2. Our author considers the Rights ture, inust have arisen from the inof Man fairly acted upon to be the ternal sense of mortality, and the true basis of the British Constitution. principle of self-preservation, not His ideas on this subject are clearly from an original or innate tendency explained in the course of the work; to subjection to any created object. and bere he observes, “ It is not be. The idea of superiority was prior in cause revolutionary France has thrown man to that of dependence. The lat. Europe into a ferment, nor because ter could never have occurred to him, Mr. Paine has libelled the govern- till he had found out his wants, till ment of this country, that we are to he had felt his insufficiency to supply renounce our possession of any con- them. Independence then was es. stitution at all, or raise its superstruc- sential to the state of nature, and lure upon any other than the very hence is deduced the original right of basis upon which it really stands. option, to whom each one shall chuse
* In the prosecution of my re to surrender bis independence by vosearches I shall follow the order which luntary submission, the subject naturally prescribes. I “ In this theoretical transition of shall consider man first in the state man from the state of nature to the of pure nature; then in that of so state of society, such natural rights, ciety; and lastly, in the state of the as the individual actually retains in British Constitution.” p.5.
dependently of the society are said to Chap. II. on the state of nature, be retained by him as a part of those shews the necessity of previous con rights which he is supposed to have siderations into the state of nature, possessed in the state of nature. with the true view of that state, and Such are the free and uncontrouled source of modern errors with regard power of directing all his animal mo. to it.-Opinions of Locke and Mon- tions; such the uninterrupted inter.. tesquieu-Commencement of social course of the soul with its Creator, order according to the former. -- such the unrestrained freedom of his Rights of inan in the state of nature own thoughts; for so long as an in retained in the state of society, and dividual occasions no liarm, and rights of the community. On these offers no offence to his neighbour by topics the author argues :
the exercise of any of these rights, i lo the state of pure nature, the the society cannot controul' him in most perfect equality of mankind the exercise of them. must necessarily exist, because it re. But in this transition the natural presents man in an abstract point of rights were considered to be so irreview, that essentially precludes all vocably transferred from the indivithose circumstances, which in the dual to the community, that it no state of society, form various grounds longer remained at his option to reof distinction, superiority, and pre- claim what had become unalienably eminence, amongst individuals. The vested in the body at large." p.9, 10. fundamental idea of man, in this state Prosecuting this subject, the Auof nature, must have been that of thor contends, that the exercise of equality in his fellow-creatures; and, the natural rights of man is imposas a rational being, he must have been sible, describes an Englishman's ideas impressed with a conscious idea of of liberty, and the object of man in his superiority over all irrational ob- entering into society, which he conjects; and, by inference, he must cludes with observing, that " man's hare inclined rather to a similar pre- natural rights are the foundation of cedency over his fellow-creatures, all liis crvii rights."
(To be continued)
ORIGINAL CRITICISM AND CORRESPONDENCE.
TO THE EDITOR. MR. EDITOR, HA CAVING been many years ac. have been surprised to read such
customed to look over the Gen- lines as the following, at the back of tleman's Magazine, and to consider the Title Page, in what is called, an it, upon the whole, as a respectable " Ode that may suit the New Year, publication, judge how much I must 1802."
" Bellona's red chariot and smoking hot steeds
(Signed) DEMOCRITUS, Junior. • I shall not attenipt to criticise the a fiend, and of a fiend too of the poetical merit of these lines, which, deepest malignity. as well as the rest of the rhimes, wouli I cannot but hope Mr. Urban did disgrace any London bellman; nor pot see these lines before he printed will I remark on their profaneness, them, and that he will cancel the polwhich is sufficiently obvions; but this luted leaf that holds them, or I must I must say, the spirit that can thus conclude he has forfeited all the urcooly and heartily wish the massacre banity of his name. and damnation of thirty millions of
Į am, Sir, yours, &c. souls, pipst not be that of man, but of
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY EPITOME.
you allow authors, who conceive reject invariably every complaint themselves to have been ill used by which exceeds the limits of civility their Reviewers, to make an appeal to and good temper. the public in your department of cor If, in what I am about to addres respondence. The desirableness of to you, I shall fall into the evil I ain such a mode of appeal is equally ob cautioning others against (which is vious with its liability to abuse. Authors no uncominon case) I hope you will are too frequently of the genus irri- prevent me from exposing to the dabile, and may sometimes think public so gross an inconsistency, by themselves injured, when nobody else suppressing this communication. It thinks so. You will probably not al. would be the more inexcusable in my ways find it easy to distinguish neces- circumstances, as they are not attend sary appeals against the secret tribunaled with equal provocation to that of a reviewer from such as are frivolous which some writers have had to enand vexatious. Perhaps the rule of dure. Indeed I have rather to reconduct which will be most conveni inonstrate than to complain; and ent to yourself, most comfortable to that, not on account of treatment your readers, and most creditable to which I have experienced from Re.
tiewers, but of misrepresentations Scriptures the doctrine of original which some of them hare made of sin, Mr. Madan convinced him that a subject that fell under iny discus- all mankind were on the same level sion; otherwise I should not think it with himself before God. The atoneproper to trouble you with remarks ment and righteousness of Christ berelative to a single sermon, of which ing set forth to him, Mr. Cowper a second edition was published last discovered therein the remedy which year. I advert to that which treats his case required.”-What can you of the religious character and circum- think, Sir, of a critic, who, in anistances of the late William Cowper, madverting upon this passage, avows Esq. It has been noticed in most, if his disposition to wish Mr. Madan at not all, of the numerous reviews, and the devil? This phraseology, in which resiewing magazines, with which the it is doubtful whether piety or ele. public is supplied; and I know not gance is most conspicuous, is that of that in more than one instance I the Anti-Jacobin Reviewer. bave, on my own account, any ground In a very recent publication, writof complaint:--even the ANTI-JACO- ten by the late W. Cowper, Esq. he EIS Reviewer, to whom I now refer, relates, that bis accomplished bro. though he has not attacked my ser- ther, the Reverend John Cowper, son with the spear of Ithuriel, may expressed himself on his death-bed, be said to have used that of Telephus; relative to the circumstance just menfor if he calls it enthusiastic, he allows tioned, in a very different manner. it to be pious: if silly, sensible; and, “ When I came to visit you in Lonif vulgar, yet elevated. Nay, he has don,” said he to his brother, “aud. done less injury to me than to bim found you in that deep distress, I self by so paradoxical a description; would bave given the universe to have for though he bas inade very copious administered some comfort to you. extracts from the sermon, he has dis. You may remember that I tried every tinguished po part of it to which the method of doing it. When I found disgraceful division of his epithets ap- that all my attempts were vain, i plied. In terms of which the pro was shocked to the greatest degree. faneness has drawn public animad- I began to consider your sufferings as version from another hand *, he cen a judgment upon you, and my inasured me for omitting to specify the bility to alleviate them as a judgment academy where I received my theo
When Mr. Madan logical instructions, and the congre came, he succeeded in a moment. gation over which I was ordained. [ This surprised me; but it does not ihea thought, and I still think, my- surprise ine now he had the key to self of too little consequence to your heart, which I had not." Adeltrouble the public with such points phi, p. 31. Such was the language of information.
of a man, respectable in character, The religious character of Mr. and eminent in literature, when upon Cowper, the influence which the doc the verge of eternity. Might it not trinal sentiments he professed had be useful for Reviewers sometimes to upon his mind, and that which ge- anticipate a death-bed? Though they naine piety produces upon the affec are now concealed froin the resenia tions in general, are of far greater iin- ment of persons with whose characportance. On these topics, therefore, ters they sport, they should be aware permit me to avail myself of your that God is not to be inocked. The Anpublication, in remoustrating against ti-Jacobin Magazine was professediy some remarks, both of the Anti-Jaco- introduced for the support of religion bin Reviewer, and of a more respect- and loyalty; but scurrility and proable hand, the British Critic.
faneness are disgraceful to any cause, Having described the terror and and the more so in proportion to its distress which Mr. C. felt, upon an
excellence. awful occasion, previous to his pro To the BRITISH CRITIC I am, as session of religion, I added, “ While a writer, indebted for considerable in this state, he was visited by the indulgence. He gives me credit for hate reverend Martiu Madan, his first having carefully endeavoured to guard cousin. By explaining from the against an abuse of Mr. Cowper's re
markable history; but he suggests * See a note in the Rev. R. Hill's Apo• that I have left untouched the root logy for Sunday Schools,
of evil, by allowing my readers to rew
gard the movements of their affec- pressions, however, lead me to appre. ions as their religious experience. hend, that he considers religion only This appears to me so far from being as a principle of action; without rethe case, that in the very passage he gard to its influence upon our affecquotes, I cautioned pious people tions, as they relate to God, our felagainst the influence which their na low creatures, or ourselves. tural feelings might have upon their I will add no more, except a few religious experience. That which words upon a subject of interior imaffects any thing, cannot be the thing portance. The CRITICAL Reviewer which is so affected. The point at of my Sermon stated that it was issue seems therefore to be, whether preached at the place of worship there be any such thing as religious where Mr. Cowper had been used to experience. Is it necessary to say, attend. I imagine this mistake arose that, by experience, I mean that which from the religious intercourse which results from making an experiment subsisted between him and a great or trial of any thing? So, I think, part of the congregation to whom I the Scripture applies the term, Rom. addressed the Discourse. Mr. C. v. 4. “ Patience worketh experience, however, statedly attended the parish and experience hope.” If I am con Church at Olney, while be continued vinced that my health is in a dange- to join in public worship. A large rous state, and a medicine is recoin- proportion of the church people at mended to me in such a manner as to Diney having been present when I authorize my confidence, I make trial preached, and many of the dissentof it; and the result of that trial is ing hearers having been equally acmy experience of its efficacy: so, as quainted with Mr. C. I addressed to my state of mind; I am convinced them as persons who could unite their that it is not what it ought to be; the testimony with mine to the excellence Gospel of Jesus Christ is recommend of his character. ed to me, as the means of peace with I am, Sir, God, and genuine holiness; but it
Yours, &c. can only be productive of these bles
Sam. GREATHEED. sings, as it is relied upon by faith; Nereport Pagnel, and this faith is not of ourselves, but Feb. 5. 1802. God has promised it, as the operation of his Holy Spirit, to them who pray for it in the name of Jesus. The Gospel comes to ine with the strongest possible recommendations; and I
MR. EDITOR, make trial of it by praying for the I know not how far the following obgift of that faith, by which alone a sinner can be justitied and purified.
servations may fall within the plan The peace that I in consequence en
of your work; but they have ocjoy, and the capacity that I possess
curred in reading some late tem
porary publications, and are very for spiritual worship and obedience
much at your service : whether you constitute niy religious experience,
insert or burn them, it will not I experience the benefit and the
offend your constant reader. pleasure of vital religion ; but I ex
A. Z. perience also its difficulties. The icars and distresses that interrupt my O person in the habit of seeing peace, the tempestuous and corrupt our periodical journals can be dispositions that impede my holiness, ignorant of the great number of tracts unavoidably affect my religious ex lately put in circulation relative to perience. I have said so much in the Dissenters; and the perpetual murSermon, on the connection which re- murs of certain Churchmen relative to ligious experience has with our natu- the abuse, as they call it, of the Toleral and constitutional feelings, that I ration Act. Ai length some bave need not at present take up your room fairly spoken out, and the Author of or time on that subject. I do not a certain " Letter to the Archbishops suppose that the British Critic would and Bishops of the Church of Eng. limit religion merely to the outward land" (printed for Corbett and conduct. He must be aware that Morgan) plainly tells us, that as things. both the law of God and the faith of are, the Act of Toleration " is become Cbrist centre in the heart. His ex. the disgrace of our stalude bouks, and
TO THE EDITOR.