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differences more striking than those dering weapon invented in our Euwhich he observes in ihe physical rope, with which the antients were so man: in the latter, the difference the fortunate as not to be acquainted, most characterised is that of the and which, in the space of a century, white from the blcik, of the inhabi. so short when it is compared to the tant of Scandinavia from the negro duration of the world, has destroyed, of Senegal; but this transition in the or submitted to a few men, half of the species is not sudden; and if we tra- human species. Captain Marchand, vel over the known countries of the following the example of bis nuglobe, we shall pass from one country merous predecessors, thought it into another by imperceptible shades; cumbent on him to take possession, it is otherwise with the moral man; in the name of the French nation, of can there, for instance, be found in- the island of which he had recently termediate shades between the con- made the discovery, a possession jugal fidelity imposed by our man. which involved as a right, according ners, and the prostitution honoured to the received opinion, that of the among the tribes disseminated over other islands which he might discover the great ocean? There are then vir- in the same quarter. This ceremony, tues and vices, as there is a beauty which would only be ridiculous front and a deformity, of locality and opi- its inutility, if it were not contrary to nion.

I do not say it the law of nature and of nations, was is right that this is so; but I say that performed by fastening with four facts seem to prove that this isp. Dails against the trunk of a large tree, 151, 152.

an inscription, containing the name of Captain M. imposed on this bay, the ship, and of the captain, and the the name of Baie du Bon Accuiel act of taking possession of the island (Welcome Bay.)

by the French. The natives, who Our navigators visited a bay on the observed with the attention of curionorth-west coast of the island, where sity all that was doing by the stranthey landed, and “the natives crowd- gers, the object of their admiration, ed round them, but without confu- certainly did not suspect that the latsion, without being importunate, with. ter were solemnly taking possession out making themselves troublesome; of the land where the bones of their they seemed to have no other object forefathers reposed, and were giving than to obtain a nearer view of them. them a master in a hemisphere which Captain Marchand, and his party, neither they nor their ancestors ever distributed to them various irifles, heard of. But though the peaceable such as nails, looking glasses, knives, disposition of these islanders might fish-hooks, and coloured glass beads; afford the hope that they would reand it is needless to mention that, in spect this monument, which, howthe distribution of the presents, the ever, was to last no longer than till modest virgins were not forgotten. the rust should consume the nails, or They received in exchange from time or men throw down the obelisk, these inoffensive islanders, and from it was thought that prudence comtheir chief in particular, a lance, a manded far greater safety, and ad dart, or javelin, two fans made of perpetuam rei memoriam, the inscripfeathers, and two large pearl oyster. tion to be written on three sheets of shells.”

paper, which were rolled up sepa · Since navigation has made known rately, and put into three glass bottles, to Europeans, parts of the terrestrial corked and sealed; one was deposita globe, of which the antients did not ed in the hands of the venerable suspect the existence, they have per- chief of the district; the second was suaded themselves that the whole delivered to a man of a certain age ; world belongs to them; and that the and the third was intrusted to the lands which they happen to discover, custody of a young girl : three geneare portions of their universal domain, rations scarcely seemed sufficient to Which nature was to blame to alien answer for so valuable a deposit. Of ate, and which ought to return under all the presenis that were made to the their domination : too happy still are inhabitants of the country which had the primitive possessors of the disco- just been united to France, the botvered countries, if the usurper, in tles were those they received with order to establish the rights of sove niost pleasure, and to which, without reignty, has not recourse to that thun- suspecting that they contained the

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act of their union to an empire of “In the afternoon of the 29th of Europe, they appeared to attach the July, 1791, in latitude 42° 40' and greatest value. From this disposition longitude 150° 40', the sea being peron their side, no doubt was entertain- fectly smooth, the yawl was deedof their preserving them carefully, tached to pick up on the water a and their visitors were convinced that plant, which appeared to belong to a conquest in bottles is secure against the family of the fui, betier known every event. Would it not be sup to seamen by the name of sea-weed, posed that the French wished to have and at a distance, the motion it understood by all the navigators who that was given to it by some fishes taus conquered the world post haste, which were round about, bad occathat an act of taking possession, ifsioned to be taken for a turtle. I performed in the style of theirs, has shall bring into one, the separate deall the fragility of the glass which is scriptions given of it by Captain to protect its title froin the injury of Chanal and Surgeon Roblet.

“ The length of this plant was thir* As soon as this awful ceremony teen feet and a half, according to the was concluded, the porth-west bay of one, and fourteen feet according to Marchand's Island was proclaimed the other; and its circumference, at La Baie de Possession (Possession- the thickest extremity, was fisteen Bay) without any opposition or re inches, according to the former, and noustrance on the part of the ancient eighteen, according to the latter; it proprietors, and their silence must, gradually diminished throughout its forsooth, be interpreted as a tacit whole length, was reduced to about assent.

one inch at the other extremity and ** The astonishment of the natives terminated in a point: the thick end, of this island at the sight of Europeans according to Captain Chanal, was and European commodities, their ig- swelled in the shape of a bottle or norance of traffic, their simplicity, bladder. Its flexible stem had the their confidence-every thing seems form of a hollow bamboo, but without to indicate that the French are the knots, which occasioned it to be irst navigators who have set their called sea bambco. Its exterior surfoot on this island. The mild, peace- face, which was smooth and even, ble, and friendly disposition which was, froin one end to the other, coisese kind islanders manifested, they vered with small shells of the species Gwe wholly to nature; for they were of muscles, according to the former, ist aware with what strength those of that of barnacles, according to the men, whose species and power were latter, which were attached to it by till then unknown to them, came pedicles of four, five, and even six asmed; and the marks of good-will inches long; these diaphanous pediaad friendship, of which they were cles, says Surgeon Roblet, of a tlesby so lavish towards a handful of stran- and elastic consistence, resembled gers, who could not have appeared glass tubes filled with water, and had to them formidable, cannot be attri Their transparency; the summit of buted to a sentiment of fear, with each pedicle was terminated by a mich no act on the part of the hinged shell of the form of a fish's French either could or ought to have heard, composed of four moveable iaspired them; for our voyagers did pieces, united by a membrane, which sot even indulge themselves, either in pieces contained a little animal with Welcome Bay or Possession Bay, in eight fret. Surgeon Roblet, to whom fring a single shot at any sea-bird; this last part of the description bethey were apprehensive that the ses longs, says that he is ignorant of the port of a fire-arm would spread terror name of this animal, but he believes among simple and inoffensive men, that it is called a barnacle. p. 180, to whom they owed gratitude. These 181. worthy people are yet ignorant of the After some curious observations on effect of European arms; and may the barnacle and the hermit crab, the they never know it! Marchand's Author proceeds, " I am of opinion, Island will then be reckoned in the that it is to the plant of which our too small number of the islands of voyagers have given a description, that the great ocean, the discovery of the editor of the account of Anson's which has not been polluted by the vovage has given the name of seneflusion of human blood.”

ieck, of which it has nearly the form

p. 158.

and figure amplified; and this is the features. Surgeon Roblet attributes name too which has been given to it their air of ferocity to their frequent by Captain Cook, who saw similar expression of the passions by which plants nearly in the saine latitude they are agitated. - Tattooing is little where Captain Marchand met with in use among the Tchinkitánayaos ; it; but neither of the English navi a few men only are tattooed on the gators have given of it a deiailed de- hands, and on the legs below the scription.” p. 183.

knee; almost all the women are tatOn the 7th of August, 1791, the tooed on the same parts of the Solide arrived in sight of the north- body." p. 218. west coast of Ainerica, and made

(To be continued.) Dixon's Norfolk Sound, where they cast anchor and traded with the natives, who name the place Tchinkitânay, and are thus described : “The XXXV. The INCOME TAX scrutinatives who occupy the environs of nized, and some Amendments proTchinkitånay Bay are of a stature posed to render it more agreeable 10 below the middle size; none of five the British Constitution. By JOHN feet four inches (French) are to be GRAY, LL.D. 8vo. 84 pp. Pr. 25. seen; their body is thick but tolera

H. D. Symonds. bly ; round,

G. highly but sharp nose, little watery eyes sunk in the head, and prominent ceives it should be levied on national cheek bones. It is no easy matter to income only. We cannot better exdetermine the colour of their com- press his idea than by copying the conplexion; it might be imagined to be cluding paragraph of the pamphlet. red or light brown, but a coat of na “ To conclude, the sum of the tural dirt, thickened by a foreign mix. whole is, that whatever affords an inture of red and black substances, with come to one person, without detractwhich they smear their visage, suffers ing from the income of another perno remnant of their primitive skin to son, is both a private income and a be discovered. The coloured strokes national income ; that what affords which they trace on their face, pre an income to one person by detractsent not all the same design; but all ing from the income of another perequally add to their natarał ugliness. son, is a private income, without

Their coarse, thick hair, covered with being a national income; and of this ochre, down of birds, and all the kind are the incomes of every person filth which neglect and time have ac- in society, excepting those of the cumulated in it, contributes to render farmer, the fishermen, and the mertheir aspect still more hideous. They chant, in so far as his profits are not wear their beare only at a certain made upon his fellow-subjects; that age; the youths carefully eradicate it ought to be one of the first cares of it; adults suffer it to grow; and it is government, that the national income at this day well proved, by the una- should superabound, and consequentnimous aécount of the different voy. ly that storing and exportation of agers who have visited the north-west corn are both good things; that procoast of America, that all the Ameri- duction, and not consumption, is the cans have a beard, in contradiction natural source of public supply ; that to the opinion of some of the learned, the income tax is a tax thai ought who refused it to the men of the new never to be departed from; but tha world, and wished 10 make this want it ought to be drawn from the re, of hair a variety in the human species. national income, and not from ima. It is probable that the face of those at ginary national incomes ; that a pos. Tchinkitânay Bay would be less dis sessor of real income, who should gusting, if they preserved that which withhold his just proportion of sup nature has given them; for the young ply for the defence of the state would boys have an agrecable, and even an aci as dishonourably as a military interesting countenance, but age, and man, who in a day of battle shoul still more the trouble which they take contend tor the privilege of standing to make themselves ugly by wishing in the hindmost rank.' to embellishi-themselves, and in giving them bard, coarse, and even ferocious

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XXXVI. A DICTIONARY of Moham- again, and constitute a third stem

medax Law, Bengal Revenue Te ms, .and so on. From the opposite pretty Skanscrit, Hindoo, and other Words, high bank of the Ganges, and at the used in the East Indies, with full Ex • distance of near eight miles, we perplanations; the leading Word of each ceived this tree of a pyramidical Article being printed in a new Nus shape, with an easy spreading slope taleck Type*. To which is added, an • from its summit to the extremity of Appendix, containing forms of Fir. its lower branches. We mistook it maans, Permanehs, &c. By S. Rous- at first for a small bill. We had no SEAU, Teacher of the Persian Lan- quadrant to take its height; but the guage. 12 mo. 352 pp. 85. bound. • middle or principal stem is consiSewell, and Murray and Highley. derably higher, I think, than the

highest elm, or other tree, I ever TR

saw in England. The following this nalure to have been long a desideratum, not only to gentlemen

comprise some other of its dimen

*sions, which were taken with a cord going to the East Indies, but to others of a given length. trho wish to understand at hoine the affairs of that country: and to the * Diameter of the branches 121 or 363 Preface is added an Introduction, Diameter of ditto from giving a brief description of the three 'north to south

125 or 375 provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and Oris Circumference of the shas2, which is equally instructive and

dow of the extreme

• branches taken at the entertaining; and the Dictionary it.

; meridian

372 or 1,116 self is not a mere explanation of

Circumference of the seterms, but contains many interesting

6 veral bodies or stems, articles, as may be judged from the

taken by carrying the following extracts.

'cord round the outerBaryan, or Banian Tree, among (most trunks

307 or 921 the Hindoos, is a sacred plant: from

"The several trunks may amount to its various branches shoots, exactly 50 or 60. like roots, issue, and growing till

* N. B. The dropping fibrès shoot down from they reach the ground, fix themselves

the knots or joints of the boughs. and become mothers to a future pro. gent; they thus extend as far as the « This tree, as well as the peeple, ground will admit.

• and many other large trees in India, " There are two sorts, the pipler, is a creeper. It is often seen to spring which is the female, and the ward, round other trees, particularly round which is the inale. This is the same ' every species of palm. The date, tree which is called by botanists the or palmyra, growing through the facas crientals. The following de * centre of a banian tree, looks exscription of a Banian tree, in the pro- •tremely grand; and yet none of the vince of Babar, was written by Co-European landscape painters, who lonel Tropside. · Near Mangee, a have delineated views of this coun. small town at the confluence of the

try, have introduced this character. Dewah (or Gogra) and the Ganges, istic object into their pieces. I have about twenty iniles west of the city frequently observed it also shooting of Patnas, there is a remarkable large ' from old walls, and running along "tree, called a Bur, or Banian Tree, them. In the inside of a large well, * which has the quality of extending its it lined the whole circumference of "branches, in a horizontal direction, to the internal space of it, and thus

a considerable distance from its stein; actually became a tree turned in. and of then dropping leatless fibres or " side out. 'scionstothe ground, which there catch • Under the tree sat a fakir, a dehold of the earth, take root, embody, "votee: he had been there twentygrow thick, and serve either to sup • five years; but he did not continue port the protracted branches, or, by • under the tree throughout the year, a farther vegetation, to compose a • his vow obliging him to lie. during second trunk. Froin the branches, the four coldest months, up to his

other arms again spring out, fall neck in the Ganges, and to sit, dur. 'down, enter the ground, grow up ing the four botiest months close to * We have been obliged to omit these

a large fire'.” p. 30–32. characters in our extracts.

Cauzy. A Mohammedan judge. Vol. I.

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p. 53.

Carsy kl kezaat. That is, judge of 1,028 rupees. Some of the principal judges, or head judge-There is one servants of the presence have from at Moorshedabad, whose deputies are fifty-one down to twenty rupees; and established in most of the Bengal dis- others are paid from two rupees up to tricts. The cauzy ul kezaat formerly forty. At the grand gate is stationed held a court at Moorsledabad, which a mushreff, to take account of the retook cognizance of causes concern- ceipts and expenditures of the haram ing marriage contracts and settle- in ready money and in goods. mients, the division of inheritances, Whenever any of this multitude of testaments, &c. At present this ju- women want any thing, they apply dicial power is not exercised by the ta the treasurer of the haram, who, cauzy, being absorbed by the De- according to their monthly stipend, wanny, or Foujdary jurisdictions. The sends a memorandum thereof to the cauzy ul kezaat has now a seat in the mushreti

' of the grand gate, who transNizamut Ada wlut, at Moorsleda. mits it to the treasurer of the king's pa. bad; but the separate authority of lace, and he pays the money. In payhimself and his deputies seems con ment of these demands no assignments fined to giving fetwas, celebrating are given but only ready money; Mohammedan marriages, and attest « An estimate of the annual exing with his seals all deeds of pur- pences of the haram being drawn out, chase, mortgages, settlements, and the the mushrem writes a draft for the like.'

amount, which is countersigned by Gunny. A coarse sort of bags, the ministers of state, after which it wrappers, &c. used generally in the is paid in a coin that his majesty has East. The materials irom which they caused to be struck solely for that are made grow in the greatest profu- purpose. This money is paid by the sion in Hindoostaun. If the gunny grand-treasurer to the paymaster-gebags and wrappers were caretully pre- neral of the palace; and by a written served, they might become a consi- order being sent by the mushreff of derable article of trade, since they the gate, it is distributed amongst the have been found of material service inferior paymasters of the haram, and in the manufacture of paper. Paper by them paid to the different servants made from these bags, many speci- thereof. And this money is reckonmens of which have come within the ed in their salary equal with the curknowledge of the editor, and some of rent coin. which have been printed upon by " The inside of the baram is him, might be made as substantial guarded by women, and about the and durable as that which is gene- gate of the royal apartments are rally used in England for printing." placed the most contidential. Ime

mediately on the outside of the gate " Haram or Seraglio-A Moham- watch the eunuchs of the haram, and medan woman's apartment. The ze at a proper distance are placed the nana. The haram is an inclosure of rajpuols, beyond whom are the porters such immense extent as to contain a of the gates; and on the outside of separate room for every woman, the inclosure, the omahs, the ahdee, whose number sometimes exceeds ans, and other troops, mount guard, kve thousand. They are divided into according to their rank. companies, and a proper employment “ Whenever the begums, or the is assigned to each individual. Over wives of the omrahs, or other wonen each of these companies a woman is of character, want to pay their comappointed darogha; and one is se pliments, they tirst notify their desire lected for the cominand of the whole, to those who wait on the outside, and in order that the affairs of the haram from thence their request is sent in may be conducted with the same re writing to the officers of the palace, gularity and good government as the after which they are permitted to other departinents of the state. enter the haram; and some women

Every one receives a salary equal of rank obtain permission to remain to her merit. The pen cannot mea there for the space of a month.” sure the extent of the emperor's lar- p. 111-113. gesses; but here shall be given some Khaun. Literally this word signia account of the monthly stipend of fies lord, or noble. ' In Persia, it is each. The ladies of the first quality applied to a prince or governor of 2 receive from 1,610 rupees down to province; but in Hindoustaun it sige

p. 105.

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