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tion in a corporeal sense. Amours of lainy, also enters into their character. this kind are upon record concerning A certain knight had left 100 marks very extensive powers of absolution (by will) to a certain house, and lay for certain vices, which the nuns there sick; upon getting well, the found to be like St. John's book, monks, that they might not loose the sweet in the mouth, but bitter in the money, plotied' his death by poison belly; writing love-letters; revivals or suffocation. · The monasteries of of Pyramis and Thisbe at grated win Wales,' says the same writer, are dows, and einploying smiths to re- deprived of their parishioners by more the bars, as well as holy contem them both living and dead;' and be plations in the church at night between also adds, instances of a small house foto lovers." p. 201, 202.

of nuns being oppressed by them, and Volune 11. commences with Part 3, of an archbishop.cheated out of his and contains an account of the duties books which he had collected froin of monks, nuns, friars, hermits, no his juvenile years. Barclay reproaches vices, lay-brothers, lay-sisters, and their avarice for begging alms over Serrants.

the country, though wealthy; and After stating the prescribed duties Nigel Weriker says of the l'isterof monks and nuns, the Author ob. tians, who are elsewhere censured for serves, “ Monachism was an institu- singularity, avarice, and little commu. tion founded upon the first principles nication with the world, that they of religious virtue, wrongly under wished their neighbours to have land. stond and wrongly directed. Super- marks, and none themselves. Nor stition has its basis in the will, and from this avarice can it excite wonder, therefore inonachism never succeeded that, says an ancient poet, they vei. but when it was an act of volition. As 'ther loved, nor were beloved by any suon as its duties became mechanical 'one'." p. 19. operations, the work was performed They were flatterers of the rich, and the principle disregarded, while and gallant to the ladies. Sometimes the heart

, left open to the world, was so much so, that, says Giraldus, the constantly prompting those aberra- townsmen of Lanbaneveri, on account tions which naturally result from the of their wives and daughters, which opposition of sentiment to duty. the monks every where and openly Shame is of no avail, where security abused, prepared themselves for leava is to be gained from coparceny, era- ing the place entirely, and departing sion, or secresy:

Hence the vices of to England.” p. 21. the monks: gluttony, their grand Concerning nuns it is observed, crime, is the natural pleasure of those “ A visitor at a convent of Gilbertine who are debarred from other enjoy- nuns near Litchtield, “found two of ments, whether by physical or moral the said nunnes; one of them imcauses. What their crimes were, in pregnant (supprior domus). Anothyr the greater part the inquirenda circa a yonge mayd. Also at another, convenium' of Henry's visitors will called Harwolde, wherein was iiii sbew." vol. ii. p. 8.

• or v munnes with the prioress, one of " Their gluttony was excessive. 'them had two faire children, another Who does not know the noble insti- one, and no mo.' It is well known tution of monks? says an old poet; that the bishop of Lincoln, about 1231, the fame of them has pervaded the in his visitations, ordered the nipples whole world; they consume all things, of the nuns to be squeezed, that he and yet they are not satisfied with the might have physical proofs of their birds of Heaven, and the fishes of the chastity. Various amulets for pregsea; they seek many dishes, and a nant women were common in nunnelong time in eating them: another ries: thus the nuns of Grace Dieu adds , feed but well

, they care for had part of St. Francis's coat, deemed * nothing else.' Nigel de Wireker beneticial to lying-in-women. Nuns charges them with hiding, many of St. Mary, of Derby, had part of things, and pocketing provisions to the shirt of St. Thomas, in veneration eat on fast days; and one of their own apud multoties pregnantes. Those of body says, All fowlowe our owne Wrelsa, apud Mewse, had the girdle sensyalitye and pleser, and thys re- of Bernard, pregnantibus aliquando ligion, as I suppose, ys alle in vayne vestitum," (sometimes worn by breed. 'glory."." p. 16.

ing women). The nuns of Yorkshire “ Avarice, accompanied with vile took poracions ad prolem conceprum

opprimemdum. Sometimes the chil- than any curate; instead of weeping dren were murdered: (here follows a and prayers, by way of penance, he Latin quotation thus translated) “The prescribed money to the poor freres;' inonk, being young and handsome, could sing and play well; knew the fell in love with a nun, and had chil- taverns, hostelers, and tapsters, in dren by ber, which children, even to every town, but shunned the bega a second and third parturition, she gars ; * courteous and lowly of sersutfocated." p. 30.

vice when any thing was to be got;

gave a certain farm for his grant; Bertram Walter says, (Invective could toy like a whelp; lisped some against Nuns :)

what for wantonness, to make his Eng. But there was a lady, that bizt dame lish sweet upon his tongue ; when beg• Pride

ging at the bed of a sick man, he asks In grete reputacion they her toke, him for his money to make theic And poor dame Meckness sat he cloister, and pretends that they had i side,

fared a long while upon muscles and To her unethys ony wolde loke, oysters to raise money for it; that they • But all as who seyth I her forsake, owed forty pounds, and if they could · And set not by her nether most ne not get where with to pay it, must sell "leste,

their books; that the friars were the Dame Ypocrite loke upon a book, sun of the world, which must go to • And bete herself upon the brest : destruction but for their preaching, • I wolde have sene dame Devowte, and that Elisha and Elias were friars : And sche was but with few of that at last he pretends that they had route,

prayed in their chapter day and night For dame Sclowth and dame Vayne for his health, and adds, that a trifie is • Glory

nothing parted among twelve." p. 42, : By vilens had put her owte.

43. And than in my harte I was full Part IV. Monastic Offices. In the • sorry,

description of the refectory is an acThat dame Envy was there dwell. count of the mode of living, and "Giing;

raldus Cambrensis on dining with the “The which can selth strife in eny prior of Canterbury, noted sixteen • state,

clishes besides intermeals; a superfluAnd another ladye was there won ous use of signs; much sending of 'nyng

dishes from the prior to the attending • That hight dame Love inordinate, monks, and from them to the lower • In that place both erly and late, tables, with much ridiculous gesticu* Dame Lust, dane Wantonness, and lation in returning thanks, and much dame Vyce,

whispering, loose, idle, and licentious They were so there enhabyted, I discourse; herbs brought in, but not • wolte

tasted ; numerous kinds of fish roasted, i That few token hede to Goddys ser- boiled, stutred, fried; eggs; dishes • vice.'

exquisitely cooked with spices; salt He afterwards complains, that

meats to provoke appetite; wines of

various kinds, piment, claret, mead,

• Dame Envy, and others. Respecting these Ber• In every corner had great cure ; nard says, it was not unusual to see a • That another lady there was vessel brought half full, to try the That hyzt dame Disobedient'.”

goodness and flavour of the wine, afp.31, 32. ter proving which, the monks decided

in favour of the strongest." Friars come next in order, of whom “ It seems that it was not lawful to is given the following account. “ Chau- eat the flesh of any animal nourished cer's friar is a pleasant scoundrel, a religious Falstail. He was wanton

* And how the fryers followed folke that and merry ; full of dalliance and fair And folke that was pore at litle price they

was ryche, language; had made full many a mar

ser, riage of yonge women at his own

And nor cors in his kirkeyard nor kirke was cost; was intimate with yeomen over

buried, all the country and worthy women of But quik he bequeth hem ought or quite the town ; uas licentiate of his order,

part of hir dets. and bad power of confession more

Piers Plowman, 1. Ixi. •

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on the earth, because this hail been edd 10.-Urchauns.-Elys y rostydd. cursed by God; but this curse not -Leche Lumbard", -Grete crabbys. extending to the air and water, birds -A cold bakemeate." were permitted, as created of the same This work contains extensive acelement as fish. Hence the prohibi- counts of monkish manners, but as tion of quadrupeds. But notwithstand. they appear to us to be uninteresting ing this, it was found both impossible to the generality of our readers, we and impracticable for inland monas think the above will give a sufficient teries to have fish enough, and to eat specimen of the work. Heshi became unavoidable; medical considerations and the augmentations of alms by this means interfered. However, to the great rule all their articles of food bore relation, which LXXVI. JOURNEY from INDIA were bread, beer, soup, beans for soup

towards ENGLAND, in the Year all Lent; oats for gruel Thursday 1797, by à Route, commonly called and Saturday in that season ; flour Over-land, through Countries not much for pottage every day in the same frequented, and many of them hitherto season; fried dishes, wastels, or fine

unknown 10 Europeans, particularly bread for dinner and supper on cer

between the river's EUPHRATES and tain feasts ; flathos or cakes in Easter;

TIGRIS, through Curdistan, Diarbek, formica, or fine flour cakes, in Ad

Armenia, and Natolia, in Asia; and vent, Christmas, against Lent, Easter, through Romalia, Bulgaria, Walla. Pentecost, and certain feasts ; fat

chia, Transylvania, &c. in Europe. things were frequent with Præmon. Illustrated by a Map and other Enstratensians ; black beans and salt gravings. By John JACKSON, Esq. with the Clugniacs; general bad fare with the Cistertians." p. 125-127. HE map prefixed to this 8vo. vo

lume is a sketch of the route from Here follows a bill of fare of one of Bussora to Herinanstad. The work their fish feasts.

is also embellished with five plates, " FIRST COURSE.

which will be noticed with the sub"Elys in sorry? -Blamanger.-Ba- jects they illustrate. koun Herryng-Mulwyl tayles --

From the preface we learn that this Longe taylys. --Jollys of Salmon journey was undertaken to gratify Merlyng sope". ---Pyke.-Grete Plays.

curiosity; and the author mentions -Leche burry :-Crustade ryal,

the routes adopteil by former jour. nalists, each recommending his own,

and all being unanimous in declaring "Maramenye 6.-Crem of Alemaun- the route taken by Mr. Jackson to be dys 1.-Codling.-Haddock.- Fresh perfectly impracticable in the months Hake. -Solys y sope. -Gurned broy. from April to September. The Author lid with a syruppe 4.-Brem de mere. says, - Roche. -- Perche. - Memise fry

The following sheets will serve to

prove, that it is practicable at all Were eels and parsley boiled in water,

seasons. If the traveller pass through to which were added wine, spicery, sage,

Arabia in winter, when it is temperate, grated bread, broth of the eel, ginger.

he will find it excessively cold among MS. Bodl. Hearne 197. the high mountains in Armenia. If Melwell is asellus, a cod.

he suffer a little from the excessive Whiting.

heat of the summer in Arabia, which * Leche is gelatina, jelly:

may be justly said to be the hottest • Crustade (singly) chekyns, pejonsplace in the world, he will find the small briddes in a brothe, with poudur of rest of his journey temperate and Depur, clowes, verjouce, saffron, make coftyas (pies) with rasynges of corance, and pleasant, which may be said to be in ginger, and canell, and raw eggs.

some measure a recompence. When

the Author was in Arabia, at Mid. Vernage wine, almonds, ginger, &c. boiled up in ale.

summer, the fruits were in full season, A compound of them with thick milk, water, salt, and sugar, a favourite dish.

10 Parsley ale, sauces saffroned, &c. witá * Hakot is Lucius Piscis.

pykes or others. Hyeca, see Johnson and Stevens's Shak. il Clarified honey, ale, grated bread, ain Spear, v. 390.

monds, ginger, &c. Vol. I.




and they continued in that state all connected by small rough pieces of the way he came to Vienna ; and board, and covered with a coat of bifruits are in those climes a very great tumen, about half an inch thick on luxury." Pref. p. viii.

the outside, wbich, in case of a leak, The preface concludes with hints is very easily repaired. The inside of instruction to any who may adopt is lined with the same kind of rough the same route as the author.

boards, none above three feet long, On the 4th of May, 1797, at eight and of very unequal breadths, the P. M. Mr. Jackson left Bombay, and lining is of course full of holes. Some embarked on board the country ship of these boats, instead of boards, are Pearl, R. Spence, master, bound to covered with basket-work, having a Bussora, having in company James coat of bitumen upon it. They are Stevens, Esquire, in the civil service, very sharp at each end, and sail fast. .113 Captain

John Reid, late commander Their oars are rough poles, having of the Princess

Royal Indiaman, and a piece of board tied on with a cord. : da Mr. James Morley, and on the 18th They have besides strong timbers, of June arrived at Bussora, from which go down to the keel, and are whence, after_describing the place, about three feet above the gunwale; "th they depart, June 25th. Their ar these are full of notches, to which rangement for their journey was as they fasten their oars with strong kya follows:

rope, and by these they either raise ka “ Every thing having been pre or lower the oar, as is most conve. pared, under the direction of Mr. nient. They have no tiller, but are iti MANERTY, for our departure for enabled to steer with great accuracy i thi BAGDAD; an Arab Sheik, named AB. by means of a strong kya rope fas- ich DALLAH TEEF, a very respectable tened to both sides of the rudder ; man, engaged to conduct us safely and they very seldom use more than thither; for which we paid him 1300 five oars at a time.” This description piastres. This sum, it is to be ob- is accompanied by a plate. served, was only for three boats and “ We had part of the boat abast the guards, having ourselves provided a mast covered with mats, to defend us good stock of provisions of all sorts, from the sun, which we found of great with culinary utensils, cooks, and service. other servants, which costus 500 “ In the fore-part was a place built piastres more.

with brick and clay for the purpose “Our boats being brought up to of dressing our victuals; and this conMARGILL, at five o'clock we took venience we found of great use, as it leave of Mr. ManERTY, and em- enabled us to provide every thing ne: barked; two of the boats containing cessary without frequent landings." the passengers, the other boat our ad- p. 37–41. ditional guards : immediately after Noticing CORNY, at the conflux 'embarking we were dressed so as to of the rivers EUPHRATES and To: resemble the Arabs in our appear

GRIS, which, the author observes, is ance; and our mustaches were now supposed by some learned men to grown pretty long, having never shav- have been the scite of the garden of ed since we left INDIA.

Eden. Its present wretched appear. “ Every attention was paid to our ance, however, gives it no preteusions personal safety, the Sheik being al- to the name of the Terrestrial Paraways in one of our boats, and his bro dise, as described by Milton. It ther, AHMOOD SOLLAY, in the other. is a small village surrounded by a " As these boats were admirably mud wall, containing few inhabitants

, calculated for their intended purpose, with very little cultivation. p. 43, 44. the following account of them may Passing several Arab encampments not be unacceptable.

with abundance of cattle, they arrived Description of the boat generally called the right bank of the river, where,

at SUKE-SHUE, a very large town on a Donck, but sometimes a Kiraffe, used by the Arabs upon the rivers 'Eve says the author, “we were treated by PHRATES and TIGRIS.

our Sheik with a dinner in the Arab

fashion. It consisted of a dozen and " The extreme breadth is seven a half of fish, about the size of mac. feet nine inches. The length forty- karel, fried in ghie ; a dozen boiled two feet. It is built of strong rough fowls'; and cakes made of barley four, timbers, at eighteen inches distance, fresh baked, with plenty of milk. We

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sat upon the ground, agreeable to the except ourselves and our Sheik. I custom of the country, in a garden had here an opportunity of observadjoining the river, under the shade ing the respect which the Arabs pay of a grove of date and fig-trees. The their chiefs. An Arab of distinction, fish, fowls, and bread, were very having a letter of some consequence sweet and good, but the milk was for the Sheik, presented it on his sour, and not very palatable to an knees and received it back again in European. We did not make use of the same posture, the secretary har knives and forks, as in Europe, but ing, after reading the letter, put the ate with our fingers, as the Arabs do, Sheik's seal on the back of it. tearing the fowls and fish in pieces ; "The Sheiks and principal people and the Sheik seemed highly pleased wear on the left hand a neat silver or by our compliance with their cus- gold ring, in which a square stone is toms.

set, with their names engraved on it "I was much amused by observing at full length. On this ring they lay the dexterity of the Arab women in a thick ink, till it will inake a fair baking their bread. They have a impression, then stamp it on the letsmall place built with clay, between ter, and this serves for their signature. two and three feet high, having a hole Some of the stones are red, and some at the bottom for the convenience of white cornelians. drawing out the ashes, something si. “ We were much pestered here by milar to that of a lime kiln. The a number of people having different oren (which I think is the most pro- disorders; for they imagine that an per name for this place) is usually European can cure all complaints, about hfteen inches wide at top, and and implicitly adopt whatever is pregradually grows wider to the bottom. scribed for them." p. 53-55. It is heated with wood, and when On leaving the river EUPHRATES sufficiently hot and perfectly clear the author says, “ I cannot quit the from smoke, having nothing bút clear EUPHRATES without taking notice embers at bottom (which continue to of its salubrious water, which is by reflect great heat), they prepare the much the most pleasant that I ever dough in a large bowl, and mould the tasted. Though very muddy when cakes to the desired size on a board it is first taken up, it soon becomes of stone placed near the oven. After perfectly clear; and while I could they have kneaded the cake to a pro- get this water, I had not the least per consistence they pat it a little, desire for either wine or spirits." then toss it about with great dexte. p. 57. rity in one hand till it is as thin as Having now entered those places they choose to make it; they then in which travellers are in constant wet one side of it with water, at the danger from the disposition of the same time wetting the hand and arm inhabitants, the author says, “ Our with which they put it into the oven. Sheik represented to us, that this was The wet side of the cake adheres fast a very dangerous situation, and reto the side of the oven till it is suffi- commended us to keep our arms in ciently baked, when, if not paid pro case of an attack. We had each a per aitention to, it would fall down gun, a brace of pistols, and a sabre ; among the einbers. If they were not and our Sheik, his brother, and all exceedingly quick at this work, the the guards, remained under arms heat of the oven would burn the skin during the night. They placed some from off their hands and arms; but with centinels at a distance from the tents such amazing dexterity do they per. for fear of a surprise, and passed the form it, that one woman will continue watch-word from one to another the keeping three or four cakes at a time night through. We were not, howin the oven till she has done baking ever, molested, This mode, let me add, does not re “ To be obliged to have weapons quire half the fuel that is made use by my side, while lying down on the of in Europe." p. 49–51.

bare earth to take a little rest, was While here a principal " Sheik what I had never before experienced. paid the travellers a visit, and brought Whoever travels through these counbis daughter with him. She was about tries ought not to put so much value twelve years of age, and

every person on his life as 1 conceive Europeans was obliged to stand in bis presence, in general do, where they are pere

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