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which contributed to their Advancement, 37, Kisieli Proginesmi, 4 vols. 4to, Fir, and of the authors, and causes of their de
cline. Written originally in Italian, in ff- The Glossaries of Ruddiman, Urry, and teen volumes quarto, by the Abate Jerome Tyrwhitt, all of them the productions of men Tiraboschi. Translated and abridged from of learning and great abilities, yet are limited the late Modena edition by the Rev. John to the illustration of single works. Those Sennelt.
annexed to several of the Scottish provincial poets, to some compositions in the dialects
of different districts in the North of England, The Rev. Jonathan Boucher, M.A.F.R.S. and to the Exmuor Dialogues, (published &c. has issued a new and enlarged Prospec
some years ago as specimens of the West tus of his intended Supplement to Dr. Johnson's Dictionary; or a Glossary of the Ar. from which censure, however, I feel much
Country dialect), are of very interior value: chaisms and Provincialisms of the English pleasure in having it in my power to except Language. To be published by Subscription,
the Glossaries annexed to Wyntownis' and comprised in 2 volumes, 4to. From
Cronykil,” and to “ The Complaynt of this Prospectus we give the following ex
I offer my Work to the Public as suppleA persuasion, which I have long enter- mental to other Dictionaries and other Glostained, that a Supplement to Dr. Johnson's saries: yet, anxious to relieve the dryness of Dictionary was a desideratum in English Litera. verbal discussions, I have, in bumble imiture, first induced me to undertake the Work tation of my great Prototype, attempted oc. here announced to the Public; and the libe- casionally to * intersperse with verdure and ral and very flattering encouragement already
flowers the dusty deserts of barren philologiven to my first Proposals animate me to pru- gy." I trust it will not be said, thai, “orceed in it with renewed spirits.
nari res ipsa negat." The explanation of a The age of Elizabeth is the boundary be
single rocable has often led me into historical yond which Dr. Johnson has seldom gone. investigations respecting the names of per. His references are, in general, restricted to
sons or places, municipal regulations, legal the works of Sidney, Spenser, Hooker, Ba
terms, religious ceremonies, popular cuscon, Shakspeare, Milton, Cowley, Dryden,
toms, buildings, diet, dress, employments, Swift, Addison, Pope, and their contempo
sports and amusements, of our ancestors. raries. Some archaiological words, however, Literary remarks and criticisms on obscure are admitted by him, when they are found and difficult passages in our ancient poets and in authors who are not obsolete; or when
historians, and on the Greek and Roman they have any force or beauty, that may de
classics, are likewise incidentally introduced; serve revival." Governed by this principle, and not a few on the Scriptures themselves. I have extended his plan, and endeavoured Indeed, many of the words in the English to supply his deficiences; and hence my re
translation of the Bible cannot be well underferences are, chiefly, to Robert of Gloucester, stood without the aid of an Archaiological Peter Langtoft, Chaucer, Piers Plowman, Lexicographer. Gower, Gavin Douglas, Henry son, Dunbar,
In all Languages, the diversity of sense in Lyndesay, Allan Ramsay, and Burns, among which words are used renders perfect accuour poets : to the ancient writers in Divinity,
-racy of definition peculiarly difficult. A History, Medicine, and Law; and also to
reader, who is contented to take the defini. the Statutes and other public Records. I tion of a term given to him by a Dictionary, have drawn still more copiously from “the which does not at the same time produce the Well of English undefiled,” the common authority on which such definition is founded, speech of our peasantry:, It was the object must give up his judgment entirely to the judgof Dr. Johnson to furnish his countrymen
ment of the compiler of his dictionary. This is with a Dictionary of the English Language,
to be avoided only by tracing the rise and proonly, as spoken and written by the best speakers, and best modern authors. It is been one of my most constant purposes to
gress of the word in question. Hence, it has the object of this SUPPLEMENT to enable pursue the several words that fall under my those who consult it, to read, and to relish, our ancient British classics ; to exhibit a full and disguises in other languages, whether of
consideration, through all their doublings historical view of our speech as it was for
Celtic or Gothic origin, Sometimes they are merly spoken; and thus to shew that, in found, little concealed, in the Welsh, Irish, language as in politics, " to innovate is not Gaelic, or Armoric; sometimes more disalways to reform *." The several Glossaries of Cotgrave, Min- in the Latin, Greek, or Hebrew; and, some
guised in the Italian, French, or Spanish; or shew, Spelman, Skinner, Junius, and Bailey, which alone have any title to the claim of traced them io the Saxon, German, Danish,
times, taking a different direction, I have Archaiological, though of great merit, yet Swedish, and Islandic. Nor are the instances leave oumberless words in our old chronic
few in which I have experienced the fate of clers, and bards, still unexplained. Wic. Voyages of Discovery; and my researches liffe's Translation of the Scriptures, venera
have ended in disappointment. Yet, in an ble as it is on account of its subjeci, its
undertaking of such extent and variety, I age, and its author, is, notwithstanding its Glossary, locked up in an unknown tongue. Dr. Johnson, “to leave some obscurities to
may surely, without shame, be content with * Burke.
happier industry, or future information."
MONTHLY EPITOME, ,
FOR JUNE, 1802.
LXXXIII. The Life of Poggio these books I have selected whatever
BRACCIOLINI. By the Rev. Wil- appeared to be relevant to my sub-, LIAM SAEPAERD, 410. Embele ject; and I have also introduced into lished with a beautiful Vignette, on my warrative such extracts from the Wood.
writings of Poggio as tend to illus
trate not only his own character, but THE author informs us in his pre also that of the times in which he
face that, from a perusal of Mr. lived.”. Pref. p. 2, 3. Roscoe's celebrated Life of Lorenzo In this work are eleven chapters de Medici, in which is noticed the and 487 pages, services rendered to the cause of Li Chap. 1. “ Poggio, the son of Gucterature by Poggio Bracciolini, he cio Bracciolini, was born in the year was led to imagine that the history of 1380, at Terranuova, a small towa Poggio must contain a rich fund of situated in the territory of the reinformation respecting the revival of public of Florence, not far from letters. Having noticed, that he found Arezzo...... From his father, Pogthe Life of Poggio written by L. En- gio inherited no advantages of rank fant very erroneous, and that written or fortune. Guccio Bracciolini, who by Recanati, “ though scrupulously exercised the office of notary, was accurate, too concise to be generally once indeed possessed of considerable interesting, and totally destitute of property; but being either by his those minute particularities which own imprudence, or by misfortune, alone can give a clear and correct involved in difficulties, he had reidea of individual character,”--the course to the destructive assistance of author says, “I was persuaded that an usurer, by whose rapacious arti. the labours of Recanali by no means fices his ruin was speedily comsuperseded any further attempts to pleted, and be was compelled to fly elucidate the history of Poggio. I from the pursuit of his creditors. therefore undertook the task of giv “ But whatever might be the dising a detailed account of the life and advantages under which Poggio lawritings of that eminent reviver of boured, in consequence of the embarliterature ; and being convinced, from rassed state of his father's fortune, in a perusal of his epistolary correspon- a literary point of view, the circumdence, that his connections with the stances of his birth were singularly most accomplished scholars of bis propitious. At the close of the fourage, would iinpose upon his biogra- teenth century, the writings of Pepher the duty of giving some ac- tracca and Boccacio were read with count of his learned contemporaries, avidity, and the labours of those emiwhilst his situation in the Roman nent revivers of letters had excited chancery, in some degree implicated throughout Italy the emulation of him in the political changes which, the learned. The day-star had now in his days, distracted Italy, I care pierced through the gloom of mental fully examined such books as were night, and the dawn of literature was likely to illustrate the literary, civil, gradually increasing in brilliancy: and ecclesiastical history of the pe. The city of Florence was, at this early riod of which I had to treat. From period, distinguished by the zeal with VOL. I.
which its principal inhabitants culti- largely into the history of the cele. vated and patronized the liberal arts. brated ecclesiastical feud, whichi It was consequently the favourite re- commonly distinguished by the name sort of the ablest scholars of the time; of the Schism of the West, as no fewer some of whom were induced by the than six of Poggio's patrons were inoffer of considerable salaries, to un- plicated in its progress and consedertake the task of public instruc- quences. tion. In this celebrated school, Pog Upon noticing a peace concluded gio applied hinself to the study of between the Milanese and Florentines, the Latin tongue, under the direc on the basis of mutual restitution, tion of Giovanni Malpaghino, more the author remarks, “ when will a commonly known by the appellation sufficient number of instances have of John of Ravenna." p.3-5.
been recorded by the pen of history, “The troubled state of the eastern of nations harassing each other by empire, compelled many learned the outrages of war; and after years Greeks to quit their native country, of havock and bloodshed, when exand fly into Italy. These accom- hausted by exertions beyond their plished emigrants diffused, through natural strength, agreeing to forget out the districts in which they took the original subject of dispute, and refuge, the knowledge of the Grecian mutually to resume the station which language, of that language which, as they occupied at the coinmencement Mr. Gibbon happily says, 'gives a of the contest? Were subjects wise, • soul to the objects of sense, and a what would be their reflections, when 'body to the abstractions of philo- their rulers, after the most lavish sophy.' Fixing their residence in waste of blood, coolly sit down and the Italian universities, they were propose to each other the status quo hailed as the dispensers of science, ante bellum ? Happy would it be, and the oracles of wisdom. Their could the status quo be extended to lectures were assiduously attended, the widow and the orphan-to the and their instructions were imbibed thousands, and tens of thousands, with all the ardour of enthusiasm. who, in consequence of the hardships In the lists of these illustrious pro- and accidents of war, are doomed.to fessors, the name of Manuel Cryso- languish out the remnant of their loras holds a distinguished rank..., lives in torment and decrepitude." .... Under the direction of Cryso. p. 17. Joras, at Florence, Poggio applied The furces of the duke of Milan himself with assiduity to the cultiva- had made an incursion even to the tion of Grecian literature. It is im- gates of Florence. Ruin and desolapossible at this remote period accu tion attended their progress, and 3 rately to trace the progress of his ad- great number of inhabitants were vancement in knowledge; but the made captives. “ The following letdisplay of literary acquirements which ter, addressed on a similar occasion procured him so much honour in his by Poggio to the chancellor of Simaturer years, atfords ample testi enna, is at once a document of the mony of the enlightened and suc- misery to which the small states of cesstul industry with which he prose. Italy were at this time exposed, in cuted his studies in the Tuscan uni- consequence of the wasteful irrisp, versity.
tions of their enemies, and a record “ When he had attained a compe- of the benevolent dispositions of the tent knowledge of the Latin and writer's heart. Greek languages, Poggio quitted Flo • I could have wished that our rence and went to Rome, where his correspondence had commenced on literary reputation introduced him
• other grounds than the calamity of to the notice of Boniface IX, who a man for whom I have great retook him into his service, and pro. “gard, and who has been taken cap: moted him to the office of writer of
tive, together with his wife and chil. the apostolic letters.” p. 6—8. This dren, whilst he was engaged in the the author supposes took place in cultivation of my estate. I am in1402.
• formed that he and one of his sons At the time of Poggio's admission • are now languishing in the prisons into the pontifical chancery; Italy 'of Sienna. Å vorher of his children, was convulsed by war and faction. a boy of about five years of age, is The author likewise enters pretty missing, and it is nul koown wlie
'ther he is dead or alive. What can Chap. II. Poggio attended Pope . exceed the misery of this lament. John to Constance, in the quality of "able destiny? I wish these distresses secretary; but as the pontiff'fied from * might fall upon the heads of their the council, his houshold was disoriginal authors : but, alas ! the persed, and Poggio remained some' wretched rustics pay the forfeit of time at Constance. Having a good the crimes of others. When I re- deal of leisure, he employed his vaflect on the situation of those on cant hours in studying the Hebrew "whose behalf I now intercede with language, under the direction of a 'you, my writing is interrupted by Jew, who had been converted to the
my tears. For I cannot help con- Christian faith. teinplating, in the eye of imagina The first act of the council of Con"tion, the woe-worn aspect of the fa- stance was the trial of Pope John,
ther—the pallid countenance of the who was charged with the most atro·mother-the exquisite grief of the cious vices incident to the vilest cor"unhappy son. They have lost every ruption of human nature, which the "thing except their life, which is be- council declared to have been proved • reft of all its comforts. For the fa- against him, for which they degraded ther, the captors demand, by way him from his dignity,and deprived him of ransom, ten, for the son, forty of his liberty. It was by this council florins. These sums it is impossible John Huss, the celebrated Bohemian ' for them to raise, as they have been reformer, was exainined and condeprived of their all by the rapacity demned, and, notwithstanding the of the soldiers, and if they do not safe conduct he procured from the meet with assistance from the well emperor, was imprisoned, cruelly * disposed, they must end their days treated, and afterwards burnt. He in captivity.' I take the liberty of came to the council for the purpose earnestly pressing this case upon of defending his sentiments, dependyour consideration ; and I entreating upon the authority of the protec'you to use your utmost exertions to tion he obtained ; and though “Siredeem these unfortunate people on gismund had given positive orders
the lowest terms possible. If you for his release from confinement, these bave any regard for my entreaties, orders were disobeyed : and when the or if you feel that affection which is emperor arrived at Constance, sufdue from one friend to another, I ficient reasons were alledged by the beseech you, with all possible im- pope, to induce hiin to pardou this
portunity, to undertake the care of act of resistance to his authority, 'this wretched family, and save them and resign the too credulous prifrom the misery of perishing in pri- soner to the jurisdiction of an eccleson. This you may effect by 'ex- siastical tribunal.". p. 56. erting your interest to get their ran The conduct of the council towards
som tixed at a low rate. Whatever the pope is contrasted with their bemust be paid on this account, must haviour to the venerable John Huss; 'be advanced by me. I trust my and his martyrdom is noticed as fol* friend Pietro will, if it be necessary, lows: assist you in this atfair. I must re " In the mildness of the sentence quest you to give me an answer, passed by the council upon the delininforming me what you can do, or quent Pontiff, the members of that rather what you have done to serve assembly seem to have exhausted ime in this matter. I say what you their stock of leniency. Their mercy have done, for I know you are able, was reserved for dignified offenders ; and I trust you are willing to assist and it appears by their subsequent me. But I'must hasten to close my conduct, that however tender and letter, lest the misery of these un- gentle they night be in punishing happy people should be prolonged immorality of practice, the unrelentby my delay'.” p. 19–22. ing fury of their vengeance was ex
i his chapter contains accounts of cited by errors in matters of opinion. the factions and wars of Italy as well. The process against John Huss was as the conduct and characters of the expedited with all the ardour of ecpopes during the schism, concluding clesiastical zeal. The unfortunate with the appointment of a general reformer was at various times brought Council by Pope John XXII
. at the in chains before a tribunal, on which lance of the Einperor Sigismund, his enemies sat in quality of judges; lo ineet at the city of Constance.
and surrounded by a military guard,